Risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with autism spectrum disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their first-degree relatives: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders that may persist into adulthood. ASD and ADHD tend to run in families and may have a significant negative impact on the health and longevity of those with the disorder and their relatives. The aim of this study will be to analyze the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives.We will conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Searches of PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, and ISI Web of Science will be used to identify epidemiological studies. Eligible studies will be observational studies reporting study-specific data for all-cause mortality or cause-specific mortality in children, adolescents, or adults with ASD or ADHD and/or their first-degree relatives. Cohort studies and case-control studies will be included. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome will be cause-specific mortality. Two reviewers will independently screen references identified by the literature search, as well as potentially relevant full-text articles. Data will be abstracted, and study risk of bias/methodological quality will be appraised by two reviewers independently. The methodological quality of epidemiological studies will be appraised using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through discussion. Random-effects meta-analyses of primary studies will be conducted where appropriate. Subgroup analyses for exploring statistical heterogeneity, if feasible, will include gender, age group, ethnicity, comorbidities, classification of cause of death, and relevant study characteristics.Our study will establish the extent of the epidemiological evidence underlying the risk of mortality among children, adolescents, and adults with ASD or ADHD and their first-degree relatives. We anticipate that our findings will be of interest to patients, their families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, scientists, and policy makers. Implications for future epidemiological research will be discussed.PROSPERO CRD42017059955 .
Project description:Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occur. The presence of a genetic link between ASD and ADHD symptoms is supported by twin studies, but the genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD remains largely unclear. We therefore investigated how ASD and ADHD co-aggregate in individuals and in families to test for the presence of a shared genetic liability and examined potential differences between low- and high-functioning ASD in the link with ADHD. We studied 1?899?654 individuals born in Sweden between 1987 and 2006. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD in individuals and in families. Stratified estimates were obtained for ASD with (low-functioning) and without (high-functioning) intellectual disability. Individuals with ASD were at higher risk of having ADHD compared with individuals who did not have ASD (odds ratio (OR)=22.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 21.77-22.92). The association was stronger for high-functioning than for low-functioning ASD. Relatives of individuals with ASD were at higher risk of ADHD compared with relatives of individuals without ASD. The association was stronger in monozygotic twins (OR=17.77, 95% CI: 9.80-32.22) than in dizygotic twins (OR=4.33, 95% CI: 3.21-5.85) and full siblings (OR=4.59, 95% CI: 4.39-4.80). Individuals with ASD and their relatives are at increased risk of ADHD. The pattern of association across different types of relatives supports the existence of genetic overlap between clinically ascertained ASD and ADHD, suggesting that genomic studies might have underestimated this overlap.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psychostimulants and atomoxetine have been shown to increase blood pressure, heart rate, and QT interval in children and adolescents; however, based on current literature, it is unclear if these "attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications" are also associated with serious cardiovascular (SCV) events. We addressed this question in commonly exposed groups of children and adolescents with either ADHD or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS:Using commercial (years 2000-2016) and Medicaid (years 2012-2016) administrative claims data from the United States (US), we conducted two case-control studies, nested within respective cohorts of ADHD and ASD children aged 3-18 years. We defined cases by a composite outcome of stroke, myocardial infarction, or serious cardiac arrhythmia. For each case, we matched ten controls on age, sex, and insurance type. We conducted conditional logistic regression models to test associations between SCV outcomes and a primary exposure definition of current ADHD medication use. Additionally, we controlled for resource use, cardiovascular and psychiatric comorbidities, and use of medications in a variety of sensitivity analyses. RESULTS:We identified 2,240,774 children for the ADHD cohort and 326,221 children for the ASD cohort. For ADHD, 33.9% of cases (63 of 186) versus 32.2% of controls (598 of 1860) were exposed, which yielded an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.08 (0.78-1.49). For ASD, 12.5% of cases (6 of 48) versus 22.1% of controls (106 of 480) were exposed [OR 0.49 (0.20-1.20)]. Covariate-adjusted results and results for individual outcomes and other exposure definitions were consistent with no increased risk of SCV events. CONCLUSION:Using large US claims data, we found no evidence of increased SCV risk in children and adolescents with ADHD or ASD exposed to ADHD medications.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share high rates of comorbidity, with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition now acknowledging the comorbid diagnosis of ASD and ADHD. Although structural abnormalities in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia occur in both ASD and ADHD, no structural studies have focused exclusively on patients with comorbid ASD and ADHD. We thus aimed to clarify the structural features and developmental changes in patients with comorbid ASD and ADHD in a relatively large sample from two sites. Ninety-two patients were age-matched to 141 typically developing (TD) controls (age range: 5-16 years) and assessed for volumetric characteristics using structural magnetic resonance imaging (i.e. surface-based morphometry). While there were no significant differences in prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and basal ganglia volumes, patients with ASD and ADHD exhibited significantly lower left postcentral gyrus volumes than TD controls. We observed significantly lower postcentral gyrus volumes exclusively in children and preadolescents, and not in adolescents. Our findings suggest that abnormal somatosensory, attributed to delayed maturation of the left postcentral gyrus, leads to the core symptoms experienced by patients with comorbid ASD and ADHD.
