Synthesis of High-Quality Graphene and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Monolayer In-Plane Heterostructure on Cu-Ni Alloy.
ABSTRACT: Graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) monolayer in-plane heterostructure offers a novel material platform for both fundamental research and device applications. To obtain such a heterostructure in high quality via controllable synthetic approaches is still challenging. In this work, in-plane epitaxy of graphene/h-BN heterostructure is demonstrated on Cu-Ni substrates. The introduction of nickel to copper substrate not only enhances the capability of decomposing polyaminoborane residues but also promotes graphene growth via isothermal segregation. On the alloy surface partially covered by h-BN, graphene is found to nucleate at the corners of the as-formed h-BN grains, and the high growth rate for graphene minimizes the damage of graphene-growth process on h-BN lattice. As a result, high-quality graphene/h-BN in-plane heterostructure with epitaxial relationship can be formed, which is supported by extensive characterizations. Photodetector device applications are demonstrated based on the in-plane heterostructure. The success will have important impact on future research and applications based on this unique material platform.
Project description:Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy is a powerful technique for investigating lattice dynamics of nanoscale systems including graphene and small molecules, but establishing a stable tunnel junction is considered as a major hurdle in expanding the scope of tunneling experiments. Hexagonal boron nitride is a pivotal component in two-dimensional Van der Waals heterostructures as a high-quality insulating material due to its large energy gap and chemical-mechanical stability. Here we present planar graphene/h-BN-heterostructure tunneling devices utilizing thin h-BN as a tunneling insulator. With much improved h-BN-tunneling-junction stability, we are able to probe all possible phonon modes of h-BN and graphite/graphene at ? and K high symmetry points by inelastic tunneling spectroscopy. Additionally, we observe that low-frequency out-of-plane vibrations of h-BN and graphene lattices are significantly modified at heterostructure interfaces. Equipped with an external back gate, we can also detect high-order coupling phenomena between phonons and plasmons, demonstrating that h-BN-based tunneling device is a wonderful playground for investigating electron-phonon couplings in low-dimensional systems.
Project description:Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules in solution typically form coiled structures, therefore stretching ssDNA is extremely crucial before applying any nanotechnology for ssDNA analysis. Recent advances in material fabrication enable the deployment of nanochannels to manipulate, stretch, sort and map double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules, however nanochannels fail to stretch ssDNA molecules due to the ultra-short persistence length and the potential nonspecific-interaction-induced clogging. Given the significance of ssDNA stretching in genome analysis, here we report an ssDNA stretching platform: two dimensional in-plane heterostructure comprising graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and show that ssDNA can be stretched on a h-BN nanostripe sandwiched between two adjacent graphene domains ("nanochannel"). We further show that with a biasing voltage the stretched ssDNA can be electrophoretically transported along the "nanochannel", allowing easy controls/manipulations. When being conveniently integrated with existing atomic resolution sensors, the heterostructure platform paves the way for sequencing DNA on a planar surface.
Project description:In this paper, owing to the electrostatic interaction between graphene and h-BN, a facile liquid phase exfoliation method was carried out to fabricate h-BN/graphene based van der Waals heterostructure nanocomposites without additional chemical cross-linkers. The physicochemical properties of as-prepared composites were characterized by several electron microscopic and spectroscopic measurements. The h-BN/graphene heterostructure composites were employed to use as the anodes of asymmetric supercapacitor, and exhibited exceptional capacitive performance due to their synergistic effects. It is expected that the as-prepared h-BN/graphene materials can boost scalable heterostructure electrodes in supercapacitors, and our liquid phase exfoliation method can be used for the construction of the other energy storage and electronics.
Project description:MoS2 is a layered two-dimensional semiconductor with a direct band gap of 1.8 eV. The MoS2/bulk semiconductor system offers a new platform for solar cell device design. Different from the conventional bulk p-n junctions, in the MoS2/bulk semiconductor heterostructure, static charge transfer shifts the Fermi level of MoS2 toward that of bulk semiconductor, lowering the barrier height of the formed junction. Herein, we introduce hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into MoS2/GaAs heterostructure to suppress the static charge transfer, and the obtained MoS2/h-BN/GaAs solar cell exhibits an improved power conversion efficiency of 5.42%. More importantly, the sandwiched h-BN makes the Fermi level tuning of MoS2 more effective. By employing chemical doping and electrical gating into the solar cell device, PCE of 9.03% is achieved, which is the highest among all the reported monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide based solar cells.
Project description:The thermoelectric voltage generated at an atomically abrupt interface has not been studied exclusively because of the lack of established measurement tools and techniques. Atomically thin 2D materials provide an excellent platform for studying the thermoelectric transport at these interfaces. Here, we report a novel technique and device structure to probe the thermoelectric transport across Au/h-BN/graphene heterostructures. An indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrical heater is patterned on top of this heterostructure, enabling Raman spectroscopy and thermometry to be obtained from the graphene top electrode in situ under device operating conditions. Here, an AC voltage V(?) is applied to the ITO heater and the thermoelectric voltage across the Au/h-BN/graphene heterostructure is measured at 2? using a lock-in amplifier. We report the Seebeck coefficient for our thermoelectric structure to be -215 ?V/K. The Au/graphene/h-BN heterostructures enable us to explore thermoelectric and thermal transport on nanometer length scales in a regime of extremely short length scales. The thermoelectric voltage generated at the graphene/h-BN interface is due to thermionic emission rather than bulk diffusive transport. As such, this should be thought of as an interfacial Seebeck coefficient rather than a Seebeck coefficient of the constituent materials.
