Reduction of tobacco smoke components yield in commercial cigarette brands by addition of HUSY, NaY and Al-MCM-41 to the cigarette rod.
ABSTRACT: The effect of two zeolites, HUSY, NaY and a mesoporous synthesized Al-MCM-41 material on the smoke composition of ten commercial cigarettes brands has been studied. Cigarettes were prepared by mixing the tobacco with the three powdered materials, and the smoke obtained under the ISO conditions was analyzed. Up to 32 compounds were identified and quantified in the gas fraction and 80 in the total particulate matter (TPM) condensed in the cigarettes filters and in the traps located after the mouth end of the cigarettes. Al-MCM-41 is by far the best additive, providing the highest reductions of the yield for most compounds and brands analyzed. A positive correlation was observed among the TPM and nicotine yields with the reduction obtained in nicotine, CO, and most compounds with the three additives. The amount of ashes in additive free basis increases due to the coke deposited on the solids, especially with Al-MCM-41. Nicotine is reduced with Al-MCM-41 by an average of 34.4% for the brands studied (49.5% for the brand where the major reduction was obtained and 18.5 for the brand behaving the worst). CO is reduced by an average of 18.6% (ranging from 10.3 to 35.2% in the different brands).
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>US law requires disclosure of quantities of toxic chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke by brand and sub-brand. This information may drive smokers to switch to cigarettes with lower chemical quantities, under the misperception that doing so can reduce health risk. We sought to understand past brand-switching behavior and whether learning about specific chemicals in cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to brand switching.<h4>Methods</h4>Participants were US adult smokers surveyed by phone (n = 1,151, probability sample) and online (n = 1,561, convenience sample). Surveys assessed whether smokers had ever switched cigarette brands or styles to reduce health risk and about likelihood of switching if the smoker learned their brand had more of a specific chemical than other cigarettes. Chemicals presented were nicotine, carbon monoxide, lead, formaldehyde, arsenic, and ammonia.<h4>Results</h4>Past brand switching to reduce health risk was common among smokers (43% in phone survey, 28% in online survey). Smokers who were female, over 25, and current "light" cigarette users were more likely to have switched brands to reduce health risks (all p < .05). Overall, 61-92% of smokers were susceptible to brand switching based on information about particular chemicals. In both samples, lead, formaldehyde, arsenic, and ammonia led to more susceptibility to switch than nicotine (all p < .05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Many US smokers have switched brands or styles to reduce health risks. The majority said they might or would definitely switch brands if they learned their cigarettes had more of a toxic chemical than other brands. Brand switching is a probable unintended consequence of communications that show differences in smoke chemicals between brands.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Survey of nicotine, tar, and carbon monoxide (CO) smoke deliveries from 77 cigarette brands purchased in 35 countries was conducted using a standardised machine smoking method. The goal of this study was to determine regional variations and differences in the tar, nicotine, and CO smoke yields of a cigarette brand manufactured by a leading transnational corporation and of non-US locally popular cigarette brands. DESIGN: The majority of the cigarettes were purchased in each of the participating countries by delegate members of the World Health Organization and forwarded to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for analysis. Smoke deliveries were determined using a standardised smoking machine method and subsequent gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis. RESULTS: The smoke deliveries varied widely. Mainstream smoke deliveries varied from 6.8 to 21.6 mg tar/cigarette, 0.5 to 1.6 mg nicotine/cigarette, and 5.9 to 17.4 mg CO/cigarette. In addition to the smoke deliveries, the cigarettes were examined to determine physical parameters such as filter composition, length, and ventilation levels. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the smoke deliveries suggested that cigarettes from the Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific WHO regions tended to have higher tar, nicotine, and CO smoke deliveries than did brands from the European, American, or African WHO regions surveyed.