Project description:Despite limited and ambiguous empirical data, substance use-related problems have been assumed to be rare among patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using Swedish population-based registers we identified 26,986 individuals diagnosed with ASD during 1973-2009, and their 96,557 non-ASD relatives. ASD, without diagnosed comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or intellectual disability, was related to a doubled risk of substance use-related problems. The risk of substance use-related problems was the highest among individuals with ASD and ADHD. Further, risks of substance use-related problems were increased among full siblings of ASD probands, half-siblings and parents. We conclude that ASD is a risk factor for substance use-related problems. The elevated risks among relatives of probands with ASD suggest shared familial (genetic and/or shared environmental) liability.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few epidemiological data on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exist for Arabic countries. We conducted the first survey of ASD in Qatar, a population with high consanguinity level. METHODS:This cross-sectional survey was conducted from 2015 to 2018 in Qatar school-age children (N = 176,960) from national and immigrant families. Children diagnosed with ASD were identified through medical centers and special needs schools. Records were abstracted and supplemented by parental interviews. Additionally, children attending 93 schools were screened; ASD case status was confirmed in random samples of screen-positive and screen-negative children. Prevalence was estimated after taking into account different sampling fractions and participation rates at each survey phase. RESULTS:One thousand three hundred and ninety-three children already diagnosed with ASD were identified. Among 9,074 school survey participants, 760 screen-negative children and 163 screen-positive children were evaluated; 17 were confirmed to have ASD including five children newly diagnosed. Prevalence was 1.14% (95% CI: 0.89-1.46) among 6- to 11-year-olds. ASD was reported in full siblings/extended relatives in 5.9% (95% CI: 0.042-0.080)/11.8% (95% CI: 0.095-0.146) families. First-degree consanguinity in Qatari cases (45%) was comparable to known population levels. Among 844 ASD cases (mean age: 7.2 years; 81% male), most children experienced language delay (words: 75.1%; phrase speech: 91.4%), and 19.4% reported developmental regression. At the time of the survey, persisting deficits in expressive language (19.4%) and peer interactions (14.0%) were reported in conjunction with behavioral problems (ADHD: 30.2%; anxiety: 11.0%). In multivariate logistic regression, ASD severity was associated with parental consanguinity, gestational diabetes, delay in walking, and developmental regression. CONCLUSIONS:ASD prevalence in Qatar is consistent with recent international studies. The methods employed in this study should help designing comparable surveys in the region. We estimated that 187,000 youths under age 20 have ASD in Gulf countries. This figure should assist in planning health and educational services for a young, fast-growing population.
