Small Circular Rep-Encoding Single-Stranded DNA Genomes in Peruvian Diarrhea Virome.
ABSTRACT: Metagenomic analysis of diarrhea samples revealed the presence of numerous human enteric viruses and small circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS-DNA) genomes. One such genome was related to smacoviruses, while eight others were related to genomes reported in the feces of different mammals. The tropism of these CRESS-DNA viruses remains unknown.
Project description:The Smacoviridae has recently been classified as a family of small circular single-stranded DNA viruses. An increasing number of smacovirus genomes have been identified exclusively in faecal matter of various vertebrate species and from insect body parts. However, the genetic diversity and host range of smacoviruses remains to be fully elucidated. Herein, we report the genetic characterization of eleven circular replication-associated protein (Rep) encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses detected in the faeces of Zambian non-human primates. Based on pairwise genome-wide and amino acid identities with reference smacovirus species, ten of the identified CRESS DNA viruses are assigned to the genera Porprismacovirus and Huchismacovirus of the family Smacoviridae, which bidirectionally encode two major open reading frames (ORFs): Rep and capsid protein (CP) characteristic of a type IV genome organization. The remaining unclassified CRESS DNA virus was related to smacoviruses but possessed a genome harbouring a unidirectionally oriented CP and Rep, assigned as a type V genome organization. Moreover, phylogenetic and recombination analyses provided evidence for recombination events encompassing the 3'-end of the Rep ORF in the unclassified CRESS DNA virus. Our findings increase the knowledge of the known genetic diversity of smacoviruses and highlight African non-human primates as carrier animals.
Project description:Smacoviridae is a family of small (~2.5?Kb) CRESS-DNA (Circular Rep Encoding Single-Stranded (ss) DNA) viruses. These viruses have been found in faeces, were thought to infect eukaryotes and are suspected to cause gastrointestinal disease in humans. CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes, wherein snippets of genomes from invaders are stored as spacers that are interspersed between a repeated CRISPR sequence. Here we report several spacer sequences in the faecal archaeon Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis matching smacoviruses, implicating the archaeon as a firm candidate for a host. This finding may be relevant to understanding the potential origin of smacovirus-associated human diseases. Our results support that CRESS-DNA viruses can infect non-eukaryotes, which would mean that smacoviruses are the viruses with the smallest genomes to infect prokaryotes known to date. A probable target strand bias suggests that, in addition to double-stranded DNA, the CRISPR-Cas system can target ssDNA.
Project description:