The incidence and healthcare costs of persistent postoperative pain following lumbar spine surgery in the UK: a cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES).
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To characterise incidence and healthcare costs associated with persistent postoperative pain (PPP) following lumbar surgery. DESIGN:Retrospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING:Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) databases. PARTICIPANTS:Population-based cohort of 10?216 adults who underwent lumbar surgery in England from 1997/1998 through 2011/2012 and had at least 1?year of presurgery data and 2?years of postoperative follow-up data in the linked CPRD-HES. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES MEASURES:Incidence and total healthcare costs over 2, 5 and 10 years attributable to persistent PPP following initial lumbar surgery. RESULTS:The rate of individuals undergoing lumbar surgery in the CPRD-HES linked data doubled over the 15-year study period, fiscal years 1997/1998 to 2011/2012, from 2.5 to 4.9 per 10?000 adults. Over the most recent 5-year period (2007/2008 to 2011/2012), on average 20.8% (95% CI 19.7% to 21.9%) of lumbar surgery patients met criteria for PPP. Rates of healthcare usage were significantly higher for patients with PPP across all types of care. Over 2?years following initial spine surgery, the mean cost difference between patients with and without PPP was £5383 (95% CI £4872 to £5916). Over 5 and 10 years following initial spine surgery, the mean cost difference between patients with and without PPP increased to £10 195 (95% CI £8726 to £11?669) and £14 318 (95% CI £8386 to £19?771), respectively. Extrapolated to the UK population, we estimate that nearly 5000 adults experience PPP after spine surgery annually, with each new cohort costing the UK National Health Service in excess of £70?million over the first 10 years alone. CONCLUSIONS:Persistent pain affects more than one-in-five lumbar surgery patients and accounts for substantial long-term healthcare costs. There is a need for formal, evidence-based guidelines for a coherent, coordinated management strategy for patients with continuing pain after lumbar surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies from different Western countries have reported a rapid increase in spinal surgery rates, an increase that exceeds by far the growing incidence rates of spinal disorders in the general population. There are few studies covering all lumbar spine surgery and no previous studies from Norway. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to investigate trends in all lumbar spine surgery in Norway over 15 years, including length of hospital stay, and rates of complications and reoperations. DESIGN:A longitudinal observational study over 15 years using hospital patient administrative data and sociodemographic data from the National Registry in Norway. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:Patients aged ≥18 years discharged from Norwegian public hospitals between 1999 and 2013. OUTCOME MEASURES:Annual rates of simple (microsurgical discectomy, decompression) and complex surgical procedures (fusion, disc prosthesis) in the lumbar spine. RESULTS:The rate of lumbar spine surgery increased by 54%, from 78 (95% CI (75 to 80)) to 120 (107 to 113) per 100 000, from 1999 to 2013. More men had simple surgery whereas more women had complex surgery. Among elderly people over 75 years, lumbar surgery increased by a factor of five during the 15-year period. The rates of complications were low, but increased from 0.7% in 1999 to 2.4% in 2013. CONCLUSIONS:There was a substantial increase in lumbar spine surgery in Norway from 1999 to 2013, similar to trends in other Western world countries. The rise in lumbar surgery among elderly people represents a significant workload and challenge for health services, given our aging population.
