ABCG2 and NCF4 polymorphisms are associated with clinical outcomes in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP.
ABSTRACT: The impact of pharmacogenetics on predicting survival in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unclear. We tested 337 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) for 9 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 6 genes (CD20, FCGR2A, NAD(P)H, ABCC2, ABCG2 and CYP3A5). Patients who carried the NCF4 rs1883112 GG genotype showed significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (P = 0.023) and event-free survival (EFS) (P < 0.001) comparing with A allele. A significantly shortened PFS (P = 0.013) and EFS (P = 0.002) was also observed in the patients with ABCG2 rs2231137 GG genotype. Furthermore, the elder (> 60 years old) or male patients with ABCG2 rs2231137 GG genotype had poorer PFS and EFS than A allele. Moreover, CD20 rs2070770 CC and RAC2 rs13058338 AT genotypes were independent predictors of chemotherapy-induced toxicity. Cox proportional hazards analyses demonstrated that the GG genotype of ABCG2 rs2231137 and NCF4 rs1883112 were risk factors in DLBCL patients. In conclusion, the identified polymorphisms provide guide for the identification of DLBCL patients who are likely to benefit from chemotherapy.
Project description:Variable survival outcomes are seen following treatment for aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). This study examined whether outcomes for aggressive B-cell NHL are associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress-related genes, which can alter drug metabolism and immune responses. Genotypes for 53 SNPs in 29 genes were determined for 337 patients given anthracycline-based therapies. Their associations with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated by Cox proportional hazard regression; associations with hematologic toxicity were estimated by logistic regression. To validate the findings, the top three SNPs were tested in an independent cohort of 572 DLBCL patients. The top SNPs associated with PFS in the discovery cohort were the rare homozygotes for MPO rs2243828 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.14-3.06, P = 0.013), AKR1C3 rs10508293 (HR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.28-3.41, P = 0.0032) and NCF4 rs1883112 (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.02, P = 0.06). The association of the NCF4 SNP with PFS was replicated in the validation dataset (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.44-1.01, P = 0.05) and the meta-analysis was significant (HR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.49-0.89, P < 0.01). The association of the MPO SNP was attenuated in the validation dataset, while the meta-analysis remained significant (HR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.12-2.41). These two SNPs showed similar trends with OS in the meta-analysis (for NCF4, HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.02, P = 0.07 and for MPO, HR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.36-3.12, P < 0.01). In addition, patients with the rare homozygote of the NCF4 SNP had an increased risk of hematologic toxicity. We concluded that genetic variations in NCF4 may contribute to treatment outcomes for patients with aggressive NHL.
Project description:Oxidative stress is closely related to the occurrence and development of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular and infectious diseases. We identified six critical genetic variants related to oxidative stress, and evaluated their main effects and their interaction effects on hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced liver diseases. We enrolled 3,128 Han Chinese subjects into five groups: healthy controls, chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and natural clearance. We then determined the genotypes in each group for CYBA-rs4673, NCF4-rs1883112, NOX4-rs1836882, rs3017887, SOD2-rs4880, and GCLM-rs41303970, and evaluated the association between these variants and HBV-induced liver diseases. Gene-gene interactions were evaluated using generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction, logistic regression, and four-by-two tables. Significant associations were observed between healthy controls and the CIB group (CHB+LC+HCC). The CYBA-rs4673AG genotype was associated with a 1.356 rate of susceptibility of HBV-induced liver disease compared to the wild type GG genotype. The NCF4-rs1883112G allele occurred more frequently in healthy controls than in the CIB group in all three models (dominant, codominant, and recessive). Nox4-rs1836882 TC showed a protective association, being more frequent in healthy controls compared to the wild type TT genotype. GCLM-rs41303970A was associated with HBV-induced liver disease. The overall best model by multifactor dimensionality reduction was a five factor interaction model that had the highest cross validation consistency (10/10) and test accuracy (0.5669), P = 0.001. Oxidative stress-related gene polymorphisms are likely to be associated with HBV-induced liver disease, suggesting that information on these variations is useful for risk assessment of HBV-induced liver disease.
