Caveolin-1-dependent nanoscale organization of the BCR regulates B cell tolerance.
ABSTRACT: Caveolin-1 (Cav1) regulates the nanoscale organization and compartmentalization of the plasma membrane. Here we found that Cav1 controlled the distribution of nanoclusters of isotype-specific B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) on the surface of B cells. In mature B cells stimulated with antigen, the immunoglobulin M BCR (IgM-BCR) gained access to lipid domains enriched for GM1 glycolipids, by a process that was dependent on the phosphorylation of Cav1 by the Src family of kinases. Antigen-induced reorganization of nanoclusters of IgM-BCRs and IgD-BCRs regulated BCR signaling in vivo. In immature Cav1-deficient B cells, altered nanoscale organization of IgM-BCRs resulted in a failure of receptor editing and a skewed repertoire of B cells expressing immunoglobulin-? heavy chains with hallmarks of poly- and auto-reactivity, which ultimately led to autoimmunity in mice. Thus, Cav1 emerges as a cell-intrinsic regulator that prevents B cell-induced autoimmunity by means of its role in plasma-membrane organization.
Project description:B-cell activation is initiated by the binding of antigen to the B-cell receptor (BCR). Here we used dSTORM superresolution imaging to characterize the nanoscale spatial organization of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG BCRs on the surfaces of resting and antigen--activated human peripheral blood B-cells. We provide insights into both the fundamental process of antigen-driven BCR clustering and differences in the spatial organization of IgM and IgG BCRs that may contribute to the characteristic differences in the responses of naive and memory B-cells to antigen. We provide evidence that although both IgM and IgG BCRs reside in highly heterogeneous protein islands that vary in size and number of BCR single-molecule localizations, both resting and activated B-cells intrinsically maintain a high -frequency of single isolated BCR localizations, which likely represent BCR monomers. IgG BCRs are more clustered than IgM BCRs on resting cells and form larger protein islands after antigen activation. Small, dense BCR clusters likely formed via protein-protein interactions are present on the surface of resting cells, and antigen activation induces these to come together to form less dense, larger islands, a process likely governed, at least in part, by protein-lipid interactions.
Project description:Stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) triggers signaling pathways that promote the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells. Despite the pivotal function of BCR in B cell activation, the organization of the BCR on the surface of resting and antigen-activated B cells remains unclear. Here we show, using STED super-resolution microscopy, that IgM-containing BCRs exist predominantly as monomers and dimers in the plasma membrane of resting B cells, but form higher oligomeric clusters upon stimulation. By contrast, a chronic lymphocytic leukemia-derived BCR forms dimers and oligomers in the absence of a stimulus, but a single amino acid exchange reverts its organization to monomers in unstimulated B cells. Our super-resolution microscopy approach for quantitatively analyzing cell surface proteins may thus help reveal the nanoscale organization of immunoreceptors in various cell types.
Project description:Antigen binding to B-cell antigen receptors (BCRs) followed by signaling initiates the humoral immune response. The signaling is intimately coupled to nanoclustering of BCRs and their sorting to specific membrane domains, a process that is ruled by interactions between the BCR transmembrane domain and lipids. While the structure of the extracellular domains of BCRs has been resolved, little is known about the configuration of the constituting four immunoglobulin domains spanning the membrane. Here, we modeled the structure of the transmembrane (TM) domain of the IgM B-cell receptor using self-assembly coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. The obtained quaternary structure was validated against available experimental data and atomistic simulations. The IgM-BCR-TM domain configuration shows a 1:1 stoichiometry between the homodimeric membrane-bound domain of IgM (mIgM) and a Ig-?/Ig-? heterodimer. The mIgM homodimer is based on an asymmetric association of two mIgM domains. We show that a specific site of the Ig-?/Ig-? heterodimer is responsible for the association of IgM-BCRs with lipid rafts. Our results further suggest that this site is blocked in small-sized IgM-BCR clusters. The BCR TM structure provides a molecular basis for the previously suggested dissociation activation model of B-cell receptors. Self-assembly molecular dynamics simulations at the coarse-grained scale here proved as a versatile tool in the study of receptor complexes.
