Towards Translational ImmunoPET/MR Imaging of Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: The Humanised Monoclonal Antibody JF5 Detects Aspergillus Lung Infections In Vivo.
ABSTRACT: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a life-threatening lung disease of hematological malignancy or bone marrow transplant patients caused by the ubiquitous environmental fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Current diagnostic tests for the disease lack sensitivity as well as specificity, and culture of the fungus from invasive lung biopsy, considered the gold standard for IPA detection, is slow and often not possible in critically ill patients. In a previous study, we reported the development of a novel non-invasive procedure for IPA diagnosis based on antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI) using a [64Cu]DOTA-labeled mouse monoclonal antibody (mAb), mJF5, specific to Aspergillus. To enable translation of the tracer to the clinical setting, we report here the development of a humanised version of the antibody (hJF5), and pre-clinical imaging of lung infection using a [64Cu]NODAGA-hJF5 tracer. The humanised antibody tracer shows a significant increase in in vivo biodistribution in A. fumigatus infected lungs compared to its radiolabeled murine counterpart [64Cu]NODAGA-mJF5. Using reverse genetics of the pathogen, we show that the antibody binds to the antigenic determinant ?1,5-galactofuranose (Galf) present in a diagnostic mannoprotein antigen released by the pathogen during invasive growth in the lung. The absence of the epitope Galf in mammalian carbohydrates, coupled with the enhanced imaging capabilities of the hJF5 antibody, means that the [64Cu]NODAGA-hJF5 tracer developed here represents an ideal candidate for the diagnosis of IPA and translation to the clinical setting.
Project description:The specific and rapid detection of Enterobacteriaceae, the most frequent cause of gram-negative bacterial infections in humans, remains a major challenge. We developed a non-invasive method to rapidly detect systemic Yersinia enterocolitica infections using immunoPET (antibody-targeted positron emission tomography) with [64Cu]NODAGA-labeled Yersinia-specific polyclonal antibodies targeting the outer membrane protein YadA. In contrast to the tracer [18F]FDG, [64Cu]NODAGA-YadA uptake co-localized in a dose dependent manner with bacterial lesions of Yersinia-infected mice, as detected by magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This was accompanied by elevated uptake of [64Cu]NODAGA-YadA in infected tissues, in ex vivo biodistribution studies, whereas reduced uptake was observed following blocking with unlabeled anti-YadA antibody. We show, for the first time, a bacteria-specific, antibody-based, in vivo imaging method for the diagnosis of a Gram-negative enterobacterial infection as a proof of concept, which may provide new insights into pathogen-host interactions.
Project description:The human commensal yeast Candida is the fourth most common cause of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, with Candida albicans accounting for the majority of the >400,000 life-threatening infections annually. Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC), a disease encompassing candidemia (blood-borne yeast infection) and deep-seated organ infections, is a major challenge since clinical manifestations of the disease are indistinguishable from viral, bacterial and other fungal diseases, and diagnostic tests for biomarkers in the bloodstream such as PCR, ELISA, and pan-fungal ?-D-glucan lack either standardization, sensitivity, or specificity. Blood culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis, but test sensitivity is poor and turn-around time slow. Furthermore, cultures can only be obtained when the yeast resides in the bloodstream, with samples recovered from hematogenous infections often yielding negative results. Consequently, there is a pressing need for a diagnostic test that allows the identification of metastatic foci in deep-seated Candida infections, without the need for invasive biopsy. Here, we report the development of a highly specific mouse IgG3 monoclonal antibody (MC3) that binds to a putative ?-1,2-mannan epitope present in high molecular weight mannoproteins and phospholipomannans on the surface of yeast and hyphal morphotypes of C. albicans, and its use as a [64Cu]NODAGA-labeled tracer for whole-body pre-clinical imaging of deep-seated C. albicans infections using antibody-guided positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (immunoPET/MRI). When used in a mouse intravenous (i.v.) challenge model that faithfully mimics disseminated C. albicans infections in humans, the [64Cu]NODAGA-MC3 tracer accurately detects infections of the kidney, the principal site of blood-borne candidiasis in this model. Using a strain of the emerging human pathogen Candida auris that reacts with MC3 in vitro, but which is non-infective in i.v. challenged mice, we demonstrate the accuracy of the tracer in diagnosing invasive infections in vivo. This pre-clinical study demonstrates the principle of using antibody-guided molecular imaging for detection of deep organ infections in IC, without the need for invasive tissue biopsy.