Project description:AIMS:It is not known whether the machine-smoked nicotine yield of usual brand of cigarette smoked is associated with the chances of success of quit attempts. This study aimed to assess this association. DESIGN:Prospective study. SETTING:Republic of Korea. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 16?808 male smokers registered for the Quitline between 7 April 2006 and 31 December 2013. Of these, 13?176 participants who were > 19 years of age and provided data on their demographic characteristics, smoking-related behaviors, nicotine dependence, tobacco brands used and self-efficacy were included in this study. MEASUREMENTS:Machine-smoked nicotine yield was based on information provided by tobacco companies on cigarette packages that smokers reported as their usual brand. Ultra-low nicotine yield was defined as ? 0.1 mg machine-smoked nicotine yield per cigarette, whereas higher nicotine yield was defined as > 0.1 mg machine-smoked nicotine yield. Participant personal information and self-reported continuous abstinence at 1-month, 6-month and 1-year follow-up were recorded in electronic databases. FINDINGS:Continuous abstinence rates in the ultra-low nicotine yield versus higher nicotine yield groups were, respectively, 40.7 versus 34.6% at 1 month [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.33], 22.7 versus 18.8% at 6 months (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.08-1.32) and 19.5 versus 16.6% (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.10-1.29) at 1 year. The association between ultra-low nicotine yield cigarette smoking and successful quitting was stronger among the smokers with higher cigarette dependence. CONCLUSIONS:Male smokers who use the Korean Quitline are more likely to quit successfully if they smoke ultra-low nicotine yield cigarettes than if they smoke higher nicotine yield cigarettes.
Project description:The WHO study group on tobacco product regulation (TobReg) advised regulating and lowering toxicant levels in cigarette smoke. Aldehydes are one of the chemical classes on the TobReg smoke toxicants priority list. To provide insight in factors determining aldehyde yields, the levels of 12 aldehydes in mainstream cigarette smoke of 11 Dutch brands were quantified. Variations in smoking behavior and cigarette design affecting human exposure to aldehydes were studied by using four different machine testing protocols. Machine smoking was based on the International Standardization Organization (ISO) and Health Canada Intense (HCI) regime, both with and without taping the filter vents. The 11 cigarette brands differed in (i) design and blend characteristics; (ii) tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (TNCO) levels; (iii) popularity; and (iv) manufacturer. Cigarette smoke was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad and carboxen cartridge. After being dissolved in methanol/CS2 and derivatization with DNPH, the aldehyde yields were determined using HPLC-DAD. Using an intense smoking regime (increased puff volume, shorter puff interval) significantly increased aldehyde yields, following the pattern: ISO < ISO-taped < HCI-untaped < HCI. For all of the regimes, acetaldehyde and acrolein yields were strongly correlated ( r = 0.804). The difference in TNCO and aldehyde levels between regular and highly ventilated low-TNCO cigarettes (as measured using ISO) diminished when smoking intensely; this effect is stronger when combined with taping filter vents. The highly ventilated low-TNCO brands showed six times more aldehyde production per mg nicotine for the intense smoking regimes. In conclusion, acetaldehyde and acrolein can be used as representatives for the class of volatile aldehydes for the different brands and smoking regimes. The aldehyde-to-nicotine ratio increased when highly ventilated cigarettes were smoked intensely, similar to real smokers. Thus, a smoker of highly ventilated low-TNCO cigarettes has an increased potential for higher aldehyde exposures compared to a smoker of regular cigarettes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study compared the performance of 12 brands of cartomizer style electronic cigarettes (EC) using different puffing protocols and measured the concentrations of nicotine in each product. METHODS:Air flow rate, pressure drop, and aerosol absorbance were measured using two different protocols, first 10 puffs and a modified smoke-out protocol. RESULTS:First 10 puff protocol: The air flow rate required to produce aerosol ranged between brands from 4-21 mL/s. Pressure drop was relatively stable within a brand but ranged between brands from 14-71 mmH2O and was much lower than the earlier classic 3-piece models. Absorbance, a measure of aerosol density, was relatively consistent between puffs, but varied between brands. With the modified smoke-out protocol, most brands were puffed until 300 puffs. The pressure drop was relatively stable for all brands except three. Absorbance of the aerosol decreased as the number of puffs increased. Although there was some uniformity in performance within some brands, there was large variation between brands. The labeled and measured nicotine concentrations were within 10% of each other in only 1 out of 10 brands. CONCLUSIONS:Over 10 puffs, the cartomizers all perform similarly within a brand but varied between brands. In smoke-out trials, most brands lasted at least 300 puffs, and performed similarly within brands with respect to pressure drop and absorbance. For five brands, products purchased at different times performed differently. These data show some improvement in performance during evolution of these products, but nevertheless indicate problems with quality control in manufacture.