Project description:Ethnicity recording across the National Health Service (NHS) has improved dramatically over the past decade. This study profiles the completeness, consistency and representativeness of routinely collected ethnicity data in both primary care and hospital settings.Completeness and consistency of ethnicity recording was examined in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), and the ethnic breakdown of the CPRD was compared with that of the 2011 UK censuses.27.1% of all patients in the CPRD (1990-2012) have ethnicity recorded. This proportion rises to 78.3% for patients registered since April 2006. The ethnic breakdown of the CPRD is comparable to the UK censuses. 79.4% of HES inpatients, 46.8% of outpatients and 26.8% of A&E patients had their ethnicity recorded. Amongst those with ethnicity recorded on >1 occasion, consistency was over 90% in all data sets except for HES inpatients. Combining CPRD and HES increased completeness to 97%, with 85% of patients having the same ethnicity recorded in both databases.Using CPRD ethnicity from 2006 onwards maximizes completeness and comparability with the UK population. High concordance within and across NHS sources suggests these data are of high value when examining the continuum of care. Poor completeness and consistency of A&E and outpatient data render these sources unreliable.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Trends towards day case surgery and enhanced recovery mean that postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE) may increasingly arise after hospital discharge. However, hospital data alone are unable to capture adverse events that occur outside of the hospital setting. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has suggested the use of primary care data to quantify hospital care-related VTE. Data in surgical patients using these resources is lacking. The aim of this study was to measure VTE risk and associated mortality in general surgery using linked primary care and hospital databases, to improve our understanding of harm from VTE that arises beyond hospital stay. METHODS:This was a longitudinal cohort study using nationally linked primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink, CPRD), hospital administrative (Hospital Episodes Statistics, HES), population statistics (Office of National Statistics, ONS) and National Cancer Intelligence Network databases. Routinely collected information was used to quantify 90-day in-hospital VTE, 90-day post-discharge VTE and 90-day mortality in adults undergoing one of twelve general surgical procedures between 1st April 1997 and 31st March 2012. The earliest postoperative recording of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism in CPRD, HES and ONS was counted in each patient. Covariates from multiple datasets were combined to derive detailed prediction models for VTE and mortality. Limitation included the capture of VTE presenting to healthcare only and the lack of information on adherence to pharmacological thromboprophylaxis as there was no data linkage to hospital pharmacy records. RESULTS:There were 981 VTE events captured within 90 days of surgery in 168005 procedures (23.7/1000 patient-years). Overall, primary care data increased the detection of postoperative VTE by a factor of 1.38 (981/710) when compared with using HES and ONS only. Total VTE rates ranged between 3.2/1000 patient-years in haemorrhoidectomy to 118.3/1000 patient-years in esophagogastric resection. Predictors of VTE included emergency surgery (OR = 1.91 95%CI 1.60-2.28, p<0.001), age (OR = 1.02 95%CI 1.02-1.03, p<0.001), body mass index (OR = 1.03 95%CI 1.01-1.04, p<0.001), previous VTE (OR = 8.07 95%CI 6.61-9.83, p<0.001), length of stay (OR = 1.00 95%CI 1.00-1.00, p = 0.007) and cancer stages II (OR = 1.38 95%CI 1.03-1.87, p = 0.033), III (OR = 1.50 95%CI 1.11-2.01, p = 0.008) and IV (OR = 1.63 95%CI 1.03-2.59, p = 0.038). Major organ resections had the greatest odds of VTE when adjusted for other risk factors including length of hospital stay. Post-discharge VTE accounted for 64.8% (636/981) of all recorded VTE. In-hospital VTE (165.4/1000 patient-years) was recorded more frequently than post-discharge VTE (16.2/1000 patient-years). Both in-hospital (OR = 2.07 95%CI 1.51-2.85, p<0.001) and post-discharge (OR = 4.03 95%CI 2.95-5.51, p<0.001) VTE independently predicted 90-day mortality. In patients who died and VTE was recorded on HES or CPRD (n = 56), VTE was one of the causes of death in 37.5% (21/56) of cases. CONCLUSIONS:A large proportion of postoperative VTE was detected in primary care. Evaluation of linked databases was a useful way of measuring postoperative VTE at population level. These resources identified a significant association between post-discharge VTE and mortality in general surgery.
Project description:Degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine were managed with discectomy or laminectomy. This study aimed to compare these two surgical treatments in the postoperative revision rates.A population-based cohort study from analysis of a healthcare database.Data were gathered from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD).We enrolled 16?048 patients (4450 women and 11?598 men) with a mean age of 40.34 years who underwent lumbar discectomy or laminectomy for the first time between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2007. All patients were followed up for 5 years or until death.Revision rate within 3 months of the index surgery was significantly higher in patients who underwent discectomy (2.75%) than in those who underwent laminectomy (1.18%; p<0.0001). This difference persisted over the first year following the index surgery (3.38% vs 2.57%). One year afterwards, the revision rates were similar between the discectomy (9.75%) and laminectomy (9.69%) groups. The final spinal fusion surgery rates were also similar between the groups (11.25% vs 12.08%).The revision rate after lumbar discectomy was higher than that after laminectomy within 1?year of the index surgery. However, differences were not identified between patient groups for the two procedures with respect to long-term revision rates and the proportion of patients who required final spinal fusion surgery.