Project description:The overall survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poor due to both intrinsic and acquired chemotherapy resistance. Over expression of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins in AML cells has been suggested as a putative mechanism of drug resistance. Genetic variation among individuals affecting the expression or function of these proteins may contribute to inter-individual variation in treatment outcomes. DNA from pre-treatment bone marrow or blood samples from 261 patients age 20-85 years, who received cytarabine and anthracycline-based therapy at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between 1994 and 2006, was genotyped for eight non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 drug transporter genes. Heterozygous (AG) or homozygous (AA) variant genotypes for rs2231137 (G34A) in the ABCG2 (BRCP) gene, compared to the wild type (GG) genotype were associated with both significantly improved survival (HR=0.44, 95%CI=0.25-0.79), and increased odds for toxicity (OR=8.41, 95%CI= 1.10-64.28). Thus genetic polymorphisms in the ABCG2 (BRCP) gene may contribute to differential survival outcomes and toxicities in AML patients via a mechanism of decreased drug efflux in both, AML cells and normal progenitors.
Project description:Objective:Recent studies have focused on the special roles of NADPH-oxidase in multiple autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, the association of genetic variation in NADPH-oxidase genes with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was not extensively studied in a Chinese population. We performed this study to examine the association of NCF2, NCF4, and CYBA gene polymorphisms with RA susceptibility in a Chinese population. Methods:Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (NCF2 rs10911363, NCF4 rs1883112, rs4821544, rs729749, CYBA rs3794624, and rs4673) were genotyped in a cohort composed of 593 RA patients and 596 normal controls. Improved multiple ligase detection reaction (iMLDR) was used for genotyping. Results:We observed that NCF4 rs4821544 CT genotype and C allele frequencies in RA patients were significantly decreased when compared to controls (CT vs. TT: P = 0.043; C vs. T: P = 0.031), and rs4821544 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased RA risk under the dominant model (TT vs. CT+CC: P = 0.031). Our results also indicated that rs729749 CT genotype frequency was significantly lower in RA patients than that in controls (CT vs. CC: P = 0.033). Moreover, the rs729749 CT genotype frequency was also significantly decreased in RA patients in males (CT vs. CC: P = 0.024). No significant association between NCF2 and CYBA gene polymorphisms and RA susceptibility was observed. There were significant associations between rs4821544 TT genotype and T allele frequencies and anti-CCP in male RA patients. Conclusions:In summary, NCF4 rs4821544 and rs729749 polymorphisms might contribute to RA susceptibility, while NCF2 and CYBA gene polymorphisms were not associated with RA susceptibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND This study investigated the relationship between hyperuricemia (with phlegm/non-phlegm block) and ABCG2 gene polymorphism in Han and Uygur people from Xinjiang, China. MATERIAL AND METHODS We recruited 600 hyperuricemia patients with phlegm/non-phlegm block. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole blood. Gene polymorphism was classified by SnaPshot method. RESULTS The SNP loci rs2725220 and rs2231137 of the ABCG2 gene, but not rs2231142, were significantly different between patients with non-phlegm block and phlegm block (P<0.05). The rs2231142 allele G was the protective factor in Uygur hyperuricemia patients. In both Han and hyperuricemia patients, the rs2725220 allele G was a protective factor and the rs2231137 allele C was a risk factor. For non-phlegm-block hyperuricemia, the rs2231142 and rs2231137 genotypes were significantly different between Uygur and Han patients (P<0.05). The rs2231142 allele G was 1.563 times higher in the Uygur patients compared with Han, and rs2231137 allele C was 1.673 times higher in the Uygur patients compared with the Han. For phlegm-block hyperuricemia, rs2231142 allele G was 1.397 times higher in the Uygur patients compared with the Han. CONCLUSIONS ABCG2 gene rs2231137 with more allele C tends to be phlegm-block type and rs2725220 with more allele G tends to be non-phlegm-block type. In the Uygur hyperuricemia patients, ABCG2 gene rs2231142 with more allele G tends to be non-phlegm-block type. Allele C of rs2231137 and allele G of rs2231142 in ABCG2 gene are more likely to be found in the Uygur people.
