ABSTRACT: This work describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of an anchimerically activated proTide of 2'-C-?-methylguanosine as an inhibitor of dengue virus 2 (DENV-2). The proTide incorporates a chemically cleavable 2-(methylthio)ethyl moiety and a HINT1 hydrolyzable tryptamine phosphoramidate. Inhibition of DENV-2 replication by proTide 6 was 5-fold greater than the parent nucleoside while displaying no apparent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we demonstrate with a HINT1 inhibitor that the anti DENV-2 activity of the proTide correlates with the activity of HINT1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that a phosphoramidate based pronucleotide that undergoes an initial nonenzymatic activation step based on anchimeric assistance followed by P-N bond cleavage by HINT1 can be prepared.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV), an emerging flavivirus that causes neurodevelopmental impairment to fetuses and has been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome continues to threaten global health due to the absence of targeted prophylaxis or treatment. Nucleoside analogues are good examples of efficient anti-viral inhibitors, and prodrug strategies using phosphate masking groups (ProTides) have been employed to improve the bioavailability of ribonucleoside analogues. Here, we synthesized and tested a small library of 13 ProTides against ZIKV in human neural stem cells. Strong activity was observed for 2'-C-methyluridine and 2'-C-ethynyluridine ProTides with an aryloxyl phosphoramidate masking group. Substitution of a 2-(methylthio) ethyl phosphoramidate for the aryloxyl phosphoramidate ProTide group of 2'-C-methyluridine completely abolished antiviral activity of the compound. The aryloxyl phosphoramidate ProTide of 2'-C-methyluridine outperformed the hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug sofosbuvir in suppression of viral titers and protection from cytopathic effect, while the former compound's triphosphate active metabolite was better incorporated by purified ZIKV NS5 polymerase over time. These findings suggest both a nucleobase and ProTide group bias for the anti-ZIKV activity of nucleoside analogue ProTides in a disease-relevant cell model.
Project description:Phosphoramidate pro-nucleotides (ProTides) have revolutionized the field of anti-viral and anti-cancer nucleoside therapy, overcoming the major limitations of nucleoside therapies and achieving clinical and commercial success. Despite the translation of ProTide technology into the clinic, there remain unresolved in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic questions. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using [18F]-labelled model ProTides could directly address key mechanistic questions and predict response to ProTide therapy. Here we report the first radiochemical synthesis of [18F]ProTides as novel probes for PET imaging. As a proof of concept, two chemically distinct radiolabelled ProTides have been synthesized as models of 3'- and 2'-fluorinated ProTides following different radiosynthetic approaches. The 3'-[18F]FLT ProTide was obtained via a late stage [18F]fluorination in radiochemical yields (RCY) of 15-30% (n = 5, decay-corrected from end of bombardment (EoB)), with high radiochemical purities (97%) and molar activities of 56 GBq/?mol (total synthesis time of 130 min.). The 2'-[18F]FIAU ProTide was obtained via an early stage [18F]fluorination approach with an RCY of 1-5% (n = 7, decay-corrected from EoB), with high radiochemical purities (98%) and molar activities of 53 GBq/?mol (total synthesis time of 240 min).
Project description:Enzymes possess unique qualities that make them ideal regulators of supramolecular assembly. They are uniquely sensitive to biomolecules and biological compartments, catalytic in effecting chemical reactions, and present a biocompatible and degradable platform for assembly regulation. We demonstrate the novel utility of Histidine Triad Nucleotide Binding Protein 1 (HINT1) in regulating supramolecular hydrogel formation. We synthesized nucleoside-phosphoramidate-functionalized self-assembling peptides that we observed to form nanofibers. We found HINT1's catalytic hydrolysis of the nucleoside phosphoramidate moieties within the nanofiber structures to induce nanofiber organization and higher ordered assembly. The role of HINT1 in effecting this structural change was confirmed with experiments utilizing a high-affinity HINT1 inhibitor and catalytically dead HINT1 mutant. In addition, the kinetics and morphology of hydrogel formation were found to be dependent on the structure of the released nucleoside monophosphate. This work highlights the self-assembly of phosphoramidate nanofibers and their higher organization triggered by HINT1 enzymatic activity.
Project description:Eukaryotic cells encode AMP-lysine (AMP-N-epsilon-(N-alpha-acetyl lysine methyl ester) 5'-phosphoramidate) hydrolases related to the rabbit histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (Hint1) sequence. Bacterial and archaeal cells have Hint homologs annotated in a variety of ways, but the enzymes have not been characterized, nor have phenotypes been described due to loss of enzymatic activity. We developed a quantitative (31)P NMR assay to determine whether Escherichia coli possesses an adenosine phosphoramidase activity. Indeed, soluble lysates prepared from wild-type laboratory E. coli exhibited activity on the model substrate adenosine 5'-monophosphoramidate (AMP-NH(2)). The E. coli Hint homolog, which had been comprehensively designated ycfF and is here named hinT, was cloned, overexpressed, purified, and characterized with respect to purine nucleoside phosphoramidate substrates. Bacterial hinT was several times more active than human or rabbit Hint1 on five model substrates. In addition, bacterial and mammalian enzymes preferred guanosine versus adenosine phosphoramidates as substrates. Analysis of the lysates from a constructed hinT knock-out strain of E. coli demonstrated that all of the cellular purine nucleoside phosphoramidase activity is due to hinT. Physiological analysis of this mutant revealed that the loss of hinT results in failure to grow in media containing 0.75 m KCl, 0.9 m NaCl, 0.5 m NaOAc, or 10 mm MnCl(2). Thus, cation-resistant bacterial cell growth may be dependent on the hydrolysis of adenylylated and/or guanylylated phosphoramidate substrates by hinT.
