Haplotype Analysis of the Pre-harvest Sprouting Resistance Locus Phs-A1 Reveals a Causal Role of TaMKK3-A in Global Germplasm.
ABSTRACT: Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an important cause of quality loss in many cereal crops and is particularly prevalent and damaging in wheat. Resistance to PHS is therefore a valuable target trait in many breeding programs. The Phs-A1 locus on wheat chromosome arm 4AL has been consistently shown to account for a significant proportion of natural variation to PHS in diverse mapping populations. However, the deployment of sprouting resistance is confounded by the fact that different candidate genes, including the tandem duplicated Plasma Membrane 19 (PM19) genes and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 (TaMKK3-A) gene, have been proposed to underlie Phs-A1. To further define the Phs-A1 locus, we constructed a physical map across this interval in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We established close proximity of the proposed candidate genes which are located within a 1.2 Mb interval. Genetic characterization of diverse germplasm used in previous genetic mapping studies suggests that TaMKK3-A, and not PM19, is the major gene underlying the Phs-A1 effect in European, North American, Australian and Asian germplasm. We identified the non-dormant TaMKK3-A allele at low frequencies within the A-genome diploid progenitor Triticum urartu genepool, and show an increase in the allele frequency in modern varieties. In United Kingdom varieties, the frequency of the dormant TaMKK3-A allele was significantly higher in bread-making quality varieties compared to feed and biscuit-making cultivars. Analysis of exome capture data from 58 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions identified fourteen haplotypes across the extended Phs-A1 locus and four haplotypes for TaMKK3-A. Analysis of these haplotypes in a collection of United Kingdom and Australian cultivars revealed distinct major dormant and non-dormant Phs-A1 haplotypes in each country, which were either rare or absent in the opposing germplasm set. The diagnostic markers and haplotype information reported in the study will help inform the choice of germplasm and breeding strategies for the deployment of Phs-A1 resistance into breeding germplasm.
Project description:The precocious germination of cereal grains before harvest, also known as pre-harvest sprouting, is an important source of yield and quality loss in cereal production. Pre-harvest sprouting is a complex grain defect and is becoming an increasing challenge due to changing climate patterns. Resistance to sprouting is multi-genic, although a significant proportion of the sprouting variation in modern wheat cultivars is controlled by a few major quantitative trait loci, including Phs-A1 in chromosome arm 4AL. Despite its importance, little is known about the physiological basis and the gene(s) underlying this important locus. In this study, we characterized Phs-A1 and show that it confers resistance to sprouting damage by affecting the rate of dormancy loss during dry seed after-ripening. We show Phs-A1 to be effective even when seeds develop at low temperature (13 °C). Comparative analysis of syntenic Phs-A1 intervals in wheat and Brachypodium uncovered ten orthologous genes, including the Plasma Membrane 19 genes (PM19-A1 and PM19-A2) previously proposed as the main candidates for this locus. However, high-resolution fine-mapping in two bi-parental UK mapping populations delimited Phs-A1 to an interval 0.3 cM distal to the PM19 genes. This study suggests the possibility that more than one causal gene underlies this major pre-harvest sprouting locus. The information and resources reported in this study will help test this hypothesis across a wider set of germplasm and will be of importance for breeding more sprouting resilient wheat varieties.