Project description:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occurs with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although methylphenidate (MPH) efficacy and safety are well-demonstrated for ADHD, evidences are scant in the context of ASD. This naturalistic study aimed to analyze long-term MPH efficacy and safety in 40 ADHD children and adolescents with comorbid ASD, comparing them with 40 ones affected by ADHD without ASD. Treatment lasted from 6 to 156 months (longer than 24 months in more than three quarters of patients). Efficacy and safety were measured by clinical global impression and children global assessment scales; influence of intellectual functioning was examined. Comparisons between groups were made by Wilcoxon or Friedmann tests; relationships between functioning scores and other characteristics were analyzed by ordinal logistic and linear regression. Results demonstrated that MPH in patients with ASD was associated with significative reduction of illness severity, clinical improvement and amelioration of global functioning, without significant differences with patients having ADHD without ASD. The trend of reduction of illness severity and increase of global functioning were favorably related with intellectual functioning. No serious adverse events were reported. The findings showed that long-term MPH was effective and well-tolerated in ADHD children and adolescents with comorbid high functioning ASD.
Project description:Antidepressants are prescribed for the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents, however there is still controversy about whether they should be used in this population. This meta-review aimed to assess the effects of antidepressants for the acute treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorders (ADs), autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), enuresis, major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children and adolescents. Efficacy was measured as response to treatment (either as mean overall change in symptoms or as a dichotomous outcome) and tolerability was measured as the proportion of patients discontinuing treatment due to adverse events. Suicidality was measured as suicidal ideation, behavior (including suicide attempts) and completed suicide. PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were systematically searched (until 31 October 2019) for existing systematic reviews and/or meta-analyses of double-blind randomized controlled trials. The quality of the included reviews was appraised using AMSTAR-2. Our meta-review included nine systematic reviews/meta-analyses (2 on ADHD; 1 on AD; 2 on ASD; 1 on enuresis; 1 on MDD, 1 on OCD and 1 on PTSD). In terms of efficacy this review found that, compared to placebo: fluoxetine was more efficacious in the treatment of MDD, fluvoxamine and paroxetine were better in the treatment of AD; fluoxetine and sertraline were more efficacious in the treatment of OCD; bupropion and desipramine improved clinician and teacher-rated ADHD symptoms; clomipramine and tianeptine were superior on some of the core symptoms of ASD; and no antidepressant was more efficacious for PTSD and enuresis. With regard to tolerability: imipramine, venlafaxine, and duloxetine were less well tolerated in MDD; no differences were found for any of the antidepressants in the treatment of anxiety disorders (ADs), ADHD, and PTSD; tianeptine and citalopram, but not clomipramine, were less well tolerated in children and adolescents with ASD. For suicidal behavior/ideation, venlafaxine (in MDD) and paroxetine (in AD) were associated with a significantly increased risk; by contrast, sertraline (in AD) was associated with a reduced risk. The majority of included systematic reviews/meta-analyses were rated as being of high or moderate in quality by the AMSTAR-2 critical appraisal tool (one and five, respectively). One included study was of low quality and two were of critically low quality. Compared to placebo, selected antidepressants can be efficacious in the acute treatment of some common psychiatric disorders, although statistically significant differences do not always translate into clinically significant results. Little information was available about tolerability of antidepressants in RCTs of OCD and in the treatment of ADHD, ASD, MDD, and PTSD. There is a paucity of data on suicidal ideation/behavior, but paroxetine may increase the risk of suicidality in the treatment of AD and venlafaxine for MDD. Findings from this review must be considered in light of potential limitations, such as the lack of comparative information about many antidepressants, the short-term outcomes and the quality of the available evidence.