Project description:To investigate progression-free survival (PFS) and event-free survival (EFS) as early efficacy endpoints in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), this systematic review included phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs), phase II trials, and retrospective studies in newly diagnosed DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy through databases search up to 2019. Quality control was performed, where studies with high risk of bias were excluded. Prediction models were first established using the RCTs, and then externally validated in the phase II and retrospective populations. Trial-level surrogacy analysis was conducted by correlating the logarithmic (log) hazard ratio (HR) for PFS or EFS and log HR for OS. Correlation analysis at treatment arm-level was performed between 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-year PFS or EFS rates and 5-year OS. The correlation was evaluated using the Pearson correlation coefficient r in weighted linear regression, with weight equal to patient size. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the consistency of predictive model by leaving one subgroup of trials out at a time. Twenty-six phase III RCTs, 4 phase II trials and 47 retrospective studies were included. In trial-level surrogacy, PFS (r, 0.772; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.471-0.913) or EFS (r, 0.838; 95% CI, 0.625-0.938) were associated with OS. For rituximab immunochemotherapy treatment arms in RCTs, there was a linear correlation between 1 and 5-year PFS (r, 0.813-0.873) or EFS (r, 0.853-0.931) and 5-year OS. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated reasonable overall consistency. The correlation between PFS and OS was externally validated using independent phase II, and retrospective data (r, 0.795-0.897). We recommend PFS and EFS as earlier efficacy endpoints in patients with DLBCL primarily treated with rituximab-containing immunochemotherapy.
Project description:The prognostic role of tumor-related parameters in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a matter of controversy.We investigated the prognostic value of phenotypic and genotypic profiles in DLBCL in clinical trial (NCT00544219) patients homogenously treated with six cycles of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (R-CHOP), followed by two cycles of R (R-CHOP-14). The primary endpoint was event-free survival at 2 years (EFS). Secondary endpoints were progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Immunohistochemical (bcl2, bcl6, CD5, CD10, CD20, CD95, CD168, cyclin E, FOXP1, GCET, Ki-67, LMO2, MUM1p, pSTAT3) and in situ hybridization analyses (BCL2 break apart probe, C-MYC break apart probe and C-MYC/IGH double-fusion probe, and Epstein-Barr virus probe) were performed and correlated with the endpoints.One hundred twenty-three patients (median age 58 years) were evaluable. Immunohistochemical assessment succeeded in all cases. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was successful in 82 instances. According to the Tally algorithm, 81 cases (66%) were classified as non-germinal center (GC) DLBCL, while 42 cases (34%) were GC DLBCL. BCL2 gene breaks were observed in 7/82 cases (9%) and C-MYC breaks in 6/82 cases (8%). "Double-hit" cases with BCL2 and C-MYC rearrangements were not observed. Within the median follow-up of 53 months, there were 51 events, including 16 lethal events and 12 relapses. Factors able to predict worse EFS in univariable models were failure to achieve response according to international criteria, failure to achieve positron emission tomography response (p < 0.005), expression of CD5 (p = 0.02), and higher stage (p = 0.021). Factors predicting inferior PFS were failure to achieve response according to international criteria (p < 0.005), higher stage (p = 0.005), higher International Prognostic Index (IPI; p = 0.006), and presence of either C-MYC or BCL2 gene rearrangements (p = 0.033). Factors predicting inferior OS were failure to achieve response according to international criteria and expression of FOXP1 (p < 0.005), cyclin E, CD5, bcl2, CD95, and pSTAT3 (p = 0.005, 0.007, 0.016, and 0.025, respectively). Multivariable analyses revealed that expression of CD5 (p = 0.044) and FOXP1 (p = 0.004) are independent prognostic factors for EFS and OS, respectively.Phenotypic studies with carefully selected biomarkers like CD5 and FOXP1 are able to prognosticate DLBCL course at diagnosis, independent of stage and IPI and independent of response to R-CHOP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Genetic background affects serum urate concentration and gout risk, especially regarding these variants in the urate-transporter gene ABCG2. However, the role of epistasis between PKD2 and ABCG2 on the pathogenesis of gout is poorly understood. Here we assess this epistatic interaction in the progression from elevated serum urate to gout. RESULTS:We identified two epistatic interaction pairs (rs2728121: rs1481012 and rs2728121: rs2231137) were associated with urate levels in 4914 Chinese individuals (Pint?=?0.018 and 0.004, respectively). Using subgroup analysis for gender and BMI, we found the degree of associations was varied by gender and BMI. The SNP pair rs2728121:rs1481012 influenced urate levels in females and overweight subjects (Pint?=?0.006 and 0.022, respectively), but rs2728121:rs2231137 did in males, overweight and normal-weight subjects (Pint?=?0.017, 0.047 and 0.013, respectively). Consistent results were also observed in associations between these epistatic interactions with hyperuricemia. Next, the SNP pair rs2728121:rs2231137 was identified to influence the development of gout from both hyperuricemia and healthy (Pint?=?0.035 and 0.001, respectively), especially in males (Pint?=?0.030 and 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, we demonstrated that interacting regions were enriched by regulatory elements. Finally, we observed a strong gene co-expression pattern between PKD2 and ABCG2 (r?=?0.743, P?=?5.83E-06). CONCLUSION:Our findings indicate epistasis between PKD2 and ABCG2 influence serum urate concentrations, hyperuricemia and gout risk, thus providing insight into the pathogenesis of gout.