Project description:Untimely rains in wheat fields during harvest season can cause pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which deteriorates the yield and quality of wheat crop. Metabolic homeostasis of the embryo plays a role in seed dormancy, determining the status of the maturing grains either as dormant (PHS-tolerant) or non-dormant (PHS-susceptible). Very little is known for direct measurements of global metabolites in embryonic tissues of dormant and non-dormant wheat seeds. In this study, physiologically matured and freshly harvested wheat seeds of PHS-tolerant (cv. Sukang, dormant) and PHS-susceptible (cv. Baegjoong, non-dormant) cultivars were water-imbibed, and the isolated embryos were subjected to high-throughput, global non-targeted metabolomic profiling. A careful comparison of identified metabolites between Sukang and Baegjoong embryos at 0 and 48 h after imbibition revealed that several key metabolic pathways [such as: lipids, fatty acids, oxalate, hormones, the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs), and amino acids] and phytochemicals were differentially regulated between dormant and non-dormant varieties. Most of the membrane lipids were highly reduced in Baegjoong compared to Sukang, which indicates that the cell membrane instability in response to imbibition could also be a key factor in non-dormant wheat varieties for their untimely germination. This study revealed that several key marker metabolites (e.g., RFOs: glucose, fructose, maltose, and verbascose), were highly expressed in Baegjoong after imbibition. Furthermore, the data showed that the key secondary metabolites and phytochemicals (vitexin, chrysoeriol, ferulate, salidroside and gentisic acid), with known antioxidant properties, were comparatively low at basal levels in PHS-susceptible, non-dormant cultivar, Baegjoong. In conclusion, the results of this investigation revealed that after imbibition the metabolic homeostasis of dormant wheat is significantly less affected compared to non-dormant wheat. The inferences from this study combined with proteomic and transcriptomic studies will advance the molecular understanding of the pathways and enzyme regulations during PHS.
Project description:The maize (Zea mays) Viviparous 1 (Vp1) transcription factor has been shown previously to be a major regulator of seed development, simultaneously activating embryo maturation and repressing germination. Hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) caryopses are characterized by relatively weak embryo dormancy and are susceptible to preharvest sprouting (PHS), a phenomenon that is phenotypically similar to the maize vp1 mutation. Analysis of Vp-1 transcript structure in wheat embryos during grain development showed that each homeologue produces cytoplasmic mRNAs of different sizes. The majority of transcripts are spliced incorrectly, contain insertions of intron sequences or deletions of coding region, and do not have the capacity to encode full-length proteins. Several VP-1-related lower molecular weight protein species were present in wheat embryo nuclei. Embryos of a closely related tetraploid species (Triticum turgidum) and ancestral diploids also contained misspliced Vp-1 transcripts that were structurally similar or identical to those found in modern hexaploid wheat, which suggests that compromised structure and expression of Vp-1 transcripts in modern wheat are inherited from ancestral species. Developing embryos from transgenic wheat grains expressing the Avena fatua Vp1 gene showed enhanced responsiveness to applied abscisic acid compared with the control. In addition, ripening ears of transgenic plants were less susceptible to PHS. Our results suggest that missplicing of wheat Vp-1 genes contributes to susceptibility to PHS in modern hexaploid wheat varieties and identifies a possible route to increase resistance to this environmentally triggered disorder.
Project description:Preharvest sprouting (PHS), the germination of grain on the mother plant under cool and wet conditions, is a recurring problem for wheat farmers worldwide. ?-amylase enzyme produced during PHS degrades starch resulting in baked good with poor end-use quality. The Hagberg-Perten Falling Number (FN) test is used to measure this problem in the wheat industry, and determines how much a farmer's wheat is discounted for PHS damage. PHS tolerance is associated with higher grain dormancy. Thus, breeding programs use germination-based assays such as the spike-wetting test to measure PHS susceptibility. Association mapping identified loci associated with PHS tolerance in U.S. Pacific Northwest germplasm based both on FN and on spike-wetting test data. The study was performed using a panel of 469 white winter wheat cultivars and elite breeding lines grown in six Washington state environments, and genotyped for 15,229 polymorphic markers using the 90k SNP Illumina iSelect array. Marker-trait associations were identified using the FarmCPU R package. Principal component analysis was directly and a kinship matrix was indirectly used to account for population structure. Nine loci were associated with FN and 34 loci associated with PHS based on sprouting scores. None of the QFN.wsu loci were detected in multiple environments, whereas six of the 34 QPHS.wsu loci were detected in two of the five environments. There was no overlap between the QTN detected based on FN and PHS, and there was little correlation between the two traits. However, both traits appear to be PHS-related since 19 of the 34 QPHS.wsu loci and four of the nine QFN.wsu loci co-localized with previously published dormancy and PHS QTL. Identification of these loci will lead to a better understanding of the genetic architecture of PHS and will help with the future development of genomic selection models.