Project description:Antibodies, and engineered antibody fragments, labeled with radioisotopes are being developed as radiotracers for the detection and phenotyping of diseases such as cancer. The development of antibody-based radiotracers requires extensive characterization of their in vitro and in vivo properties, including their ability to target tumors in an antigen-selective manner. In this study, we investigated the use of Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) as compared with PET as a modality for evaluating the in vivo behavior of antibody-based radiotracers.The anti-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) huJ591 antibody (IgG; 150 kDa) and its minibody (Mb; 80 kDa) format were functionalized with the chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-diacetic acid (NODAGA) and radiolabeled with the positron-emitting radionuclide 64Cu (half-life, 12.7 h). Immunoreactive preparations of the radiolabeled antibodies were injected into NCr nu/nu mice harboring PSMA-positive CWR22Rv1 and PSMA-negative PC-3 tumor xenografts. Tumor targeting was evaluated by both PET and CLI.64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-IgG and 64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-Mb retained the ability to bind cell surface PSMA, and both radiotracers exhibited selective uptake into PSMA-positive tumors. Under the experimental conditions used, PSMA-selective uptake of 64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-IgG and 64Cu-NODAGA-PSMA-Mb was observed by CLI as early as 3 h after injection, with tumor-to-background ratios peaking at 24 (IgG) and 16 (Mb) h after injection. Targeting data generated by CLI correlated with that generated by PET and necropsy.CLI provided a rapid and simple assessment of the targeting specificity and pharmacokinetics of the antibody-based PET radiotracers that correlated well with the behavior observed by standard PET imaging. Moreover, CLI provided clear discrimination between uptake kinetics of an intact IgG and its small-molecular-weight derivative Mb. These data support the use of CLI for the evaluation of radiotracer performance.
Project description:Copper-64 is an attractive radionuclide for PET imaging and is frequently used in clinical applications. The aim of this study was to perform a side-by-side comparison of the in vitro and in vivo performance of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 (NODAGA = 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid,4,7-acetic acid, JR11 = p-Cl-Phe-cyclo(D-Cys-Aph(Hor)-D-Aph(cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys)D-Tyr-NH2), a somatostatin receptor 2 antagonist, with the clinically used sst2 agonist 64Cu-DOTA-TATE ((TATE = D-Phe-cyclo(Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Thr-Cys)Thr). In vitro studies demonstrated Kd values of 5.7±0.95 nM (Bmax = 4.1±0.18 nM) for the antagonist 64/natCu-NODAGA-JR11 and 20.1±4.4. nM (Bmax = 0.48±0.18 nM) for the agonist 64/natCu-DOTA-TATE. Cell uptake studies showed the expected differences between agonists and antagonists. Whereas 64Cu-DOTA-TATE (the agonist) showed very effective internalization in the cell culture assay (with 50% internalized at 4 hours post-peptide addition under the given experimental conditions), 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 (the antagonist) showed little internalization but strong receptor-mediated uptake at the cell membrane. Biodistribution studies of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 showed rapid blood clearance and tumor uptake with increasing tumor-to-relevant organ ratios within the first 4 hours and in some cases, 24 hours, respectively. The tumor washout was slow or non-existent in the first 4 hours, whereas the kidney washout was very efficient, leading to high and increasing tumor-to-kidney ratios over time. Specificity of tumor uptake was proven by co-injection of high excess of non-radiolabeled peptide, which led to >80% tumor blocking. 64Cu-DOTA-TATE showed less favorable pharmacokinetics, with the exception of lower kidney uptake. Blood clearance was distinctly slower and persistent higher blood values were found at 24 hours. Uptake in the liver and lung was relatively high and also persistent. The tumor uptake was specific and similar to that of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 at 1 h, but release from the tumor was very fast, particularly between 4 and 24 hours. Tumor-to-normal organ ratios were distinctly lower after 1 hour. This is indicative of insufficient in vivo stability. PET studies of 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 reflected the biodistribution data with nicely delineated tumor and low background. 64Cu-NODAGA-JR11 shows promising pharmacokinetic properties for further translation into the clinic.
