Discovery, Semisynthesis, Antiparasitic and Cytotoxic Evaluation of 14-Membered Resorcylic Acid Lactones and Their Derivatives.
ABSTRACT: Ten antifouling 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones 1-10 were isolated previously with low or trace natural abundance from the zoanthid-derived Cochliobolus lunatus fungus. Further optimization of fermentation conditions led to the isolation of two major natural compounds 7 and 8 with multi-gram quantities. By one or two steps, we semisynthesized the six trace natural compounds 1-6 and a series of derivatives 11-27 of compounds 7 and 8 with high yields (65-95%). Compounds 11-13 showed strong antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum with IC50 values of 1.84, 8.36, and 6.95??M, respectively. Very importantly, 11 and 12 were non-toxic with very safety and high therapeutic indices (CC50/IC50?>?180), and thus representing potential promising leads for antiplasmodial drug discovery. Furthermore, 11 was the only compound showed obvious antileishmanial activity against Leishmania donovani with an IC50 value of 9.22??M. Compounds 11 and 12 showed the values of IC50 at 11.9 and 17.2??M against neglected Chagas' disease causing Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively.
Project description:Fourteen new resorcylic acid lactones (1-14) were isolated from an organic extract of a culture of a freshwater aquatic fungus Halenospora sp. originating from a stream in North Carolina. The structures were elucidated using a set of spectroscopic and spectrometric techniques. The absolute configuration of one representative member of the compounds (7) was assigned using X-ray crystallography of an analogue that incorporated a heavy atom, whereas for compounds 8-11, a modified Mosher's ester method was utilized. The relative configurations of compounds 12-14 were determined on the basis of NOE data. Compounds 12-14 were proposed as artifacts produced by intramolecular cycloetherification of the ?-hydroxy-?,?-unsaturated ketone moieties of the parent compounds during the purification processes. The isolated compounds, except for 8 and 12, were tested against the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) and HT-29 (colon) cancer cell lines. Compound 5 was the most potent, with IC50 values of 2.9 and 7.5 ?M, respectively. The compounds were evaluated as TAK1-TAB1 inhibitors but were found to be inactive.
Project description:The natural product L-783277 is a resorcylic lactone type covalent kinase inhibitor. We have prepared the 5'-deoxy analogue of L-783277 (1) in a stereoselective fashion. Remarkably, this analogue retains almost the full kinase inhibitory potential of natural L-783277, with low nanomolar IC50 values against the most sensitive kinases, and it exhibits essentially the same selectivity profile (within the panel of 39 kinases investigated). In contrast, removal of both the 4'- and the 5'-hydroxyl groups leads to a more significant reduction in kinase inhibitory activity and so does a change in the geometry of the C7'-C8' double bond in 1 from Z to E. These findings offer new perspectives for the design of second generation resorcylic lactone-based kinase inhibitors.
Project description:Eight new ?-resorcylic acid lactones (RALs), including the hypothemycin-type compounds paecilomycins N-P (1-3) and the radicicol-type metabolites dechloropochonin I (4), monocillins VI (5) and VII (6), 4'-hydroxymonocillin IV (7), and 4'-methoxymonocillin IV (8), along with nine known RALs (9-17), were isolated from the cultures of Paecilomyces sp. SC0924. Compounds 1 and 2 feature a novel 6/11/5 ring system, and 3 is the first 5'-keto RAL. The structures of 1-8 were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis, and theoretical calculations of ECD spectra. Compounds 3, 5, and 6 exhibit cytotoxicity against MCF-7, A549, and HeLa cells, and compounds 5 and 7 display antifungal activity against Peronophythora litchii.
Project description:As part of our ongoing investigation of filamentous fungi for anticancer leads, an active fungal extract was identified from the Mycosynthetix library (MSX 63935; related to Phoma sp.). The initial extract exhibited cytotoxic activity against the H460 (human non-small cell lung carcinoma) and SF268 (human astrocytoma) cell lines and was selected for further study. Bioactivity-directed fractionation yielded resorcylic acid lactones (RALs) 1 (a new natural product) and 3 (a new compound) and the known RALs zeaenol (2), (5E)-7-oxozeaenol (4), (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol (5), and LL-Z1640-1 (6). Reduction of (5E)-7-oxozeaenol (4) with sodium borohydride produced 3, which allowed assignment of the absolute configuration of 3. Other known resorcylic acid lactones (7-12) were purchased and assayed in parallel for cytotoxicity with isolated 1-6 to investigate structure-activity relationships in the series. Moreover, the isolated compounds (1-6) were examined for activity in a suite of biological assays, including antibacterial, mitochondria transmembrane potential, and NF-?B. In the latter assay, compounds 1 and 5 displayed sub-micromolar activities that were on par with the positive control, and as such, these compounds may serve as a lead scaffold for future medicinal chemistry studies.
