Photodynamic therapy in chronic central serous chorioretinopathy with subretinal fluid outside the fovea.
ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC), in whom subretinal fluid (SRF) was solely present outside the foveal area.In this retrospective study, 16 eyes of 15 cCSC patients who received half-dose PDT because of notable subjective visual complaints due to the presence of extrafoveal SRF, were included. An ophthalmic examination was performed before treatment, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study best-corrected visual acuity measurement, applanation tonometry, slit-lamp examination, and indirect ophthalmoscopy, followed by multimodal imaging, including fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), enhanced-depth imaging OCT of the choroid, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.In 7 treated patients (47%), PDT led to a decrease in visual complaints at the first evaluation visit. At this visit, extrafoveal SRF on OCT had resolved in 14 eyes (88%), whereas a complete resolution of extrafoveal SRF had occurred in all eyes at final follow-up visit. At baseline, posterior cystoid retinal degeneration was also present in 5 eyes (31%) and this remained present at all evaluation visits in these patients. Choroidal thickness decreased statistically significantly in the treated eyes, both foveally and at the location of the maximum height of extrafoveal SRF. No complications of PDT were observed.Half-dose PDT treatment of cCSC patients with visual complaints due to extrafoveal SRF accumulation is a safe procedure leading to complete SRF resolution, a decrease in choroidal thickness, and a reduction in visual symptoms.
Project description:PurposeTo compare the short-term treatment outcome of the 577 nm subthreshold micropulse laser (SML) and half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) in patients with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) and persistent subretinal fluid (SRF).MethodsThis retrospective study included 100 eyes of 100 consecutive patients who were treated with the 577 nm SML (Supra Scan, Quantel Medical) (n=42) or half-dose PDT (n=58) for cCSC. The treatment was applied at the leakage sites in the fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography. The treatment success was evaluated 6 weeks after treatment using best-corrected visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and resolution of SRF in spectral domain optical coherence tomography.ResultsPatients showed treatment response more often in the SML group compared with the PDT group (treatment response after SML: 33 eyes (79%), PDT: 34 eyes (59%), P=0.036, χ2 test). The CRT decreased significantly after both treatments (mean CRT before SML: 445±153 μm, after SML: 297±95, P<0.001; mean CRT before PDT: 398±88 μm, after PDT: 322±93 μm, P<0.001, Wilcoxon's signed-rank test). The decrease in CRT was statistically significantly higher in the SML group (decrease in CRT after SML: -148±163 μm, after PDT: -76±104 μm, P=0.041, Mann-Whitney U-test).ConclusionsBoth the half-dose PDT and the 577 nm SML are potent treatments for cCSC with persistent SRF. More patients showed treatment response to the SML treatment and SML leads to a greater decrease in CRT.
Project description:To evaluate the visual outcomes of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to pathological myopia in eyes treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT), and to determine the effect of lesion location and foveal involvement on visual prognosis.Interventional case series of 24 consecutive patients with myopic CNV treated with PDT. The main outcome measure was final LogMAR visual acuity (VA).Of 24 eyes, the CNV lesion was subfoveal in 11 and extrafoveal in 13. Overall, the mean LogMAR VA at 24 months was 0.72. Extrafoveal CNV lesions achieved significantly better final VA compared with subfoveal CNV (LogMAR 0.45 vs 1.05, P=0.012). Eyes with extrafoveal CNV lesions were subdivided into foveal-sparing PDT (where the PDT laser spot did not involve the foveal center) and foveal-involved PDT (where the PDT laser covered the fovea). At all time points, the group with foveal-sparing PDT had significantly better VA compared with the foveal-involved group. The final LogMAR VA for the foveal-sparing PDT group was 0.26 compared with 1.00 for the foveal-involved PDT group (P=0.003). At 24 months, 77.8% of foveal-sparing PDT cases achieved VA of ≥ 20/40, compared with 25% of foveal-involved PDT cases and 9.1% of subfoveal CNV lesions (P=0.006).For patients with myopic CNV, foveal-sparing PDT results in significantly better long-term visual outcomes compared with those with foveal-involved PDT. Foveal-sparing PDT may be of value for treatment of myopic CNV patients who are not suitable for treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections.