Project description:Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) has significantly increased over the last decade. Here, a fusion protein consisting of the Dectin-1 extracellular domain linked to the Fc portion of murine immunoglobulin G1 augmented alveolar macrophage killing of Aspergillus fumigatus and shifted mortality associated with IPA via attenuation of A. fumigatus growth in the lung.
Project description:CD146 has been identified as an excellent biomarker for lung cancer as its overexpression in solid tumors has been linked to disease progression, invasion, and metastasis. Previously, our group described a positive correlation between 64Cu-labeled YY146 uptake and increased expression of CD146 in six human lung cancer cell lines using subcutaneous tumor models. In this study, we investigate a monoclonal antibody called YY146 for immunoPET imaging of CD146 in two intrapulmonary metastasis models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The binding and immunoreactivity of the tracer were assessed by in vitro assays. Radiolabeling of YY146 with positron emitting Cu-64 (64Cu-NOTA-YY146) enabled PET imaging of intrapulmonary metastasis. Mice were intravenously injected with two million tumor cells, and CT imaging was used to verify the presence of lung metastases. 64Cu-NOTA-YY146 was injected into tumor-bearing mice, and animals were subjected to PET/CT imaging at 4, 24, and 48 h postinjection. Both the average and maximum lung PET signal intensities were quantified and compared between high and low CD146-expressing metastases. Further validation was accomplished through immunofluorescence imaging of resected tissues with CD31 and CD146. In flow cytometry, YY146 revealed strong binding to CD146 in H460 cells due to its high expression with minimal binding to CD146-low expressing H358 cells. Both YY146 and NOTA-YY146 showed similar binding, suggesting that NOTA conjugation did not elicit any negative effects on its binding affinity. Imaging of 64Cu-NOTA-YY146 in H460 tumor-bearing mice revealed rapid, persistent, and highly specific tracer accumulation. Uptake of 64Cu-NOTA-YY146 in the whole lung was calculated for H460 and H358 as 7.43 ± 0.38 and 3.95 ± 0.47% ID/g at 48 h postinjection (n = 4, p < 0.05), and the maximum lung signals were determined to be 13.85 ± 1.07 (H460) and 6.08 ± 0.73% ID/g (H358) at equivalent time points (n = 4, p < 0.05). To ensure the specificity of the tracer, a nonspecific antibody was injected into H460 tumor-bearing mice. Ex vivo biodistribution and immunofluorescence imaging validated the PET findings. In summary, 64Cu-NOTA-YY146 allowed for successful imaging of CD146-expressing intrapulmonary metastases of NSCLC in mice. This preliminary study provides evidence supporting the future clinical utilization of 64Cu-NOTA-YY146 for possible treatment monitoring of CD146-targeted therapy or improving patient stratification.
Project description:This study was designed to determine safety, tolerability, and radiation burden of a [(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD-PET for imaging integrin ?v?3 expression in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver cirrhosis. Moreover, metabolic stability and biokinetic data were compiled.After injection of 154-184 MBq [(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD three consecutive PET/CT scans were acquired starting 8.3?±?2.1, 36.9?±?2.8, and 75.1?±?3.4 min after tracer injection. For metabolite analysis, blood and urine samples were analyzed by HPLC. For dosimetry studies, residence time VOIs were placed in the corresponding organs. The OLINDA/EXM program was used to estimate the absorbed radiation dose.The radiopharmaceutical was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse effects were observed. No metabolites could be detected in blood (30 and 60 min p.i.) and urine (60 min p.i.). [(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD showed rapid and predominantly renal elimination. Background radioactivity in blood, intestine, lung, and muscle tissue was low (%ID/l 60 min p.i. was 0.56?±?0.43, 0.54?±?0.39, 0.22?±?0.05, and 0.16?±?0.8, respectively). The calculated effective dose was 21.5?±?5.4 ?Sv/MBq, and the highest absorbed radiation dose was found for the urinary bladder wall (0.26?±?0.09 mSv/MBq). No increased uptake of the tracer was found in HCC compared with the background liver tissue.[(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD uptake in the HCCs lesions was not sufficient to use this tracer for imaging these tumors. [(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD was well tolerated and metabolically stable. Due to rapid renal excretion, background radioactivity was low in most of the body, resulting in low radiation burden and indicating the potential of [(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD PET for non-invasive determination of integrin ?v?3 expression.