Project description:STUDY DESIGN:Multivariate analysis of prospectively collected registry data. OBJECTIVE:Using multivariate analysis to determine significant risk factors for medical complication after lumbar spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:Several studies have examined the occurrence of medical complication after spine surgery. However, many of these studies have been done utilizing large national databases. Although these allow for analysis of thousands of patients, potentially influential covariates are not accounted for in these retrospective studies. Furthermore, the accuracy of these retrospective data collection in these databases has been called into question. METHODS:The Spine End Results Registry (2003–2004) is a collection of prospectively collected data on all patients who underwent spine surgery at our two institutions. Extensive demographic and medical information were prospectively recorded as described previously by Mirza et al. Complications were defined in detail a priori and were prospectively recorded for at least 2 years after surgery. We analyzed risk factors for medical complication after lumbar spine surgery using univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS:We analyzed data from 767 patients who met out inclusion criteria. The cumulative incidences of complication after lumbar spine surgery per organ system are as follows: cardiac, 13%; pulmonary, 7%; gastrointestinal, 6.7%; neurological, 8.2%; hematological, 17.5%; and urologic complications, 10.3%. The occurrence of cardiac or respiratory complication after lumbar spine surgery was significantly associated with death within 2 years (relative risk: 6.09 and 10.9, respectively). Several significant risk factors were identified for organ-specific complications. Among these, surgical invasiveness appeared to be the largest risk factor for cardiac, pulmonary, neurological, and hematological complications. CONCLUSION:Risk factors identified in this study can be beneficial to clinicians and patients alike when considering surgical treatment of the lumbar spine. Future analyses and models that predict the occurrence of medical complication after lumbar spine surgery may be of further benefit for surgical decision making.
Project description:The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and many private health plans are encouraging patients to seek orthopedic care at hospitals designated as centers of excellence. No evaluations have been conducted to compare patient outcomes and costs at centers of excellence versus other hospitals. The objective of our study was to assess whether hospitals designated as spine surgery centers of excellence by a group of over 25 health plans provided higher quality care.Claims representing approximately 54 million commercially insured individuals were used to identify individuals aged 18-64 years with 1 of 3 types of spine surgery in 2007-2009: 1-level or 2-level cervical fusion (referred to as cervical simple fusion), 1-level or 2-level lumbar fusion (referred to as lumbar simple fusion), or lumbar discectomy and/or decompression without fusion. The primary outcomes were any complication (7 complications were captured) and 30-day readmission. The multivariate models controlled for differences in age, sex, and comorbidities between the 2 sets of hospitals.A total of 29,295 cervical simple fusions, 27,214 lumbar simple fusions, and 28,911 lumbar discectomy/decompressions were identified, of which 42%, 42%, and 47%, respectively, were performed at a hospital designated as a spine surgery center of excellence. Designated hospitals had a larger number of beds and were more likely to be an academic center. Across the 3 types of spine surgery (cervical fusions, lumbar fusions, or lumbar discectomies/decompressions), there was no difference in the composite complication rate [OR 0.90 (95% CI, 0.72-1.12); OR 0.98 (95% CI, 0.85-1.13); OR 0.95 (95% CI, 0.82-1.07), respectively] or readmission rate [OR 1.03 (95% CI, 0.87-1.21); OR 1.01 (95% CI, 0.89-1.13); OR 0.91 (95%, CI 0.79-1.04), respectively] at designated hospitals compared with other hospitals.On average, spine surgery centers of excellence had similar complication rates and readmission rates compared with other hospitals. These results highlight the importance of empirical evaluations of centers of excellence programs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Recent focus on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) has created a new challenge as we learn how to integrate these outcomes into practice along with other quality metrics. We investigated the relationship between PROs and satisfaction among spine surgery patients. We hypothesized that there would be significant disparities between patient satisfaction and PROs at the 1-year postoperative time point. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study of adults undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery at 12 hospitals participating in the Spine Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program. METHODS:Satisfaction, pain, and function scores were collected at 1 year post operation, along with clinical information, to determine the relationship between PROs and satisfaction at the patient level. RESULTS:Among 520 patients (mean age = 63 ± 13 years; 47% male), the majority of patients (82%) reported being satisfied with surgery. Satisfaction was associated with both improvement in pain (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.17-1.51) and function (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.08). However, even among patients who did not improve in pain or function, more than half (59%) reported being satisfied. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, patients undergoing elective lumbar spine surgery reported being satisfied with outcomes, but the reported responses in PROs were much more variable. As the expectations increase to include PRO measures as valid quality indicators, it is necessary to dedicate time and consideration to understanding the relationships among these measures to support meaningful translations into healthcare policy.
