Ascorbic acid tethered polymeric nanoparticles enable efficient brain delivery of galantamine: An in vitro-in vivo study.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this work was to enhance the transportation of the galantamine to the brain via ascorbic acid grafted PLGA-b-PEG nanoparticles (NPs) using SVCT2 transporters of choroid plexus. PLGA-b-PEG copolymer was synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. PLGA-b-PEG-NH2 and PLGA-b-mPEG NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method. PLGA-b-PEG NPs with desirable size, polydispersity, and drug loading were used for the conjugation with ascorbic acid (PLGA-b-PEG-Asc) to facilitate SVCT2 mediated transportation of the same into the brain. The surface functionalization of NPs with ascorbic acid significantly increased cellular uptake of NPs in SVCT2 expressing NIH/3T3 cells as compared to plain PLGA and PLGA-b-mPEG NPs. In vivo pharmacodynamic efficacy was evaluated using Morris Water Maze Test, Radial Arm Maze Test and AChE activity in scopolamine induced amnetic rats. In vivo pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated significantly higher therapeutic and sustained action by drug loaded PLGA-b-PEG-Asc NPs than free drugs and drug loaded plain PLGA as well as PLGA-b-mPEG NPs. Additionally, PLGA-b-PEG-Asc NPs resulted in significantly higher biodistribution of the drug to the brain than other formulations. Hence, the results suggested that targeting of bioactives to the brain by ascorbic acid grafted PLGA-b-PEG NPs is a promising approach.
Project description:Purpose:Nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery approaches have tremendous potential for enhancing treatment efficacy and decreasing doses of chemotherapeutics. Idarubicin (IDA) is one of the most common chemotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, severe side effects and drug resistance markedly limit the application of IDA. Methods:In this study, we encapsulated IDA in polymeric NPs and validated their antileukemia activity in vitro and in vivo. Results:NPs with an average diameter of 84 nm was assembled from a methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA). After loading of IDA, IDA-loaded mPEG-PLGA NPs (IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs) were formed. The in vitro release data showed that the IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs have excellent sustained release property. IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs had exhibited the lower IC50 than pure IDA. Moreover, IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs in the same concentration substantially induced apoptosis than did pure IDA. Most importantly, IDA/MPEG-PLGA NPs significantly decreased the infiltration of leukemia blasts and improved the overall survival of MLL-AF9-induced murine leukemia compared with free IDA. However, the blank NPs were nontoxic to normal cultured cells in vitro, suggesting that NPs were the safe carrier. Conclusion:Our data suggest that IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs might be a suitable carrier to encapsulate IDA. Low dose of IDA/mPEG-PLGA NPs can be used as a conventional dosage for antileukemia therapy to reduce side effect and improve survival.
Project description:Memantine, drug approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, has not shown to be fully effective. In order to solve this issue, polylactic-co-glycolic (PLGA) nanoparticles could be a suitable solution to increase drug's action on the target site as well as decrease adverse effects. For these reason, Memantine was loaded in biodegradable PLGA nanoparticles, produced by double emulsion method and surface-coated with polyethylene glycol. MEM-PEG-PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) were aimed to target the blood-brain barrier (BBB) upon oral administration for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.The production parameters were optimized by design of experiments. MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs showed a mean particle size below 200 nm (152.6?±?0.5 nm), monomodal size distribution (polydispersity index, PI?<?0.1) and negative surface charge (-?22.4 mV). Physicochemical characterization of NPs confirmed that the crystalline drug was dispersed inside the PLGA matrix. MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs were found to be non-cytotoxic on brain cell lines (bEnd.3 and astrocytes). Memantine followed a slower release profile from the NPs against the free drug solution, allowing to reduce drug administration frequency in vivo. Nanoparticles were able to cross BBB both in vitro and in vivo. Behavioral tests carried out on transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mice demonstrated to enhance the benefit of decreasing memory impairment when using MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs in comparison to the free drug solution. Histological studies confirmed that MEM-PEG-PLGA NPs reduced ?-amyloid plaques and the associated inflammation characteristic of Alzheimer's disease.Memantine NPs were suitable for Alzheimer's disease and more effective than the free drug.