Project description:This study evaluated the hypothesis that smoke from harm reduction cigarettes impedes attachment and proliferation of H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Smoke from three harm reduction brands was compared with smoke from a conventional brand. Doses of smoke were measured in puff equivalents (PE) (1 PE = the amount of smoke in one puff that dissolves in 1 ml of medium). Cytotoxic doses were determined using morphological criteria and trypan blue staining, and apoptosis was confirmed using Magic Red staining. Attachment and proliferation of hESC were followed at a noncytotoxic dose in time-lapse videos collected using BioStation technology. Data were mined from videos either manually or using video bioinformatics subroutines developed with CL-Quant software. Mainstream (MS) and sidestream (SS) smoke from conventional and harm reduction cigarettes induced apoptosis in hESC colonies at 1 PE. At 0.1 PE (noncytotoxic), SS smoke from all brands inhibited attachment of hESC colonies to Matrigel with the strongest inhibition occurring in harm reduction brands. At 0.1 PE, SS smoke, but not MS smoke, from all brands inhibited hESC growth, and two harm reduction brands were more potent than the conventional brand. In general, hESC appeared more sensitive to smoke than their mouse ESC counterparts. Although harm reduction cigarettes are often marketed as safer than conventional brands, our assays show that SS smoke from harm reduction cigarettes was at least as potent or in some cases more potent than smoke from a conventional brand and that SS smoke was more inhibitory than MS smoke in all assays.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:It is unclear whether warnings on electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements required by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) will apply to social media. Given the key role of social media in marketing e-cigarettes, we seek to inform FDA decision making by exploring how warnings on various tweet content influence perceived healthiness, nicotine harm, likelihood to try e-cigarettes, and warning recall. METHODS:In this 2 × 4 between-subjects experiment participants viewed a tweet from a fictitious e-cigarette brand. Four tweet content versions (e-cigarette product, e-cigarette use, e-cigarette in social context, unrelated content) were crossed with two warning versions (absent, present). Adult e-cigarette users (N = 994) were recruited via social media ads to complete a survey and randomized to view one of eight tweets. Multivariable regressions explored effects of tweet content and warning on perceived healthiness, perceived harm, and likelihood to try e-cigarettes, and tweet content on warning recall. Covariates were tobacco and social media use and demographics. RESULTS:Tweets with warnings elicited more negative health perceptions of the e-cigarette brand than tweets without warnings (p < .05). Tweets featuring e-cigarette products (p < .05) or use (p < .001) elicited higher warning recall than tweets featuring unrelated content. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study to examine warning effects on perceptions of e-cigarette social media marketing. Warnings led to more negative e-cigarette health perceptions, but no effect on perceived nicotine harm or likelihood to try e-cigarettes. There were differences in warning recall by tweet content. Research should explore how varying warning content (text, size, placement) on tweets from e-cigarette brands influences health risk perceptions. IMPLICATIONS:FDA's 2016 ruling requires warnings on advertisements for nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but does not specify whether this applies to social media. This study is the first to examine how e-cigarette warnings in tweets influence perceived healthiness and harm of e-cigarettes, which is important because e-cigarette brands are voluntarily including warnings on Twitter and Instagram. Warnings influenced perceived healthiness of the e-cigarette brand, but not perceived nicotine harm or likelihood to try e-cigarettes. We also saw higher recall of warning statements for tweets featuring e-cigarettes. Findings suggest that expanding warning requirements to e-cigarette social media marketing warrants further exploration and FDA consideration.
