Spectrally tunable uncaging of biological stimuli from nanocapsules.
ABSTRACT: This communication describes the first uncaging of stimuli in the far red, wavelengths that have much less of an adverse affect on cellular systems, via photolysis of photosensitized nanocapsules.
Project description:We have designed a nitroaromatic photochemical protecting group that absorbs visible light in the violet-blue range. The chromophore is a dinitro derivative of bisstyrylthiophene (or BIST) that absorbs light very effectively (?440 = 66,000 M(-1) cm(-1) and two-photon cross section of 350 GM at 775 nm). We developed a "caged calcium" molecule by conjugation of BIST to a Ca(2+) chelator that upon laser flash photolysis rapidly releases Ca(2+) in <0.2 ms. Using the patch-clamp method the optical probe, loaded with Ca(2+), was delivered into acutely isolated mouse cardiac myocytes, where either one- and two-photon uncaging of Ca(2+) induced highly local or cell-wide physiological Ca(2+) signaling events.
Project description:Despite its importance in the design of photocaged molecules, less attention is focused on linker chemistry than the cage itself. Here, we describe unique uncaging properties displayed by two coumarin-caged thymidine compounds, each conjugated with (<b>2</b>) or without (<b>1</b>) an extended, self-immolative spacer. Photolysis of <b>1</b> using long-wavelength UVA (365 nm) or visible (420, 455 nm) light led to the release of free thymidine along with the competitive generation of a thymidine-bearing recombination product. The occurrence of this undesired side reaction, which is previously unreported, was not present with the photolysis of <b>2</b>, which released thymidine exclusively with higher quantum efficiency. We propose that the spatial separation between the cage and the substrate molecule conferred by the extended linker can play a critical role in circumventing this unproductive reaction. This report reinforces the importance of linker selection in the design of coumarin-caged oligonucleosides and other conjugates.
Project description:Uncaging strategies that use near-infrared wavelengths can enable the highly targeted delivery of biomolecules in complex settings. Many methods, including an approach we developed using cyanine photooxidation, are limited to phenol-containing payloads. Given the critical role of amines in diverse biological processes, we sought to use cyanine photooxidation to initiate the release of aryl amines. Heptamethine cyanines substituted with an aryl amine at the C4' position undergo only inefficient release, likely due electronic factors. We then pursued the hypothesis that the carbonyl products derived from cyanine photooxidation could undergo efficient β-elimination. After examining both symmetrical and unsymmetrical scaffolds, we identify a merocyanine substituted with indolenine and coumarin heterocycles that undergoes efficient photooxidation and aniline uncaging. In total, these studies provide a new scheme-cyanine photooxidation followed by β-elimination-through which to design photocages with efficient uncaging properties.
Project description:The synthesis of novel fluorescent materials represents a very important step to obtain labeled nanoformulations in order to evaluate their biological behavior. The strategy of conjugating a fluorescent dye with triacylglycerol allows that either particles differing regarding supramolecular structure, i.e., nanoemulsions, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules, or surface charge, i.e., cationic nanocapsules and anionic nanocapsules, can be tracked using the same labeled material. In this way, a rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride was obtained to prepare fluorescent polymeric nanocapsules. Different formulations were obtained, nanocapsules (NC) or lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC), using the labeled oil and Eudragit RS100, Eudragit S100, or poly(caprolactone) (PCL), respectively. The rhodamine B was coupled with the ricinolein by activating the carboxylic function using a carbodiimide derivative. Thin layer chromatography, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis, and fluorescence spectroscopy were used to identify the new product. Fluorescent nanocapsule aqueous suspensions were prepared by the solvent displacement method. Their pH values were 4.6 (NC-RS100), 3.5 (NC-S100), and 5.0 (LNC-PCL). The volume-weighted mean diameter (D 4.3) and polydispersity values were 150 nm and 1.05 (NC-RS100), 350 nm and 2.28 (NC-S100), and 270 nm and 1.67 (LNC-PCL). The mean diameters determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) (z-average) were around 200 nm. The zeta potential values were +5.85 mV (NC-RS100), -21.12 mV (NC-S100), and -19.25 mV (LNC-PCL). The wavelengths of maximum fluorescence emission were 567 nm (NC-RS100 and LNC-PCL) and 574 nm (NC-S100). Fluorescence microscopy was used to evaluate the cell uptake (human macrophage cell line) of the fluorescent nanocapsules in order to show the applicability of the approach. When the cells were treated with the fluorescent nanocapsules, red emission was detected around the cell nucleus. We demonstrated that the rhodamine B-conjugated triglyceride is a promising new material to obtain versatile dye-labeled nanocarriers presenting different chemical nature in their surfaces.