Project description:Following our findings on the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of acyclovir (ACV) phosphate prodrugs, we herein report the ProTide approach applied to a series of acyclic nucleosides aimed at the identification of novel and selective antiviral, in particular anti-HIV agents. Acyclic nucleoside analogues used in this study were identified through a virtual screening using HIV-reverse transcriptase (RT), adenylate/guanylate kinase, and human DNA polymerase ?. A total of 39 new phosphate prodrugs were synthesized and evaluated against HIV-1 (in vitro and ex vivo human tonsillar tissue system) and human herpes viruses. Several ProTide compounds showed substantial potency against HIV-1 at low micromolar range while the parent nucleosides were not effective. Also, pronounced inhibition of herpesvirus replication was observed. A carboxypeptidase-mediated hydrolysis study was performed for a selection of compounds to assess the formation of putative metabolites and support the biological activity observed.
Project description:A long acting (LA) hydrophobic and lipophilic lamivudine (3TC) was created as a phosphoramidate pronucleotide (designated M23TC). M23TC improved intracellular delivery of active triphosphate metabolites and enhanced antiretroviral and pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles over the native drug. A single treatment of human monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) with nanoformulated M23TC (NM23TC) improved drug uptake, retention, intracellular 3TC triphosphates and antiretroviral activities in MDM and CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells. PK tests of NM23TC administered to Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated sustained prodrug and drug triphosphate levels in blood and tissues for 30 days. The development of NM23TC remains a substantive step forward in producing LA slow effective release antiretrovirals for future clinical translation.
Project description:Nucleoside analogues are among the most common medications given for the treatment of viral infections and cancers. The therapeutic effectiveness of nucleoside analogues can be dramatically improved by phosphorylation. The ProTide approach was developed using a phosphorylated nucleoside that is masked by esterification with an amino acid and phenol forming a chiral phosphorus center. The biological activity of the ProTides depends, in part, on the stereochemistry at phosphorus, and thus, it is imperative that efficient methods be developed for the chemical synthesis and isolation of diastereomerically pure ProTides. Chiral ProTides are often synthesized by direct displacement of a labile phenol (p-nitrophenol or pentafluorophenol) from a chiral phosphoramidate precursor with the appropriate nucleoside analogue. The ability to produce these chiral products is dictated by the synthesis of the chiral phosphoramidate precursors. The enzyme phosphotriesterase (PTE) from Pseudomonas diminuta is well-known for its high stereoselectivity and broad substrate profile. Screening PTE variants from enzyme evolution libraries enabled the identification of variants of PTE that can stereoselectively hydrolyze the chiral phosphoramidate precursors. The variant G60A-PTE exhibits a 165-fold preference for hydrolysis of the RP isomer, while the variant In1W-PTE has a 1400-fold preference for hydrolysis of the SP isomer. Using these mutants of PTE, the SP and RP isomers were isolated on a preparative scale with no detectable contamination of the opposite isomer. Combining the simplicity of the enzymatic resolution of the precursor with the latest synthetic strategy will facilitate the production of diastereometrically pure nucleotide phosphoramidate prodrugs.
Project description:We report the synthesis of a series of novel 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-halouridines and their corresponding phosphoramidate ProTides. All compounds were evaluated for antiviral activity and for cellular toxicity. Interestingly, 2'-deoxy-2',2'-difluoro-5-iodo- and -5-bromo-uridines showed selective activity against feline herpes virus replication in cell culture due to a specific recognition (activation) by the virus-encoded thymidine kinase.
Project description:Gemcitabine is a fluoropyrimidine analogue that is used as a mainstay of chemotherapy treatment for pancreatic and ovarian cancers, amongst others. Despite its widespread use, gemcitabine achieves responses in less than 10% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer and has a very limited impact on overall survival due to intrinsic and acquired resistance. NUC-1031 (Acelarin), a phosphoramidate transformation of gemcitabine, was the first anti-cancer ProTide to enter the clinic. We find it displays important in vitro cytotoxicity differences to gemcitabine, and a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 genetic screening approach identified only the pyrimidine metabolism pathway as modifying cancer cell sensitivity to NUC-1031. Low deoxycytidine kinase expression in tumour biopsies from patients treated with gemcitabine, assessed by immunostaining and image analysis, correlates with a poor prognosis, but there is no such correlation in tumour biopsies from a Phase I cohort treated with NUC-1031.
Project description:The NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a validated target for nucleoside antiviral drug therapy. We endeavored to synthesize and test a series of 4'-thionucleosides with a monophosphate prodrug moiety for their antiviral activity against HCV and other related viruses in the Flaviviridae family. Nucleoside analogs were prepared via the stereoselective Vorbrüggen glycosylation of various nucleobases with per-acetylated 2-C-methyl-4-thio-d-ribose built in a 10-step synthetic sequence from the corresponding ribonolactone. Conjugation of the thionucleoside to a ProTide phosphoramidate allowed for evaluation of the prodrugs in the cellular HCV replicon assay with anti-HCV activities ranging from single-digit micromolar (?M) to >200 ?M. The diminished anti-HCV potency of our best compound compared to its 4'-oxo congener is the subject of ongoing research in our lab and is proposed to stem from changes in sugar geometry imparted by the larger sulfur atom.