Project description:PURPOSE:Ibrutinib has shown activity in non-germinal center B-cell diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This double-blind phase III study evaluated ibrutinib and rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) in untreated non-germinal center B-cell DLBCL. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Patients were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to ibrutinib (560 mg per day orally) plus R-CHOP or placebo plus R-CHOP. The primary end point was event-free survival (EFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and the activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL subgroup. Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. RESULTS:A total of 838 patients were randomly assigned to ibrutinib plus R-CHOP (n = 419) or placebo plus R-CHOP (n = 419). Median age was 62.0 years; 75.9% of evaluable patients had ABC subtype disease, and baseline characteristics were balanced. Ibrutinib plus R-CHOP did not improve EFS in the ITT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.934) or ABC (HR, 0.949) population. A preplanned analysis showed a significant interaction between treatment and age. In patients age younger than 60 years, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP improved EFS (HR, 0.579), PFS (HR, 0.556), and OS (HR, 0.330) and slightly increased serious adverse events (35.7% v 28.6%), but the proportion of patients receiving at least six cycles of R-CHOP was similar between treatment arms (92.9% v 93.0%). In patients age 60 years or older, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP worsened EFS, PFS, and OS, increased serious adverse events (63.4% v 38.2%), and decreased the proportion of patients receiving at least six cycles of R-CHOP (73.7% v 88.8%). CONCLUSION:The study did not meet its primary end point in the ITT or ABC population. However, in patients age younger than 60 years, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP improved EFS, PFS, and OS with manageable safety. In patients age 60 years or older, ibrutinib plus R-CHOP was associated with increased toxicity, leading to compromised R-CHOP administration and worse outcomes. Further investigation is warranted.
Project description:R-CHOP has significantly improved survival rates of patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) by ~20% as compared to CHOP. CD20 antigen, highly expressed on more than 80% of B-cell lymphomas, is the target for rituximab. The goal of our study was to examine polymorphism in the CD20 gene in Chinese DLBCL population and whether CD20 gene polymorphism is associated with clinical response to R-CHOP.CD20 gene polymorphism was detected in the entire coding regions including 6 exons by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing assay in 164 patients with DLBCL. Among them, 129 patients treated with R-CHOP as frontline therapy (R ≥ 4 cycles) were assessable for the efficacy.Polymorphisms at three single nucleotides (SNP) were identified in the entire coding regions of the CD20 gene in the 164 patients. One of them, CD20 Exon2  was found to be highly correlated with response to R-CHOP. Patients with homozygous C genotype showed a trend toward higher overall response rate than others with CT plus TT genotype (90.6% vs. 79.5%; P =0.166). A trend toward higher complete remission (CR) rate was observed in patients with homozygous C genotype (67.4%) compared with CT plus TT genotype (47.1%) (P = 0.091).These results suggest that there are 3 SNPs in CDS of the CD20 gene in Chinese DLBCL population. The CC genotype at Exon2  appears to be associated with favourable response to R-CHOP.