Project description:PURPOSE:To describe treatment outcomes in a cohort of Caucasian patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS:Clinical charts from 48 eyes of 45 Caucasian patients with PCV were retrospectively reviewed. All cases were diagnosed with indocyanine green angiography. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging were analyzed at baseline and final follow-up. RESULTS:Eyes were treated with a combination of verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (n = 24), or PDT monotherapy (n = 9), or anti-VEGF monotherapy (n = 8), or no treatment (n = 7). Aflibercept was the anti-VEGF agent in 30 out of 32 eyes. Sixteen out of 24 eyes in the combination treatment group received initial PDT at diagnosis. All treatments led to stabilization of BCVA at final visit with a trend for better visual acuity in the anti-VEGF monotherapy group. There was a substantial reduction in central retinal thickness associated with resolution of subfoveal fluid and improvement in retinal pigment epithelial detachment in all treatment groups. BCVA and OCT findings remained stable in eyes which received no treatment. The use of PDT was associated with 0.5 fewer intravitreal injections per annum, which was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:In the largest series of Caucasian patients with PCV presented to date, anti-VEGF monotherapy, PDT, or their combination preserved visual acuity and improved subfoveal exudative changes. Combination treatment was not superior to anti-VEGF monotherapy.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term visual outcomes of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV)-associated vitreous haemorrhage (VH). METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with PCV-related VH who underwent PPV. The main outcome measures were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and fundus findings at 3 months postoperatively and final visit. RESULTS: Seventeen eyes of 17 patients with massive subretinal haemorrhage (16.7±7.1 disc size of mean subretinal haemorrhage area) were enrolled. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 25.2 months. Four eyes received intravitreal bevacizumab injections, and three eyes underwent photodynamic therapy before the onset of VH. The mean BCVA improved from logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) of 2.63±0.57 preoperatively to 1.43±0.82 at final visit (P<0.001). Among the eyes with initial polyps at subfoveal or juxtafoveal area, 16.70% achieved final BCVA ≥20/400 (LogMAR 1.3), whereas 87.50% of eyes with initial polyps at extrafoveal area had final BCVA ≥20/400 (Fisher's exact test, P=0.026). CONCLUSIONS: PCV with massive subretinal haemorrhage is at risk for breakthrough VH. The visual prognosis in eyes with PCV-related breakthrough VH is variable after vitrectomy. Initial polyps at the extrafoveal area led to better functional outcomes. Early vitrectomy may be beneficial for visual recovery after PCV-related VH.
Project description:To evaluate the long-term efficacy and factors involved in the recurrence and persistence of subretinal fluid (SRF) after half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT) for chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).In this retrospective observational case series, 79 eyes (73 patients) with chronic CSC were treated with half-dose PDT and followed up for at least 3 years. They were divided into successful (64 eyes) and unsuccessful (15 eyes) groups based on SRF absorption and disease recurrence after one PDT session. Age, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central foveal thickness, neuroretinal thickness, height of SRF, subfoveal choroidal thickness, window defect area detected by fluorescein angiography, and PDT spot area were compared between the groups. Factors associated with PDT success and BCVA at 3 years were investigated.LogMAR BCVA improved from 0.21±0.24 to 0.08±0.16 (P<0.001) at 3 years after PDT. Compared with the unsuccessful group, the successful group had a significantly younger mean age (50.5±9.7 vs. 56.5±9.1 years, P = 0.032) and better baseline BCVA (0.18±0.23 vs. 0.32±0.25, P = 0.034). Other parameters were not significantly different. Multivariate analyses showed that unsuccessful PDT was significantly associated with lower baseline BCVA (P = 0.026) and older age (P = 0.029) and that BCVA at 3 years after PDT was positively associated with baseline BCVA (P<0.001).Half-dose PDT has a long-term efficacy in chronic CSC. Relatively early PDT may improve anatomic and functional outcomes of chronic CSC.