Project description:Van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are expected to play a key role in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. In this study, the band alignment of a vdW heterostructure with 2D polar materials was studied using first-principles calculations. As a model case study, single-sided fluorographene (a 2D polar material) on insulating (h-BN) and metallic (graphite) substrates was investigated to understand the band alignment behavior of polar materials. Single-sided fluorographene was found to have a potential difference along the out-of-plane direction. This potential difference provided as built-in potential at the interface, which shift the band alignment between h-BN and graphite. The interface characteristics were highly dependent on the interface terminations because of this built-in potential. Interestingly, this band alignment can be modified with a capping layer of graphene or BN because the capping layer triggered electronic reconstruction near the interface. This is because the bonding nature is not covalent, but van der Waals, which made it possible to avoid Fermi-level pinning at the interface. The results of this study showed that diverse types of band alignment can be achieved using polar materials and an appropriate capping layer.
Project description:In-plane and vertically stacked heterostructures of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN-G and G/h-BN, respectively) are both recent focuses of graphene research. However, targeted synthesis of either heterostructure remains a challenge. Here, via chemical vapour deposition and using benzoic acid precursor, we have achieved the selective growth of h-BN-G and G/h-BN through a temperature-triggered switching reaction. The perfect in-plane h-BN-G is characterized by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), showing atomically patched graphene and h-BN with typical zigzag edges. In contrast, the vertical alignment of G/h-BN is confirmed by unique lattice-mismatch-induced moiré patterns in high-resolution STM images, and two sets of aligned selected area electron diffraction spots, both suggesting a van der Waals epitaxial mechanism. The present work demonstrates the chemical designability of growth process for controlled synthesis of graphene and h-BN heterostructures. With practical scalability, high uniformity and quality, our approach will promote the development of graphene-based electronics and optoelectronics.
Project description:In-plane heterostructure of monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene is of great interest for its tunable bandgap and other unique properties. Here, we reveal a H2-induced etching process to introduce triangular hole in triangular-shaped chemical vapor deposited individual h-BN crystal. In this study, we synthesized regular triangular-shaped h-BN crystals with the sizes around 2-10 ?m on Cu foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The etching behavior of individual h-BN crystal was investigated by annealing at different temperature in an H2:Ar atmosphere. Annealing at 900 °C, etching of h-BN was observed from crystal edges with no visible etching at the center of individual crystals. While, annealing at a temperature ? 950 °C, highly anisotropic etching was observed, where the etched areas were equilateral triangle-shaped with same orientation as that of original h-BN crystal. The etching process and well-defined triangular hole formation can be significant platform to fabricate planar heterostructure with graphene or other two-dimensional (2D) materials.
Project description:Combinations of 2D materials with different physical properties can form heterostructures with modified electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and optical properties. The direct observation of a lateral heterostructure synthesis is reported by epitaxial in-plane graphene growth from the step-edge of hexagonal BN (h-BN) within a scanning transmission electron microscope chamber. Residual hydrocarbon in the chamber is the carbon source. The growth interface between h-BN and graphene is atomically identified as largely N-C bonds. This postgrowth method can form graphene nanoribbons connecting two h-BN domains with different twisting angles, as well as isolated carbon islands with arbitrary shapes embedded in the h-BN layer. The electronic properties of the vertically stacked h-BN/graphene heterostructures are investigated by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). Low-loss EELS analysis of the dielectric response suggests a robust coupling effect between the graphene and h-BN layers.
Project description:Intensive efforts have been devoted to the exploration of new optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) owing to their strong light-matter interaction and distinctive material properties. In particular, photodetectors featuring both high-speed and high-responsivity performance are of great interest for a vast number of applications such as high-data-rate interconnects operated at standardized telecom wavelengths. Yet, the intrinsically small carrier mobilities of TMDCs become a bottleneck for high-speed application use. Here, we present high-performance vertical van der Waals heterostructure-based photodetectors integrated on a silicon photonics platform. Our vertical MoTe2-graphene heterostructure design minimizes the carrier transit path length in TMDCs and enables a record-high measured bandwidth of at least 24?GHz under a moderate bias voltage of -3?V. Applying a higher bias or employing thinner MoTe2 flakes boosts the bandwidth even to 50?GHz. Simultaneously, our device reaches a high external responsivity of 0.2?A?W-1 for incident light at 1,300?nm, benefiting from the integrated waveguide design. Our studies shed light on performance trade-offs and present design guidelines for fast and efficient devices. The combination of two-diemensional heterostructures and integrated guided-wave nano photonics defines an attractive platform to realize high-performance optoelectronic devices, such as photodetectors, light-emitting devices and electro-optic modulators.