Project description:Importance:Recent reports have demonstrated a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and substantially elevated autistic trait burden in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). However, important discrepancies regarding the distribution of autistic traits, sex predominance, and association between ASD symptoms and attentional problems have emerged, and critical features of the ASD phenotype within NF1 have never been adequately explored. Establishing NF1 as a monogenic cause for ASD has important implications for affected patients and for future research focused on establishing convergent pathogenic mechanisms relevant to the potential treatment targets for ASD. Objective:To characterize the quantitative autistic trait (QAT) burden in a pooled NF1 data set. Design, Setting, and Participants:Anonymized, individual-level primary data were accumulated from 6 tertiary referral centers in the United States, Belgium, United Kingdom, and Australia. A total of 531 individuals recruited from NF1 clinical centers were included in the study. Main Outcomes and Measures:Distribution of ASD traits (Social Responsiveness Scale, second edition [SRS-2], with T scores of ?75 associated with a categorical ASD diagnosis); attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits (4 versions of Conners Rating Scale, with T scores of ?65 indicating clinically significant ADHD symptoms); ASD symptom structure, latent structure, base rate derived from mixture modeling; and familiality. Results:Of the 531 patients included in the analysis, 247 were male (46.5%); median age was 11 years (range, 2.5-83.9 years). QAT scores were continuously distributed and pathologically shifted; 13.2% (95% CI, 10.3%-16.1%) of individuals scored within the most severe range (ie, above the first percentile of the general population distribution) in which the male to female ratio was markedly attenuated (1.6:1) relative to idiopathic ASD. Autistic symptoms in this NF1 cohort demonstrated a robust unitary factor structure, with the first principal component explaining 30.9% of the variance in SRS-2 scores, and a strong association with ADHD symptoms (r?=?0.61). Within-family correlation for QAT burden (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.73 in NF1-affected first-degree relatives) exceeded that observed in the general population and ASD family samples. Conclusions and Relevance:This study provides confirmation that the diversity of mutations that give rise to NF1 function as quantitative trait loci for ASD. Moreover, the within-family correlation implicates a high degree of mutational specificity for this associated phenotype. Clinicians should be alerted to the increased frequency of this disabling comorbidity, and the scientific community should be aware of the potential for this monogenic disorder to help elucidate the biological features of idiopathic autism.
Project description:Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be viewed as the extreme end of traits in the general population. Epidemiological and twin studies suggest that ADHD frequently co-occurs with and shares genetic susceptibility with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ASD-related traits. The aims of this study were to determine whether a composite of common molecular genetic variants, previously found to be associated with clinically diagnosed ADHD, predicts ADHD and ASD-related traits in the general population.Polygenic risk scores were calculated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) population sample (N = 8229) based on a discovery case-control genome-wide association study of childhood ADHD. Regression analyses were used to assess whether polygenic scores predicted ADHD traits and ASD-related measures (pragmatic language abilities and social cognition) in the ALSPAC sample. Polygenic scores were also compared in boys and girls endorsing any (rating ? 1) ADHD item (n = 3623).Polygenic risk for ADHD showed a positive association with ADHD traits (hyperactive-impulsive, p = .0039; inattentive, p = .037). Polygenic risk for ADHD was also negatively associated with pragmatic language abilities (p = .037) but not with social cognition (p = .43). In children with a rating ? 1 for ADHD traits, girls had a higher polygenic score than boys (p = .003).These findings provide molecular genetic evidence that risk alleles for the categorical disorder of ADHD influence hyperactive-impulsive and attentional traits in the general population. The results further suggest that common genetic variation that contributes to ADHD diagnosis may also influence ASD-related traits, which at their extreme are a characteristic feature of ASD.
Project description:Children with learning disability (LD), intellectual disability (ID), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) reported higher risk of being bullied compared to their peers. Controlling for the co-morbidity of different diagnosis is important in investigating the frequency of bullying. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the pathway relationship of adolescents' psychiatric diagnoses, including LD, ID, ADHD, ASD, with being bullied, their self-perceived psychological well-being (PWB) and social adaptation status (SAS) in 12-years-olds.The Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study dataset (N = 1561) was used. The Chinese Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to measure PWB and SAS.Adolescent-reported rate of bullying was 25.4%, while only 2.8% of the parents reported knowing their child had been bullied. Boys reported higher rate of being bullied than girls. Adolescents with ADHD were not at higher risk of being bullied compared to their peers, nevertheless, they perceived lower level of SAS. Adolescents diagnosed with ID and ASD reported 63% rate of bullying and those who have been bullied perceived lower level of happiness.Adolescents with ADHD reported lower level of SAS, for disruption of harmony is even less acceptable in the Asian culture. Adolescents with ID and ASD reported higher rate of bullying than their peers and perceived lower level of happiness. A gap was found between parent and adolescent-reported rate of bullying. Encouraging adolescents to seek adult protection and support to reduce the effect of bullying on the perceived level of happiness is important.