Project description:We investigated the association of visual outcome in typical neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) with or without pachychoroid with lesion areas on optical coherence tomography (OCT) quantified by convolutional neural network (CNN) analysis. Treatment-naïve 132 nAMD and 45 PCV eyes treated with ranibizumab or aflibercept for at least 12 months were retrospectively reviewed. Significant factors, including intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), pigment epithelial detachment (PED) and subretinal hyperreflective material (SHRM) area quantified by CNN at baseline and 12 months, were analyzed by logistic regression analyses for 3-line visual gain or maintenance of 20/30 Snellen vision. Visual gain at the final visit in nAMD was associated with a smaller SHRM at baseline (OR 0.167, P?=?0.03), greater decrease in SRF and SHRM from baseline to month 12 (OR 1.564, P?=?0.02; OR 12.877, P?=?0.01, respectively). Visual gain in nAMD without pachychoroid was associated with a greater decrease in SRF and SHRM (OR 1.574, P?=?0.03, OR 1.775, P?=?0.04). No association was found in nAMD with pachychoroid and any type of PCV. Greater decrease in SRF and SHRM from baseline to month 12 was associated with favorable visual outcomes in nAMD without pachychoroid but not in nAMD with pachychoroid and PCV.
Project description:The authors evaluated the proportion of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) detected by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in eyes with chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) (more than 3 months) with previous treatment via half-dose photodynamic therapy (PDT). All patients were followed up with at least twelve months. Macular angiograms were obtained using spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT, RTVue XR; Optovue). CNV was defined as flow in the outer retinal slab between the outer plexiform layer and Bruch's membrane. Clinical characteristics were compared between CNV and non-CNV groups. Seventy eyes of 61 patients (51 male and 10 female) were included. The average age was 46.2 years old. The average duration of symptom was 32.9 months. All patients were treated with half-dose PDT initially. Eleven eyes (15.7%) received more than one session of PDT. CNV was diagnosed in 32 of 70 eyes (45.7%) based on OCTA. Only 6 of the 32 eyes (18.8%) needed intravitreal anti- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy for the exudative activity of CNV. Older age (p = 0.059), larger PDT spot size (p = 0.024), and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness (p = 0.008) were noted in CNV group. The authors conclude that OCTA reveals high rates of CNV associated with chronic CSC after PDT. Patients in the CNV group had older age, larger PDT spot size, and thinner subfoveal choroidal thickness. OCTA may be considered as a first step in identifying CNV in chronic CSC following PDT.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of spironolactone, a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, for nonresolving central serous chorioretinopathy.This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients with central serous chorioretinopathy and persistent subretinal fluid (SRF) for at least 3 months were enrolled. Patients were randomized to receive either spironolactone 50 mg or placebo once a day for 30 days, followed by a washout period of 1 week and then crossed over to either placebo or spironolactone for another 30 days. The primary outcome measure was the changes from baseline in SRF thickness at the apex of the serous retinal detachment. Secondary outcomes included subfoveal choroidal thickness and the ETDRS best-corrected visual acuity.The mean duration of central serous chorioretinopathy before enrollment in study eyes was 10 ± 16.9 months. Crossover data analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in SRF in spironolactone treated eyes as compared with the same eyes under placebo (P = 0.04). Secondary analysis on the first period (Day 0-Day 30) showed a significant reduction in subfoveal choroidal thickness in treated eyes as compared with placebo (P = 0.02). No significant changes were observed in the best-corrected visual acuity. There were no complications related to treatment observed.In eyes with persistent SRF due to central serous chorioretinopathy, spironolactone significantly reduced both the SRF and the subfoveal choroidal thickness as compared with placebo.