Project description:After their first encounter with a foreign antigen, naïve B cells that have immunoglobulin M (IgM) B cell receptors (BCRs) trigger the primary antibody response and the generation of memory B cells with IgG BCRs. When these memory B cells reencounter the same antigen, the cell surface IgG BCRs stimulate their rapid differentiation into plasma cells that release large amounts of IgG antibodies. We showed that the conserved cytoplasmic tail of the IgG BCR, which contains a putative PDZ (postsynaptic density 95/disc large/zona occludens 1)-binding motif, associated with synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP97), a PDZ domain-containing scaffolding molecule that is involved in controlling receptor density and signal strength at neuronal synapses. SAP97 accumulated and bound to IgG BCRs in the immunological synapses that formed in response to B cell engagement with antigen. Knocking down SAP97 in IgG? B cells or mutating the putative PDZ-binding motif in the BCR tail impaired formation of the immunological synapse, initiation of IgG BCR signaling, and downstream activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38. Thus, heightened B cell memory responses are encoded, in part, by a mechanism that involves SAP97 serving as a scaffolding protein in the IgG BCR immunological synapse.
Project description:The organization and clustering of cell surface proteins plays a critical role in controlling receptor signaling; however, the biophysical mechanisms regulating these parameters are not well understood. Elucidating these mechanisms is highly significant to our understanding of immune function in health and disease, given the importance of B cell receptor (BCR) signaling in directing B cells to produce antibodies for the clearance of pathogens, and the potential deleterious effects of dysregulated BCR signaling, such as in B cell malignancies or autoimmune disease. One of main inhibitory co-receptors on B cells is CD22, a sialic-acid binding protein, which interacts homotypically with other sialylated CD22 molecules, as well as heterotypically with IgM and CD45. Although the importance of CD22 in attenuating BCR signaling is well established, we still do not fully understand what mediates CD22 organization and association to BCRs. CD22 is highly glycosylated, containing 12 N-linked glycosylation sites on its extracellular domain, the function of which remain to be resolved. We were interested in how these glycosylation sites mediate homotypic vs. heterotypic interactions. To this end, we mutated five out of the six N-linked glycosylation residues on CD22 localized closest to the sialic acid binding site. Glycan site N101 was not mutated as this resulted in lack of CD22 expression. We used dual-color super-resolution imaging to investigate the impact of altered glycosylation of CD22 on the nanoscale organization of CD22 and its association with BCR. We show that mutation of these five glycosylation sites increased the clustering tendency of CD22 and resulted in higher density CD22 nanoclusters. Consistent with these findings of altered CD22 organization, we found that mutation of N-glycan sites attenuated CD22 phosphorylation upon BCR stimulation, and consequently, increased BCR signaling. Importantly, we identified that these sites may be ligands for the soluble secreted lectin, galectin-9, and are necessary for galectin-9 mediated inhibition of BCR signaling. Taken together, these findings implicate N-linked glycosylation in the organization and function of CD22, likely through regulating heterotypic interactions between CD22 and its binding partners.
Project description:Membrane proteins are organized in nanoscale compartments. Their reorganization plays a crucial role in receptor activation and cell signaling. To monitor the organization and reorganization of membrane proteins, we developed a new branched proximity hybridization assay (bPHA) allowing better quantification of the nanoscale protein-protein proximity. In this assay, oligo-coupled binding probes, such as aptamer, nanobody, and antibodies, are used to translate the proximity of target proteins to the proximity of oligos. The closely positioned oligos then serve as a template for a maximum of 400-fold branched DNA (bDNA) signal amplification. The amplified bPHA signal is recorded by flow cytometer, thus enabling proximity studies with high throughput, multiplexing, and single-cell resolution. To demonstrate the potential of the bPHA method, we measured the reorganization of the immunoglobulin M (IgM)- and immunoglobulin D (IgD)-class B cell antigen receptor (BCR) on the plasma membrane and the recruitment of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) to the BCR upon B lymphocyte activation.