Project description:Bioassay-guided fractionation of a fungus Neocosmospora sp. (UM-031509) resulted in the isolation of three new resorcylic acid lactones, neocosmosin A (2), neocosmosin B (3), and neocosmosin C (4). Three known resorcylic acid lactones, monocillin IV (1), monocillin II (5), and radicicol (6), were also isolated and identified. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, mass spectrometric (ESIMS) data, and X-ray crystallography. Compounds 4-6 show good binding affinity for the human opioid receptors. These findings have important implications for evaluating the potential psychoactive effects with this class of compounds.
Project description:The natural product aigialomycin D (1) is a member of the resorcylic acid lactone (RAL) family possessing protein kinase inhibitory activities. This paper describes the synthesis of aigialomycin D and a series of its analogues and their activity for the inhibition of protein kinases related to cancer pathways. A preliminary study of these compounds in the inhibition of CDK2/cyclin A kinase has found that aigialomycin D and analogues 11 and 23 are moderate CDK2/cyclin A inhibitors with IC50 values of ca. 20 ?M. Kinase profiling of aigialomycin D against a panel of kinases has led to the identification of MNK2 as a promising target (IC50 = 0.45 ?M), and preliminary structure-activity relationship studies have been carried out to identify the essential functional groups for activity.
Project description:An extract of Petradoria pumila from the Natural Products Discovery Institute was found to have moderate antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value between 5 and 10 ?g/mL. The four new diterpenoids petradoriolides A-D (1-4), the new benzotropolone petradoriolone (5), and the two known lignans 6 and 7 were isolated after bioassay-directed fractionation. The structures and stereochemistries of the new compounds were determined by interpretation of NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and ECD spectra. Among these compounds, petradoriolide C (3) displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value of 7.3 ?M.
Project description:Two important biologically active compounds were isolated from Mallotus philippensis. The isolated compounds were characterized using spectroanalytical techniques and found to be bergenin (1) and 11-O-galloylbergenin (2). The in vitro antioxidant and antiplasmodial activities of the isolated compounds were determined. For the antioxidant potential, three standard analytical protocols, namely, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), reducing power assay (RPA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay, were adopted. The results showed that compound 2 was found to be more potent antioxidant as compared to 1. Fascinatingly, compound 2 displayed better EC50 results as compared to ?-tocopherol while being comparable with ascorbic acid. The antiplasmodial assay data showed that both the compound exhibited good activity against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum (D10) and IC50 values were found to be less than 8??M. The in silico molecular docking analyses were also performed for the determination of binding affinity of the isolated compounds using P. falciparum proteins PfLDH and Pfg27. The results showed that compound 2 has high docking score and binding affinity to both protein receptors as compared to compound 1. The demonstrated biological potentials declared that compound 2 could be the better natural antioxidant and antiplasmodial candidate.
Project description:Five new 12-membered resorcylic acid lactone derivatives, penicimenolides A-E (1-5), one new ring-opened resorcylic acid lactone derivative penicimenolide F (6), and six known biogenetically related derivatives (7-12) were isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Penicillium sp. (NO. SYP-F-7919), a fungus obtained from the rhizosphere soil of Panax notoginseng collected from the Yunnan province of China. Their structures were elucidated by extensive NMR analyses, a modified Mosher's method, chemical derivatization and single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Compounds 2-4 exhibited potent cytotoxicity against the U937 and MCF-7 tumour cell lines and showed moderate cytotoxic activity against the SH-SY5Y and SW480 tumour cell lines. The substitution of an acetyloxy or 2-hydroxypropionyloxy group at C-7 significantly increased the cytotoxic activity of the resorcylic acid lactone derivatives. Subsequently, the possible mechanism of compound 2 against MCF-7 cells was preliminarily investigated by in silico analysis and experimental validation, indicating compound 2 may act as a potential MEK/ERK inhibitor. Moreover, proteomics analysis was performed to explore compound 2-regulated concrete mechanism underlying MEK/ERK pathway, which is still need further study in the future. In addition, compounds 2-4 and 7 exhibited a significant inhibitory effect on NO production induced by LPS.
Project description:A dichloromethane extract of Trichospira verticillata from the Natural Products Discovery Institute was discovered to have good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 ?5 ?g/mL). After purification by liquid-liquid partition and C18 reversed-phase HPLC, four new germacranolide-type sesquiterpenoid lactones named trichospirolides A-D (1-4) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. The relative and absolute configurations were assigned based on a comparison of calculated and experimental ECD and UV spectra, specific rotations, internuclear distances, and coupling constants for all possible diastereomers for each compound. Among these four compounds, the conjugated dienone 1 displayed the most potent antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 value of 1.5 ?M.