Project description:Adsorption on a functionalized surface can be an effective way of purifying polyphenols from complex plant extracts. Polymeric resins that rely on hydrophobic interactions suffer from low selectivity, weak affinity towards polyphenols, and lack tunability therefore making the purification of polyphenols less efficient. In this study, a purification process for the recovery of polyphenols from grape pomace extract was successfully developed using hydrogen bonding affinity ligands grafted on silica particles and PEG-assisted elution solvents. Bare silica (SiO2) and polyethylene glycol (mPEG)-grafted silica microparticles with molecular weights of 2000 and 5000 were tested to determine their polyphenol binding and release characteristics. Functionalizing the surface of bare silica with mPEG ligands increased the adsorption capacity by 7.1- and 11.4-fold for mPEG-2000 and mPEG-5000 compared to bare silica particles, respectively. This was likely due to the introduction of more polyphenol binding sites with mPEG functionalization. Altering the molecular weight (MW) of mPEG grafted on silica surfaces provided tunability in the adsorption capacity. A complete recovery of polyphenols (~99.9%) from mPEG-grafted silica particles was achieved by utilizing PEG-ethanol or PEG-water cosolvent systems. Recovered polyphenols showed up to ~12-fold antioxidant activity compared to grape pomace extract. This study demonstrates that mPEG-grafted silica particles and elution of polyphenols with PEG cosolvents can potentially be used for large-scale purification of polyphenols from complex plant extracts and simplify the use of polyphenols, as PEG facilitates remarkable solvation and is an ideal medium for the final formulation of polyphenols.
Project description:Purpose:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a growing concern in the modern society. The current drugs approved by FDA are not very promising. Rhynchophylline (RIN) is a major active tetracyclic oxindole alkaloid stem from traditional Chinese medicine uncaria species, which has potential activities beneficial for the treatment of AD. However, the application of rhynchophylline for AD treatment is restricted by the low water solubility, low concentration in brain tissue and low bioavailability. And there is no study of brain-targeting therapy with RIN. In this work, we prepared rhynchophylline loaded methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA) nanoparticles (NPS-RIN), which coupled with Tween 80 (T80) further for brain targeting delivery (T80-NPS-RIN). Methods:Preparation and characterization of T80-NPS-RIN were followed by the detection of transportation across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) model in vitro, biodistribution and neuroprotective effects of nanoparticles. Results:The results indicated T80-NPS-RIN could usefully assist RIN to pass through the BBB to the brain. T80-NPS-RIN treatment regulated the activity of neurons in vitro. Conclusion:The presented data confirmed that rhynchophylline encapsulated mPEG-PLGA nanoparticles coated with Tween 80 could across through the BBB and exhibited efficient neuroprotective effects. The T80-NPS-RIN nanoparticles have a chance to be an alternative drug to the therapy of AD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Developing a universal strategy to improve the specificity and sensitivity of PEGylated nanoaparticles (PEG-NPs) for assisting in the diagnosis of tumors is important in multimodality imaging. Here, we developed the anti-methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) bispecific antibody (BsAb; mPEG?×?HER2), which has dual specificity for mPEG and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), with a diverse array of PEG-NPs to confer nanoparticles with HER2 specificity and stronger intensity. RESULT:We used a one-step formulation to rapidly modify the nanoprobes with mPEG?×?HER2 and optimized the modified ratio of BsAbs on several PEG-NPs (Lipo-DiR, SPIO, Qdot and AuNP). The ?HER2/PEG-NPs could specifically target MCF7/HER2 cells (HER2++) but not MCF7/neo1 cells (HER2+/-). The ?HER2/Lipo-DiR and ?HER2/SPIO could enhance the sensitivity of untargeted PEG-NPs on MCF7/HER2 (HER2++). In in vivo imaging, ?HER2/Lipo-DiR and ?HER2/SPIO increased the specific targeting and enhanced PEG-NPs accumulation at 175% and 187% on 24 h, respectively, in HER2-overexpressing tumors. CONCLUSION:mPEG?×?HER2, therefore, provided a simple one-step formulation to confer HER2-specific targeting and enhanced sensitivity and contrast intensity on HER2 positive tumors for multimodality imaging.