Project description:To describe the association between morphologic features on fundus photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual acuity (VA) in the second year of the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT).Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial.Participants in the CATT.Study eye eligibility required angiographic and OCT evidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and VA between 20/25 and 20/320. Treatment was assigned randomly to ranibizumab or bevacizumab with 3 different dosing regimens over a 2-year period.Fluid type, location, and thickness; retina and subretinal tissue complex thickness on OCT; size and lesion composition on FP and FA; and VA.Among 1185 CATT participants, 993 (84%) had fluid on OCT at baseline and completed 2 years of follow-up. At 2 years, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), sub-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fluid, and subretinal tissue complex thickness decreased in all treatment groups. Ranibizumab monthly was best able to resolve each type of fluid. Eyes with SRF in the foveal center on OCT had better mean VA than eyes with no SRF (72.8 vs. 66.6 letters; P = 0.006). Eyes with IRF in the foveal center had worse mean VA than eyes without IRF (59.9 vs. 70.9 letters; P < 0.0001). Eyes with retinal thickness <120 ?m had worse VA compared with eyes with retinal thickness 120 to 212 and >212 ?m (59.4 vs. 71.3 vs. 70.3 letters; P < 0.0001). At 2 years, the mean VA (letters) of eyes varied substantially by the type of subfoveal pathology on FP and FA: 70.6 for no pathology; 74.1 for fluid only; 73.3 for CNV or pigment epithelial (RPE) detachment; 68.4 for nongeographic atrophy; and 62.9 for geographic atrophy, hemorrhage, RPE tear, or scar (P < 0.0001).The associations between VA and morphologic features identified through year 1 were maintained or strengthened during year 2. Eyes with foveal IRF, abnormally thin retina, greater thickness of the subretinal tissue complex on OCT, and subfoveal geographic atrophy or scar on FP/FA had the worst VA. Subretinal fluid was associated with better VA.
Project description:Chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (cCSC) is an eye disease characterized by an accumulation of serous fluid under the retina. It is postulated that this fluid accumulation results from hyperpermeability and swelling of the choroid, the underlying vascular tissue of the eye, causing a dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium. This fluid accumulation causes neuroretinal detachment. A prolonged neuroretinal detachment in the macula can lead to permanent vision loss. Therefore, treatment is aimed primarily at achieving resolution of subretinal fluid, preferably within the first 4 months after diagnosis of the disease. A broad spectrum of treatment modalities has been investigated in cCSC, but no consensus exists on the optimal treatment of cCSC. Currently, photodynamic therapy (PDT) and high-density subthreshold micropulse laser treatment (HSML) are among the most frequently cited treatments in obtaining successful neuroretinal reattachment.This is a randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter trial comparing the efficacy of half-dose PDT to HSML in treating patients with cCSC. A total of 156 patients will be recruited, 78 patients in each treatment arm, with a maximum follow-up duration of 8 months after the first treatment. A complete ophthalmological examination with vision-related quality of life (NEI VFQ-25) and stress questionnaires, will be performed at baseline, 6 to 8 weeks after the first treatment, 6 to 8 weeks after a second treatment (if necessary), and at the final follow-up visit at 7 to 8 months after the first treatment. Treatment visits will be scheduled within 3 weeks after the baseline visit, and within 3 weeks after the first control visit, if a second treatment is required.Both half-dose PDT and HSML may be effective treatments in cCSC, but because of the lack of prospective randomized controlled trials, which treatment should be the first choice remains unclear. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of half-dose PDT to HSML. The primary endpoint to evaluate efficacy will be a complete absence of subretinal fluid on optical coherence tomography after treatment. Secondary functional endpoints include change in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity, retinal sensitivity on microperimetry, and NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire of visual functioning. Registration number Institutional Review Board (CMO Arnhem-Nijmegen, the Netherlands): 2013/203 NL nr.: 41266.091.13 TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01797861 . Date of registration: 21 February 2013.