Project description:Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) of wheat grain leads to a reduction in grain yield and quality. The availability of markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of PHS resistance will serve to enhance breeding selection and advancement of lines for cultivar development. The aim of this study was to identify candidate regions and develop molecular markers for PHS resistance in wheat. This was achieved via high density mapping of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from an Illumina 90 K Infinium Custom Beadchip in a doubled haploid (DH) population derived from a RL4452/'AC Domain' cross and subsequent detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for PHS related traits (falling number [FN], germination index [GI] and sprouting index [SI]). SNP marker sequences flanking QTL were used to locate colinear regions in Brachypodium and rice, and identify genic markers associated with PHS resistance that can be utilized for MAS in wheat.A linkage map spanning 2569.4 cM was constructed with a total of 12,201 SNP, simple sequence repeat (SSR), diversity arrays technology (DArT) and expressed sequence tag (EST) markers. QTL analyses using Multiple Interval Mapping (MIM) identified four QTL for PHS resistance traits on chromosomes 3B, 4A, 7B and 7D. Sequences of SNPs flanking these QTL were subject to a BLASTN search on the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) database (http://wheat-urgi.versailles.inra.fr/Seq-Repository). Best survey sequence hits were subject to a BLASTN search on Gramene (www.gramene.org) against both Brachypodium and rice databases, and candidate genes and regions for PHS resistance were identified. A total of 18 SNP flanking sequences on chromosomes 3B, 4A, 7B and 7D were converted to KASP markers and validated with matching genotype calls of Infinium SNP data.Our study identified candidate genes involved in abscissic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism, and flowering time in four genomic regions of Brachypodium and rice respectively, in addition to 18 KASP markers for PHS resistance in wheat. These markers can be deployed in future genetic studies of PHS resistance and might also be useful in the evaluation of PHS in germplasm and breeding material.
Project description:Embryo and caryopsis dormancy, abscisic acid (ABA) responsiveness, after-ripening (AR), and the disorder pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) were investigated in six genetically related wheat varieties previously characterized as resistant, intermediate, or susceptible to PHS. Timing of caryopsis AR differed between varieties; AR occurred before harvest ripeness in the most PHS-susceptible, whereas AR was slowest in the most PHS-resistant. Whole caryopses of all varieties showed little ABA-responsiveness during AR; PHS-susceptible varieties were responsive at the beginning of the AR period whereas PHS-resistant showed some responsiveness throughout. Isolated embryos showed relatively little dormancy during grain-filling and most varieties exhibited a window of decreased ABA-responsiveness around the period of maximum dry matter accumulation (physiological maturity). Susceptibility to PHS was assessed by overhead misting of either isolated ears or whole plants during AR; varieties were clearly distinguished using both methods. These analyses allowed an investigation of the interactions between the different components of seed development, compartments, and environment for the six varieties. There was no direct relationship between speed of caryopsis AR and embryo dormancy or ABA-responsiveness during seed maturation. However, the velocity of AR of a variety was closely associated with the degree of susceptibility to PHS during AR suggesting that these characters are developmentally linked. Investigation of genetic components of AR may therefore aid breeding approaches to reduce susceptibility to PHS.