Project description:Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) has an uncertain role in the response to infection with and vaccination against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here we describe a regulatory role for IgG3 in dampening the immune system-activating effects of chronic HIV viremia on B cells. Secreted IgG3 was bound to IgM-expressing B cells in vivo in HIV-infected chronically viremic individuals but not in early-viremic or aviremic individuals. Tissue-like memory (TLM) B cells, a population expanded by persistent HIV viremia, bound large amounts of IgG3. IgG3 induced clustering of B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) on the IgM+ B cells, which was mediated by direct interactions between soluble IgG3 and membrane IgM of the BCR (IgM-BCR). The inhibitory IgG receptor CD32b (Fc?RIIb), complement component C1q and inflammatory biomarker CRP contributed to the binding of secreted IgG3 onto IgM-expressing B cells of HIV-infected individuals. Notably, IgG3-bound TLM B cells were refractory to IgM-BCR stimulation, thus demonstrating that IgG3 can regulate B cells during chronic activation of the immune system.
Project description:B lymphocytes use B cell receptors (BCRs) to recognize antigens. It is still not clear how BCR transduces antigen-specific physical signals upon binding across cell membrane for the conversion to chemical signals, triggering downstream signaling cascades. It is hypothesized that through a series of conformational changes within BCR, antigen engagement in the extracellular domain of BCR is transduced to its intracellular domain. By combining site-specific labeling methodology and FRET-based assay, we monitored conformational changes in the extracellular domains within BCR upon antigen engagement. Conformational changes within heavy chain of membrane-bound immunoglobulin (mIg), as well as conformational changes in the spatial relationship between mIg and Ig? were observed. These conformational changes were correlated with the strength of BCR activation and were distinct in IgM- and IgG-BCR. These findings provide molecular mechanisms to explain the fundamental aspects of BCR activation and a framework to investigate ligand-induced molecular events in immune receptors.
Project description:Memory B cells express high-affinity, immunoglobulin GB cell receptors (IgG BCRs) that enhance B cell responses, giving rise to the rapid production of high-affinity, IgG antibodies. Despite the central role of IgG BCRs in memory responses, the mechanisms by which the IgG BCRs function to enhance B cell responses are not fully understood. Using high-resolution live-cell imaging, we showed that IgG1 BCRs dramatically enhanced the earliest BCR-intrinsic events that followed within seconds of B cells' encounter with membrane bound antigen, including BCR oligomerization and BCR microcluster growth, leading to Syk kinase recruitment and calcium responses. The enhancement of these early events was dependent on a membrane proximal region of the IgG1 cytoplasmic tail not previously appreciated to play a role in IgG1 BCR signaling. Thus, intrinsic properties of the IgG1 BCR enhance early antigen-driven events that ultimately translate into heightened signaling.
Project description:B cells are activated in vivo after the B cell receptors (BCRs) bind to antigens captured on the surfaces of antigen-presenting cells. Antigen binding results in BCR microclustering and signaling; however, the molecular nature of the signaling-active BCR clusters is not well understood. Using single-molecule imaging techniques, we provide evidence that within microclusters, the binding of monovalent membrane antigens results in the assembly of immobile signaling-active BCR oligomers. The oligomerization depends on interactions between the membrane-proximal Cmicro4 domains of the membrane immunoglobulin that are both necessary and sufficient for assembly. Antigen-bound BCRs that lacked the Cmicro4 domain failed to cluster and signal, and conversely, Cmicro4 domains alone clustered spontaneously and activated B cells. These results support a unique mechanism for the initiation of BCR signaling in which antigen binding induces a conformational change in the Fc portion of the BCR, revealing an interface that promotes BCR clustering.