Project description:The United States has the highest rate of lumbar spine surgery in the world, with rates increasing over 200% since 1990. Medicare spends over $1 billion annually on lumbar spine surgery. Despite surgical advances, up to 40% of patients report chronic pain and disability following surgery. Our work has demonstrated that fear of movement is a risk factor for increased pain and disability and decreased physical function in patients following lumbar spine surgery for degenerative conditions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy and self-management treatments have the potential to address psychosocial risk factors and improve outcomes after spine surgery, but are unavailable or insufficiently adapted for postoperative care. Our research team developed a cognitive-behavioral based self-management approach to postoperative rehabilitation (Changing Behavior through Physical Therapy (CBPT)). Pilot testing of the CBPT program demonstrated greater improvement in pain, disability, physical and mental health, and physical performance compared to education. The current study compares which of two treatments provided by telephone - a CBPT Program or an Education Program about postoperative recovery - are more effective for improving patient-centered outcomes in adults following lumbar spine surgery for degenerative conditions.A multi-center, comparative effectiveness trial will be conducted. Two hundred and sixty patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery for degenerative conditions will be recruited from two medical centers and community surgical practices. Participants will be randomly assigned to CBPT or Education at 6 weeks following surgery. Treatments consist of six weekly telephone sessions with a trained physical therapist. The primary outcome will be disability and secondary outcomes include pain, general health, and physical activity. Outcomes will be assessed preoperatively and at 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months after surgery by an assessor masked to group allocation.Effective rehabilitation treatments that can guide clinicians in their recommendations, and patients in their actions will have the potential to effect change in current clinical practice.NCT02184143.
Project description:'Real world' bleeding in patients exposed to different regimens of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and triple therapy (TT, DAPT plus an anticoagulant) have a clinical and economic impact but have not been previously quantified. We will use linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data to assemble populations eligible for three 'target trials' in patient groups: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI); coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG); conservatively managed (medication only) acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Patients ≥18 years old will be eligible if, in CPRD records, they have: ≥1 year of data before the index event; no prescription for DAPT or anticoagulants in the preceding 3 months; a prescription for aspirin or DAPT within 2 months after discharge from the index event. The primary outcome will be any bleeding event (CPRD or HES) up to 12 months after the index event. We will estimate adjusted HR for time to first bleeding event comparing: aspirin and clopidogrel (reference) versus aspirin and prasugrel or aspirin and ticagrelor after PCI; and aspirin (reference) versus aspirin and clopidogrel after CABG and ACS. We will describe rates of bleeding in patients prescribed TT (DAPT plus an anticoagulant). Potential confounders will be identified systematically using literature review, semistructured interviews with clinicians and a short survey of clinicians. We will conduct sensitivity analyses addressing the robustness of results to the study's main limitation-that we will not be able to identify the intervention group for patients whose bleeding event occurs before a DAPT prescription in CPRD. This protocol was approved by the Independent Scientific Advisory Committee for the UK Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency Database Research (protocol 16_126R) and the South West Cornwall and Plymouth Research Ethics Committee (17/SW/0092). The findings will be presented in peer-reviewed journals, lay summaries and briefing papers to commissioners/other stakeholders. 76607611; Pre-results.
Project description:OBJECTIVES AND SETTING:Conflicting results from studies using electronic health records to evaluate the associations between type 2 diabetes and cancer fuel concerns regarding potential biases. This study aimed to describe completeness of cancer recording in UK primary care data linked to hospital admissions records. DESIGN:Patients aged 40+ years with insulin or oral antidiabetic prescriptions in Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care without type 1 diabetes were matched by age, sex and general practitioner practice to non-diabetics. Those eligible for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care (HES APC), and with follow-up during April 1997-December 2006 were included. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Cancer recording and date of first record of cancer were compared. Characteristics of patients with cancer most likely to have the diagnosis recorded only in a single data source were assessed. Relative rates of cancer estimated from the two datasets were compared. PARTICIPANTS:53?585 patients with type 2 diabetes matched to 47?435 patients without diabetes were included. RESULTS:Of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) recorded in CPRD, 83% were recorded in HES APC. 94% of cases in HES APC were recorded in CPRD. Concordance was lower when restricted to same-site cancer records, and was negatively associated with increasing age. Relative rates for cancer were similar in both datasets. CONCLUSIONS:Good concordance in cancer recording was found between CPRD and HES APC among type 2 diabetics and matched controls. Linked data may reduce misclassification and increase case ascertainment when analysis focuses on site-specific cancers.