Project description:AIMS:To assess the impact of a reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes on estimated consumption of reduced nicotine cigarettes and usual brand cigarettes at a variety of hypothetical prices. DESIGN:Double-blind study with participants assigned randomly to receive cigarettes for 6 weeks that were either usual brand or an investigational cigarette with one of five nicotine contents. SETTING:Ten sites across the United States. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 839 eligible adult smokers randomized from 2013 to 2014. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR:Participants received their usual brand or an investigational cigarette with one of five nicotine contents: 15.8 (primary control), 5.2, 2.4, 1.3, or 0.4 mg/g. MEASUREMENTS:The Cigarette Purchase Task was completed at baseline and at the week 6 post-randomization visit. FINDINGS:Compared with normal nicotine content controls, the lowest nicotine content (0.4 mg/g) reduced the number of study cigarettes participants estimated they would smoke at a range of prices [mean reduction relative to 15.8 mg/g at a price of $4.00/pack: 9.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.81,12.19]. The lowest nicotine content also reduced the maximum amount of money allocated to study cigarettes and the price at which participants reported they would stop buying study cigarettes [median reduction relative to 15.8 mg/g, 95% CI = $8.21 (4.27,12.15) per day and $0.44 (0.17,0.71) per cigarette, respectively]. A reduction in nicotine content to the lowest level also reduced the maximum amount of money allocated to usual brand cigarettes (median reduction relative to 15.8 mg/g: $4.39 per day, 95% CI = 1.88,6.90). CONCLUSIONS:In current smokers, a reduction in nicotine content may reduce cigarette consumption, reduce the reinforcement value of cigarettes and increase cessation if reduced nicotine content cigarettes were the only cigarette available for purchase.
Project description:Ammonia in mainstream smoke is present in both the particulate and vapor phases. The presence of ammonia in the cigarette filler material and smoke is of significance because of the potential role ammonia could have in raising the "smoke pH." An increased smoke pH could shift a fraction of total nicotine to free-base nicotine, which is reportedly more rapidly absorbed by the smoker. Methods measuring ammonia in smoke typically employ acid filled impingers to trap the smoke. We developed a fast, reliable method to measure ammonia in mainstream smoke without the use of costly and time consuming impingers to examine differences in ammonia delivery. The method uses both a Cambridge filter pad and a Tedlar bag to capture particulate and vapor phases of the smoke. We quantified ammonia levels in the mainstream smoke of 50 cigarette brands from 5 manufacturers. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 1?g to 23?g per cigarette for ISO smoking conditions and 38?g to 67?g per cigarette for Canadian intense smoking conditions and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and are higher under Canadian intense smoking conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Article 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control states the need for industry disclosure of tobacco contents and emissions. Currently, the profiles of key tobacco compounds in legal and illegal cigarettes are largely unknown. We aimed to analyze and compare concentrations of nicotine, nitrosamines, and humectants in legal and illegal cigarettes collected from a representative sample of smokers. METHODS:Participants of the International Tobacco Control cohort provided a cigarette pack of the brand they smoked during the 2014 wave. Brands were classified as legal or illegal according to the Mexican legislation. Nicotine, nitrosamines, glycerol, propylene glycol, and pH were quantified in seven randomly selected packs of each brand. All analyses were done blinded to legality status. Average concentrations per brand and global averages for legal and illegal brands were calculated. Comparisons between legal and illegal brands were conducted using t tests. RESULTS:Participants provided 76 different brands, from which 6.8% were illegal. Legal brands had higher nicotine (15.05?±?1.89 mg/g vs 12.09?±?2.69 mg/g; p?<?0001), glycerol (12.98?±?8.03 vs 2.93?±?1.96 mg/g; p?<?0.001), and N-nitrosanatabine (NAT) (1087.5?±?127.0 vs 738.5?±?338 ng/g; p?=?0.006) concentrations compared to illegal brands. For all other compounds, legal and illegal brands had similar concentrations. CONCLUSION:Compared to illegal cigarettes, legal brands seem to have higher concentrations of nicotine, NAT, and glycerol. Efforts must be made to implement and enforce Article 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to provide transparent information to consumers, regulators, and policy-makers; and to limit cigarette engineering from the tobacco industry.