Project description:Photolabile caging groups, including the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl (NPE) group, have been applied to probe many biological processes, including protein phosphorylation. Although studies with NPE-caged phosphoamino acids have provided valuable information, these investigations have been limited to the use of only one caged species in a single experiment. To expand the scope of these tools, we have developed an approach for sequentially uncaging two different phosphopeptides in one system, enabling interrogation of multiple phosphorylation events. We present the synthesis of [7-(diethylamino)coumarin-4-yl]methyl (DEACM)-caged phosphorylated serine, threonine, and tyrosine building blocks for Fmoc-based solid-phase peptide synthesis to allow convenient incorporation of these residues into peptides and proteins. Exposure of DEACM- and NPE-caged phosphopeptides to 420 nm light selectively releases the DEACM group without affecting the NPE-caged peptide. This then enables a subsequent irradiation event at 365 nm to remove the NPE group and liberate a second phosphopeptide. We demonstrate the versatility of this general sequential uncaging approach by applying it to control Wip1 phosphatase with two wavelengths of light.
Project description:Photoactivatable protecting groups (PPGs) are useful for a broad range of applications ranging from biology to materials science. In chemical biology, induction of biological processes via photoactivation is a powerful strategy for achieving spatiotemporal control. The importance of cysteine, glutathione, and other bioactive thiols in regulating protein structure/activity and cell redox homeostasis makes modulation of thiol activity particularly useful. One major objective for enhancing the utility of photoactivatable protecting groups (PPGs) in living systems is creating PPGs with longer wavelength absorption maxima and efficient two-photon (TP) absorption. Toward these objectives, we developed a carboxyl- and dimethylamine-functionalized nitrodibenzofuran PPG scaffold (cDMA-NDBF) for thiol photoactivation, which has a bathochromic shift in the one-photon absorption maximum from λmax = 315 nm with the unfunctionalized NDBF scaffold to λmax = 445 nm. While cDMA-NDBF-protected thiols are stable in the presence of UV irradiation, they undergo efficient broad-spectrum TP photolysis at wavelengths as long as 900 nm. To demonstrate the wavelength orthogonality of cDMA-NDBF and NDBF photolysis in a biological setting, caged farnesyltransferase enzyme inhibitors (FTI) were prepared and selectively photoactivated in live cells using 850-900 nm TP light for cDMA-NDBF-FTI and 300 nm UV light for NDBF-FTI. These experiments represent the first demonstration of thiol photoactivation at wavelengths above 800 nm. Consequently, cDMA-NDBF-caged thiols should have broad applicability in a wide range of experiments in chemical biology and materials science.