Project description:Wheat grain color does not only affect the brightness of flour but also seed dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) tolerance. The transcription factor Tamyb10 is an important candidate for R-1 gene, and the expression of its homologs determines wheat seed coat color. In the present study, the allelic variations of Tamyb10 were explored in a set of Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines with different PHS tolerance, and a sequenced-tagged site (STS) marker for Tamyb10-D1 gene was developed, designated as Tamyb10D, which could be used as an efficient and reliable marker to evaluate the depth dormancy of wheat seeds. Using the marker Tamyb10D, 1629- and 1178-bp PCR fragments were amplified from the tolerant varieties, whereas a 1178-bp fragment was from the susceptible ones. Of the Chinese bread wheat varieties and advanced lines, 103 were used to validate the relationship between the polymorphic fragments of Tamyb10D and PHS tolerance. Statistical analysis indicated that Tamyb10D was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with depth of seed dormancy in these germplasms. To further confirm the association between allelic variants of Tamyb10-D1 and PHS tolerance, 200 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between Zhongyou 9507 (1178-bp fragment) and Yangxiaomai (1178- and 1629-bp fragments) were genotyped using the marker Tamyb10D. General linear model analysis indicated that variation in Tamyb10-D1 had a significant (P < 0.001) association with the germination index (GI) values, explaining 13.7, 4.7, and 9.8 % of the phenotypic variation in GI in Shijiazhuang, Beijing, and the averaged data from those environments, respectively. In addition, among the 103 wheat varieties, 8 Tamyb10 genotypes (Tamybl0-A1, Tamybl0-B1, and Tamyb10-D1 loci) were detected, namely, aaa, aab, aba, abb, baa, bab, bba, and bbb, and these were significantly associated with GI value.
Project description:During the XX Century, the widespread use of modern wheat cultivars drastically reduced the cultivation of ancient landraces, which nowadays are confined to niche cultivation areas. Several durum wheat landraces adapted to the extreme environments of the Mediterranean region, are still being cultivated in Sicily, Italy. Detailed knowledge of the genetic diversity of this germplasm could lay the basis for their efficient management in breeding programs, for a wide-range range of traits. The aim of the present study was to characterize a collection of durum wheat landraces from Sicily, using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers, together with agro-morphological, phenological and quality-related traits. Two modern cv. Simeto, Claudio, and the hexaploid landrace, Cuccitta, were used as outgroups. Cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) allowed us to identify four main clusters across the analyzed germplasm, among which a cluster included only historical and modern varieties. Likewise, structure analysis was able to distinguish the ancient varieties from the others, grouping the entries in seven cryptic genetic clusters. Furthermore, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was able to separate the modern testers from the ancient germplasm. This approach was useful to classify and evaluate Sicilian ancient wheat germplasm, supporting their safeguard and providing a genetic fingerprint that is necessary for avoiding commercial frauds to sustaining the economic profits of farmers resorting to landraces cultivation.
Project description:Sprouting of grains in mature spikes before harvest is a major problem in wheat (Triticum aestivum) production worldwide. We cloned and characterized a gene underlying a wheat quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3A for preharvest sprouting (PHS) resistance in white wheat using comparative mapping and map-based cloning. This gene, designated TaPHS1, is a wheat homolog of a MOTHER OF FLOWERING TIME (TaMFT)-like gene. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the gene confirmed that TaPHS1 positively regulates PHS resistance. We discovered two causal mutations in TaPHS1 that jointly altered PHS resistance in wheat. One GT-to-AT mutation generates a mis-splicing site, and the other A-to-T mutation creates a premature stop codon that results in a truncated nonfunctional transcript. Association analysis of a set of wheat cultivars validated the role of the two mutations on PHS resistance. The molecular characterization of TaPHS1 is significant for expediting breeding for PHS resistance to protect grain yield and quality in wheat production.
Project description:Preharvest sprouting (PHS) of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) is an important problem in Japan, where the rainy season overlaps with the harvest season. Since there are few PHS-resistant genetic resources in durum wheat, we introduced an R-gene for red seeds, the MFT gene, and the QPhs-5AL QTL, all of which are associated with PHS resistance, into durum wheat from a PHS-resistant bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivar, 'Zenkoujikomugi' (Zen), by backcross breeding. Developed near isogenic lines (NILs) with red seeds had a lower percentage germination (PG) and germination index (GI) than the recurrent parent, and seed color had the greatest effect. A NIL combining all three sequences had the lowest GI and PG, with a similar GI to that of 'Shiroganekomugi' bread wheat. Among NILs with white seeds, a NIL combining MFT and QPhs-5AL had the lowest GI and PG. As the combination of all three sequences from Zen conferred PHS resistance on durum wheat, PHS-resistant genetic resources in bread wheat can be used in breeding durum wheat.