Pressure perturbation calorimetry of lipoproteins reveals an endothermic transition without detectable volume changes. Implications for adsorption of apolipoprotein to a phospholipid surface.
ABSTRACT: Plasma lipoproteins are assemblies of lipids and apolipoproteins that mediate lipid transport and metabolism. High-density lipoproteins (HDL) remove excess cell cholesterol and provide protection against atherosclerosis. Important aspects of metabolic HDL remodeling, including apolipoprotein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion, are mimicked in thermal denaturation. We report the first study of the protein-lipid complexes by pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) beyond 100 °C. In PPC, volume expansion coefficient ?(v)(T) is measured during heating; in proteins, ?(v)(T) is dominated by hydration. Calorimetric studies of reconstituted HDL and of human high-density, low-density, and very low-density lipoproteins reveal that apolipoprotein unfolding, dissociation, and lipoprotein fusion are endothermic transitions without detectable volume changes. This may result from the limited applicability of PPC to slow kinetically controlled transitions such as thermal remodeling of lipoproteins and/or from the possibility that this remodeling causes no significant changes in the solvent structure and, hence, may not involve large transient solvent exposure of apolar moieties. Another conclusion is that apolipoprotein A-I in solution adsorbs to the phospholipid surface; protein hydration is preserved upon such adsorption. We posit that adsorption to a phospholipid surface helps recruit free apolipoprotein to the plasma membrane and facilitate HDL biogenesis.
Project description:HDL (high-density lipoproteins) remove cell cholesterol and protect from atherosclerosis. The major HDL protein is apoA-I (apolipoprotein A-I). Most plasma apoA-I circulates in lipoproteins, yet ~5% forms monomeric lipid-poor/free species. This metabolically active species is a primary cholesterol acceptor and is central to HDL biogenesis. Structural properties of lipid-poor apoA-I are unclear due to difficulties in isolating this transient species. We used thermal denaturation of human HDL to produce lipid-poor apoA-I. Analysis of the isolated lipid-poor fraction showed a protein/lipid weight ratio of 3:1, with apoA-I, PC (phosphatidylcholine) and CE (cholesterol ester) at approximate molar ratios of 1:8:1. Compared with lipid-free apoA-I, lipid-poor apoA-I showed slightly altered secondary structure and aromatic packing, reduced thermodynamic stability, lower self-associating propensity, increased adsorption to phospholipid surface and comparable ability to remodel phospholipids and form reconstituted HDL. Lipid-poor apoA-I can be formed by heating of either plasma or reconstituted HDL. We propose the first structural model of lipid-poor apoA-I which corroborates its distinct biophysical properties and postulates the lipid-induced ordering of the labile C-terminal region. In summary, HDL heating produces folded functional monomolecular lipid-poor apoA-I that is distinct from lipid-free apoA-I. Increased adsorption to phospholipid surface and reduced C-terminal disorder may help direct lipid-poor apoA-I towards HDL biogenesis.
Project description:We describe simple, sensitive and robust methods to monitor lipoprotein remodeling and cholesterol and apolipoprotein exchange, using fluorescent Lissamine Rhodamine B head-group tagged phosphatidylethanolamine (*PE) as a lipoprotein reference marker. Fluorescent Bodipy cholesterol (*Chol) and *PE directly incorporated into whole plasma lipoproteins in proportion to lipoprotein cholesterol and phospholipid mass, respectively. *Chol, but not *PE, passively exchanged between isolated plasma lipoproteins. Fluorescent apoA-I (*apoA-I) specifically bound to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and remodeled *PE- and *Chol-labeled synthetic lipoprotein-X multilamellar vesicles (MLV) into a pre-? HDL-like particle containing *PE, *Chol, and *apoA-I. Fluorescent MLV-derived *PE specifically incorporated into plasma HDL, whereas MLV-derived *Chol incorporation into plasma lipoproteins was similar to direct *Chol incorporation, consistent with apoA-I-mediated remodeling of fluorescent MLV to HDL with concomitant exchange of *Chol between lipoproteins. Based on these findings, we developed a model system to study lipid transfer by depositing fluorescent *PE and *Chol-labeled on calcium silicate hydrate crystals, forming dense lipid-coated donor particles that are readily separated from acceptor lipoprotein particles by low-speed centrifugation. Transfer of *PE from donor particles to mouse plasma lipoproteins was shown to be HDL-specific and apoA-I-dependent. Transfer of donor particle *PE and *Chol to HDL in whole human plasma was highly correlated. Taken together, these studies suggest that cell-free *PE efflux monitors apoA-I functionality.