Project description:We report the synthesis and photochemical properties of a series of dicyanocoumarinylmethyl (DEAdcCM)- and dicyanocoumarinylethyl (DEAdcCE)-based photocages of carboxylic acids and amines with absorption maximum around 500?nm. Photolysis studies with green light have demonstrated that the structure of the coumarin chromophore as well as the nature of the leaving group and the type of bond to be photocleaved (ester or carbamate) have a strong influence on the rate and efficiency of the uncaging process. These experimental observations were also supported by DFT calculations. Such differences in deprotection kinetics have been exploited to sequentially photolyze two dicyanocoumarin-caged model compounds (e.g., benzoic acid and ethylamine), and open the way to increasing the number of functional levels that can be addressed with light in a single system, particularly when combining dicyanocoumarin caging groups with other photocleavable protecting groups, which remain intact under green light irradiation.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] is essential for exocytosis. Classical ways of manipulating PI(4,5)P2 levels are slower than its metabolism, making it difficult to distinguish effects of PI(4,5)P2 from those of its metabolites. We developed a membrane-permeant, photoactivatable PI(4,5)P2, which is loaded into cells in an inactive form and activated by light, allowing sub-second increases in PI(4,5)P2 levels. By combining this compound with electrophysiological measurements in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells, we show that PI(4,5)P2 uncaging potentiates exocytosis and identify synaptotagmin-1 (the Ca2+ sensor for exocytosis) and Munc13-2 (a vesicle priming protein) as the relevant effector proteins. PI(4,5)P2 activation of exocytosis did not depend on the PI(4,5)P2-binding CAPS-proteins, suggesting that PI(4,5)P2 uncaging may bypass CAPS-function. Finally, PI(4,5)P2 uncaging triggered the rapid fusion of a subset of readily-releasable vesicles, revealing a rapid role of PI(4,5)P2 in fusion triggering. Thus, optical uncaging of signaling lipids can uncover their rapid effects on cellular processes and identify lipid effectors.
Project description:We have synthesized photolabile 7-diethylamino coumarin (DEAC) derivatives of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These caged neurotransmitters efficiently release GABA using linear or nonlinear excitation. We used a new DEAC-based caging chromophore that has a vinyl acrylate substituent at the 3-position that shifts the absorption maximum of DEAC to about 450 nm and thus is named "DEAC450". DEAC450-caged GABA is photolyzed with a quantum yield of 0.39 and is highly soluble and stable in physiological buffer. We found that DEAC450-caged GABA is relatively inactive toward two-photon excitation at 720 nm, so when paired with a nitroaromatic caged glutamate that is efficiently excited at such wavelengths, we could photorelease glutamate and GABA around single spine heads on neurons in brain slices with excellent wavelength selectivity using two- and one-photon photolysis, respectively. Furthermore, we found that DEAC450-caged GABA could be effectively released using two-photon excitation at 900 nm with spatial resolution of about 3 ?m. Taken together, our experiments show that the DEAC450 caging chromophore holds great promise for the development of new caged compounds that will enable wavelength-selective, two-color interrogation of neuronal signaling with excellent subcellular resolution.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Toxicity of nanomaterials is one of the most important factors limiting their medical application. Evaluation of in vitro nanotoxicity allows for the identification and elimination of most of the toxic materials prior to animal testing. The current knowledge of the possible side effects of biodegradable nanomaterials, such as liposomes and polymeric organic nanoparticles, is limited. Previously, we developed a potential drug delivery system in the form of nanocapsules with polyelectrolyte, biodegradable shells consisting of poly-l-lysine and poly-l-glutamic acid (PGA), formed by the layer-by-layer adsorption technique.<h4>Methods</h4>Hemolysis assay, viability tests, flow cytometry analysis of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression on endothelium, analysis of nitric oxide production, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, detection of antioxidant enzyme activity, and analysis of DNA damage with comet assay were performed to study the in vitro toxicity of nanocapsules.<h4>Results</h4>In this work, we present the results of an in vitro analysis of toxicity of five-layer positively charged poly-l-lysine-terminated nanocapsules (NC5), six-layer negatively charged PGA-terminated nanocapsules (NC6) and five-layer PEGylated nanocapsules (NC5-PEG). PGA and polyethylene glycol (PEG) were used as two different "stealth" polymers. Of all the polyelectrolyte nanocapsules tested for blood compatibility, only cationic NC5 showed acute toxicity toward blood cells, expressed as hemolysis and aggregation. Neither NC6 nor NC5-PEG had proinflammatory activity evaluated through changes in the expression of NF-?B-dependent genes, iNOS and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, induced oxidative stress, or promoted DNA damage in various cells.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our studies clearly indicate that PGA-coated (negatively charged) and PEGylated polyelectrolyte nanocapsules do not show in vitro toxicity, and their potential as a drug delivery system may be safely studied in vivo.