Project description:With high morbidity and death rates, liver cancer has become one of the most common cancers in the world. But, most chemotherapeutic anticancer drugs have high toxicity as well as low specificity. To improve the treatment modalities and enhance the therapeutic effect of liver cancer, a brand new liver-targeting nanoparticle (NP), Ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid (5 F)-loaded cholic acid (CA)-functionalized star-shaped poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lactobionic acid (LA) (5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA), was developed. The particle size, zeta potential, size distribution, surface morphology, drug loading content, drug encapsulation efficiency and drug release of 5 F-loaded NPs were characterized. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry showed that the prepared NPs could be internalized by HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the cellular uptake efficiency of coumarin 6-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs was much better in compare with that of CA-PLGA-PEG and CA-PLGA NPs. Moreover, LA-conjugated NPs (CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs) enhanced fluorescence of HepG2 cells via ligand-mediated endocytosis. The antitumor effects of 5 F-loaded NPs were evaluated by the MTT assay in vitro and by a xenograft tumor model in vivo, demonstrating that targeted 5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs were significantly superior to free 5 F and 5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG NPs. All the results indicated the 5 F-loaded CA-PLGA-PEG-LA NPs can be employed as a novel potentially targeting drug delivery system for liver cancer therapy.
Project description:Expression and transport activity of Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter 2 (SVCT2) was shown in various tissues and organs. Vitamin C was shown to be cerebroprotective in several animal models of stroke. Data on expression, localization and transport activity of SVCT2 after cerebral ischemia, however, has been scarce so far. Thus, we studied the expression of SVCT2 after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice by immunohistochemistry. We found an upregulation of SVCT2 after stroke. Co-stainings with Occludin, Von-Willebrand Factor and CD34 demonstrated localization of SVCT2 in brain capillary endothelial cells in the ischemic area after stroke. Time-course analyses of SVCT2 expression by immunohistochemistry and western blots showed upregulation in the subacute phase of 2-5 days. Radioactive uptake assays using (14)C-labelled ascorbic acid showed a significant increase of ascorbic acid uptake into the brain after stroke. Taken together, these results provide evidence for the expression and transport activity of SVCT2 in brain capillary endothelial cells after transient ischemia in mice. These results may lead to the development of novel neuroprotective strategies in stroke therapy.
Project description:In general, atherosclerosis is considered to be a form of chronic inflammation. Dexamethasone has anti-inflammatory effects in atherosclerosis, but it was not considered for long-term administration on account of a poor pharmacokinetic profile and adverse side effects. Nanoparticles in which drugs can be dissolved, encapsulated, entrapped or chemically attached to the particle surface have abilities to incorporate dexamethasone and to be used as controlled or targeted drug delivery system. Long circulatory polymeric nanoparticles present as an assisting approach for controlled and targeted release of the encapsulated drug at the atherosclerotic site. Polymeric nanoparticles combined with ultrasound (US) are widely applied in cancer treatment due to their time applications, low cost, simplicity, and safety. However, there are few studies on atherosclerosis treatment using polymeric nanoparticles combined with US. In this study, targeted dexamethasone acetate (DA)-loaded poly (lactide-glycolide)-polyethylene glycol-cRGD (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) nanoparticles (DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs) were prepared by the emulsion-evaporation method using cRGD modified PLGA-PEG polymeric materials (PLGA-PEG-cRGD) prepared as the carrier. The average particle size of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs was 221.6 ± 0.9 nm. Morphology of the nanoparticles was spherical and uniformly dispersed. In addition, the DA released profiles suggested that ultrasound could promote drug release from the nanocarriers and accelerate the rate of release. In vitro, the cellular uptake process of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)@DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US into the damaged human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) indicated that US promoted rapid intracellular uptake of FITC@DA- PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs. The cell viability of DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US reached 91.9% ± 0.2%, which demonstrated that DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs combined with US had a positive therapeutic effect on damaged HUVECs. Overall, DA-PLGA-PEG-cRGD NPs in combination with US may provide a promising drug delivery system to enhance the therapeutic effects of these chemotherapeutics at the cellular level.