Project description:Background:The chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is an important molecular target for both visualization and therapy of tumors. The aim of the present study was the synthesis and preclinical evaluation of a 64Cu-labeled, CXCR4-targeting peptide for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of CXCR4 expression in vivo. Methods:For this purpose, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA), or 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-triacetic acid (NOTA) was conjugated to the highly affine CXCR4-targeting pentixather scaffold. Affinities were determined using Jurkat T-lymphocytes in competitive binding assays employing [125I]FC131 as the radioligand. Internalization and efflux studies of [64Cu]NOTA-pentixather were performed in chem-1 cells, stably transfected with hCXCR4. The stability of the tracer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Small-animal PET and biodistribution studies at different time points were performed in Daudi lymphoma-bearing severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Results:[64Cu]NOTA-pentixather was rapidly radiolabeled at 60 °C with high radiochemical yields ?90% and purities >99%. [64Cu]NOTA-pentixather offered the highest affinity of the evaluated peptides in this study (IC50?=?14.9?±?2.1 nM), showed efficient CXCR4-targeting in vitro and was stable in blood and urine with high resistance to transchelation in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) challenge studies. Due to the enhanced lipophilicity of [64Cu]NOTA-pentixather (logP?=?-1.2), biodistribution studies showed some nonspecific accumulation in the liver and intestines. However, tumor accumulation (13.1?±?1.5% ID/g, 1.5 h p.i.) was CXCR4-specific and higher than in all other organs and resulted in high resolution delineation of Daudi tumors in PET/CT images in vivo. Conclusions:[64Cu]NOTA-pentixather was fast and efficiently radiolabeled, showed effective CXCR4-targeting, high stability in vitro and in vivo and resulted in high resolution PET/CT images accompanied with a suitable biodistribution profile, making [64Cu]NOTA-pentixather a promising tracer for future application in humans.
Project description:Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus are the fungal pathogens responsible for most cases of invasive aspergillosis (IA). Early detection of the circulating antigen galactomannan (GM) in serum allows the prompt application of effective antifungal therapy, thus improving the survival rate of IA patients. However, the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for the diagnosis of IA is often associated with false positives due to cross-reaction with bacterial polysaccharides. More specific antibodies are therefore needed. Here we describe the characterization of the Aspergillus-specific mAb AP3 (IgG1?), including the precise identification of its corresponding antigen. The antibody was generated using A. parasiticus cell wall fragments and was shown to bind several Aspergillus species. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that AP3 binds a cell wall antigen, but immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that the antigen is also secreted into the culture medium. The inability of AP3 to bind the A. fumigatus galactofuranose (Galf )-deficient mutant ?glfA confirmed that Galf residues are part of the epitope. Several lines of evidence strongly indicated that AP3 recognizes the Galf residues of O-linked glycans on Aspergillus proteins. Glycoarray analysis revealed that AP3 recognizes oligo-[?-D-Galf-1,5] sequences containing four or more residues with longer chains more efficiently. We also showed that AP3 captures GM in serum, suggesting it may be useful as a diagnostic tool for patients with IA.
Project description:Currently, our knowledge of how pathogenic fungi grow in mammalian host environments is limited. Using a chemotherapeutic murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) and (1)H-NMR metabolomics, we detected ethanol in the lungs of mice infected with Aspergillus fumigatus. This result suggests that A. fumigatus is exposed to oxygen depleted microenvironments during infection. To test this hypothesis, we utilized a chemical hypoxia detection agent, pimonidazole hydrochloride, in three immunologically distinct murine models of IPA (chemotherapeutic, X-CGD, and corticosteroid). In all three IPA murine models, hypoxia was observed during the course of infection. We next tested the hypothesis that production of ethanol in vivo by the fungus is involved in hypoxia adaptation and fungal pathogenesis. Ethanol deficient A. fumigatus strains showed no growth defects in hypoxia and were able to cause wild type levels of mortality in all 3 murine models. However, lung immunohistopathology and flow cytometry analyses revealed an increase in the inflammatory response in mice infected with an alcohol dehydrogenase null mutant strain that corresponded with a reduction in fungal burden. Consequently, in this study we present the first in vivo observations that hypoxic microenvironments occur during a pulmonary invasive fungal infection and observe that a fungal alcohol dehydrogenase influences fungal pathogenesis in the lung. Thus, environmental conditions encountered by invading pathogenic fungi may result in substantial fungal metabolism changes that influence subsequent host immune responses.