Project description:Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which binds phospholipids and facilitates their transfer between lipoproteins in plasma, plays a key role in lipoprotein remodeling, but its influence on nascent high-density lipoprotein (HDL) formation is not known. The effect of PLTP overexpression on apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) lipidation by primary mouse hepatocytes was investigated.Overexpression of PLTP through an adenoviral vector markedly affected the amount and size of lipidated apoA-I species that were produced in hepatocytes in a dose-dependent manner, ultimately generating particles that were <7.1 nm but larger than lipid-free apoA-I. These <7.1-nm small particles generated in the presence of overexpressed PLTP were incorporated into mature HDL particles more rapidly than apoA-I both in vivo and in vitro and were less rapidly cleared from mouse plasma than lipid-free apoA-I. The <7.1-nm particles promoted both cellular cholesterol and phospholipid efflux in an ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-dependent manner, similar to apoA-I in the presence of PLTP. Lipid-free apoA-I had a greater efflux capacity in the presence of PLTP than in the absence of PLTP, suggesting that PLTP may promote ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol and phospholipid efflux. These results indicate that PLTP alters nascent HDL formation by modulating the lipidated species and by promoting the initial process of apoA-I lipidation.Our findings suggest that PLTP exerts significant effects on apoA-I lipidation and nascent HDL biogenesis in hepatocytes by promoting ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated lipid efflux and the remodeling of nascent HDL particles.
Project description:Apolipoprotein (apo) A-I-containing lipoproteins in the form of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Because HDL is a soft form of condensed matter easily deformable by thermal fluctuations, the molecular mechanisms for HDL remodeling are not well understood. A promising approach to understanding HDL structure and dynamics is molecular dynamics (MD). In the present study, two computational strategies, MD simulated annealing (MDSA) and MD temperature jump, were combined with experimental particle reconstitution to explore molecular mechanisms for phospholipid- (PL-) rich HDL particle remodeling. The N-terminal domains of full-length apoA-I were shown to be "sticky", acting as a molecular latch largely driven by salt bridges, until, at a critical threshold of particle size, the associated domains released to expose extensive hydrocarbon regions of the PL to solvent. The "sticky" N-termini also associate with other apoA-I domains, perhaps being involved in N-terminal loops suggested by other laboratories. Alternatively, the overlapping helix 10 C-terminal domains of apoA-I were observed to be extremely mobile or "promiscuous", transiently exposing limited hydrocarbon regions of PL. Based upon these models and reconstitution studies, we propose that separation of the N-terminal domains, as particles exceed a critical size, triggers fusion between particles or between particles and membranes, while the C-terminal domains of apoA-I drive the exchange of polar lipids down concentration gradients between particles. This hypothesis has significant biological relevance since lipid exchange and particle remodeling are critically important processes during metabolism of HDL particles at every step in the antiatherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport.
Project description:Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is a nonexchangeable apolipoprotein that dictates the synthesis of chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. ApoB is the major protein in low density lipoprotein, also known as the "bad cholesterol" that is directly implicated in atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that the N-terminal domain of apoB plays a critical role in the formation of apoB-containing lipoproteins through the initial recruitment of phospholipids in the endoplasmic reticulum. However, very little is known about the mechanism of lipoprotein nucleation by apoB. Here we demonstrate that a strong phospholipid remodeling function is associated with the predicted alpha-helical and C-sheet domains in the N-terminal 17% of apoB (B17). Using dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) as a model lipid, these domains can convert multilamellar DMPC vesicles into discoidal-shaped particles. The nascent particles reconstituted from different apoB domains are distinctive and compositionally homogeneous. This phospholipid remodeling activity is also observed with egg phosphatidylcholine (egg PC) and is therefore not DMPC-dependent. Using kinetic analysis of the DMPC clearance assay, we show that the identified phospholipid binding sequences all map to the surface of the lipid binding pocket in the B17 model based on the homologous protein, lipovitellin. Since both B17 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), a critical chaperone during lipoprotein assembly, are homologous with lipovitellin, the identification of these phospholipid remodeling sequences in B17 provides important insights into the potential mechanism that initiates the assembly of apoB-containing lipoproteins.
Project description:Triolein/cholesteryl oleate/cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine emulsions designed to model the lipid composition of chylomicrons were injected intravenously into control and streptozotocin-treated insulin-deficient rats. As previously described for lymph chylomicrons, the emulsion triolein was hydrolysed and phosphatidylcholine was transferred to the plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This mechanism was used to introduce a phospholipid label into HDL in vivo. The subsequent clearance of phospholipid radioactivity from the plasma of insulin-deficient rats was significantly slower than in controls (P less than 0.025). Plasma clearance was similarly slower in insulin-deficient rats after injection of HDL that was previously labelled with radioactive phospholipids. After injection, the phospholipid label redistributed rapidly between the large-particle fraction of plasma lipoproteins (very-low- and low-density lipoproteins), and the lighter and heavier fractions of HDL. Compared with control rats, in insulin-deficient rats less of the phospholipid label was distributed to the lighter HDL fraction and more to the heavier HDL fraction, and this difference was not due to changes in activity of lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase or in the apparent activity of phospholipid transfer protein. In insulin-deficient rats the changes in HDL phospholipid clearance and exchange appeared to be secondary to the associated hypertriglyceridaemia and the related changes in distribution of phospholipids between classes of plasma lipoproteins.