Project description:In this work, a peptide for ocular delivery (POD) and human immunodeficiency virus transactivator were conjugated with biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-nanoparticles (NPs) in an attempt to improve ocular drug bioavailability. The NPs were prepared by the solvent displacement method following two different pathways. One involved preparation of PLGA NPs followed by PEG and peptide conjugation (PLGA-NPs-PEG-peptide); the other involved self-assembly of PLGA-PEG and the PLGA-PEG-peptide copolymer followed by NP formulation. The conjugation of the PEG and the peptide was confirmed by a colorimetric test and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Flurbiprofen was used as an example of an anti-inflammatory drug. The physicochemical properties of the resulting NPs (morphology, in vitro release, cell viability, and ocular tolerance) were studied. In vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was assessed in rabbit eyes after topical instillation of sodium arachidonate. Of the formulations developed, the PLGA-PEG-POD NPs were the smaller particles and exhibited greater entrapment efficiency and more sustained release. The positive charge on the surface of these NPs, due to the conjugation with the positively charged peptide, facilitated penetration into the corneal epithelium, resulting in more effective prevention of ocular inflammation. The in vitro toxicity of the NPs developed was very low; no ocular irritation in vitro (hen's egg test-chorioallantoic membrane assay) or in vivo (Draize test) was detected. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PLGA-PEG-POD NPs are promising vehicles for ocular drug delivery.
Project description:Bone is a favorable microenvironment for tumor growth and a frequent destination for metastatic cancer cells. Targeting cancers within the bone marrow remains a crucial oncologic challenge due to issues of drug availability and microenvironment-induced resistance. Herein, we engineered bone-homing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) for spatiotemporally controlled delivery of therapeutics to bone, which diminish off-target effects and increase local drug concentrations. The NPs consist of poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and bisphosphonate (or alendronate, a targeting ligand). The engineered NPs were formulated by blending varying ratios of the synthesized polymers: PLGA-b-PEG and alendronate-conjugated polymer PLGA-b-PEG-Ald, which ensured long circulation and targeting capabilities, respectively. The bone-binding ability of Ald-PEG-PLGA NPs was investigated by hydroxyapatite binding assays and ex vivo imaging of adherence to bone fragments. In vivo biodistribution of fluorescently labeled NPs showed higher retention, accumulation, and bone homing of targeted Ald-PEG-PLGA NPs, compared with nontargeted PEG-PLGA NPs. A library of bortezomib-loaded NPs (bone-targeted Ald-Bort-NPs and nontargeted Bort-NPs) were developed and screened for optimal physiochemical properties, drug loading, and release profiles. Ald-Bort-NPs were tested for efficacy in mouse models of multiple myeloma (MM). Results demonstrated significantly enhanced survival and decreased tumor burden in mice pretreated with Ald-Bort-NPs versus Ald-Empty-NPs (no drug) or the free drug. We also observed that bortezomib, as a pretreatment regimen, modified the bone microenvironment and enhanced bone strength and volume. Our findings suggest that NP-based anticancer therapies with bone-targeting specificity comprise a clinically relevant method of drug delivery that can inhibit tumor progression in MM.