Project description:We report the synthesis of high density lipoprotein (HDL) biomimetic nanoparticles capable of binding cholesterol. These structures use a gold nanoparticle core to template the assembly of a mixed phospholipid layer and the adsorption of apolipoprotein A-I. These synthesized structures have the general size and surface composition of natural HDL and, importantly, bind free cholesterol (K(d) = 4 nM). The determination of the K(d) for these particles, with respect to cholesterol complexation, provides a key starting and comparison point for measuring and evaluating the properties of subsequently developed synthetic versions of HDL.
Project description:Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are triglyceride-rich precursors of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The effects of oxidation on VLDL metabolism may be pro- or antiatherogenic. To understand the underlying biophysical basis, we determined the effects of copper (that preferentially oxidizes lipids) and hypochlorite (that preferentially oxidizes proteins) on the heat-induced VLDL remodeling. This remodeling involves VLDL fusion, rupture, and fission of apoE-containing high-density lipoprotein- (HDL-) like particles; HDL with similar size, density, and protein composition are formed upon VLDL remodeling by lipoprotein lipase, a key enzyme in triglyceride metabolism. Circular dichroism, turbidity, and electron microscopy show that mild oxidation promotes VLDL fusion and rupture, while advanced oxidation hampers these reactions. VLDL destabilization upon moderate oxidation results, in part, from the exchangeable apolipoprotein modifications, including proteolysis and limited cross-linking. VLDL stabilization against fusion and rupture upon advanced oxidation probably results from massive protein cross-linking on the particle surface. Electron microscopy and gel electrophoresis reveal that oxidation promotes fission of apoE-containing HDL-size particles; hydrolysis of apolar core lipids probably contributes to this effect. Copper and hypochlorite have similar effects on VLDL remodeling, suggesting that these effects may be produced by other oxidants. In summary, moderate oxidation that encompasses in vivo conditions destabilizes VLDL and promotes fission of HDL-size particles. Consequently, mild oxidation may be synergistic with lipoprotein lipase reaction and, hence, may help to accelerate VLDL metabolism.
Project description:High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are protein-lipid assemblies that remove excess cell cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis. HDLs are stabilized by kinetic barriers that decelerate protein dissociation and lipoprotein fusion. We propose that similar barriers modulate metabolic remodeling of plasma HDLs; hence, changes in particle composition that destabilize HDLs and accelerate their denaturation may accelerate their metabolic remodeling. To test this notion, we correlate existing reports on HDL-mediated cell cholesterol efflux and esterification, which are obligatory early steps in cholesterol removal, with our kinetic studies of HDL stability. The results support our hypothesis and show that factors accelerating cholesterol efflux and esterification in model discoidal lipoproteins (including reduced protein size, reduced fatty acyl chain length, and/or increased level of cis unsaturation) destabilize lipoproteins and accelerate their fusion and apolipoprotein dissociation. Oxidation studies of plasma spherical HDLs show a similar trend: mild oxidation by Cu(2+) or OCl(-) accelerates cell cholesterol efflux, protein dissociation, and HDL fusion, while extensive oxidation inhibits these reactions. Consequently, moderate destabilization may be beneficial for HDL functions by facilitating insertion of cholesterol and lipophilic enzymes, promoting dissociation of lipid-poor apolipoproteins, which are primary acceptors of cell cholesterol, and thereby accelerating HDL metabolism. Therefore, HDL stability must be delicately balanced to maintain the structural integrity of the lipoprotein assembly and ensure structural specificity necessary for interactions of HDL with its metabolic partners, while facilitating rapid HDL remodeling and turnover at key junctures of cholesterol transport. The inverse correlation between HDL stability and remodeling illustrates the functional importance of structural disorder in macromolecular assemblies stabilized by kinetic barriers.
Project description:The specifics of nascent HDL remodeling within the plasma compartment remain poorly understood. We developed an in vitro assay to monitor the lipid transfer between model nascent HDL (LpA-I) and plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of alpha-(125)I-LpA-I with plasma resulted in association of LpA-I with existing plasma HDL, whereas incubation with TD plasma or LDL resulted in conversion of alpha-(125)I-LpA-I to prebeta-HDL. To further investigate the dynamics of lipid transfer, nascent LpA-I were labeled with cell-derived [(3 )H]cholesterol (UC) or [(3)H]phosphatidylcholine (PC) and incubated with plasma at 37 degrees C. The majority of UC and PC were rapidly transferred to apolipoprotein B (apoB). Subsequently, UC was redistributed to HDL for esterification before being returned to apoB. The presence of a phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) stimulator or purified PLTP promoted PC transfer to apoB. Conversely, PC transfer was abolished in plasma from PLTP(-/-) mice. Injection of (125)I-LpA-I into rabbits resulted in a rapid size redistribution of (125)I-LpA-I. The majority of [(3)H]UC from labeled r(HDL) was esterified in vivo within HDL, whereas a minority was found in LDL. These data suggest that apoB plays a major role in nascent HDL remodeling by accepting their lipids and donating UC to the LCAT reaction. The finding that nascent particles were depleted of their lipids and remodeled in the presence of plasma lipoproteins raises questions about their stability and subsequent interaction with LCAT.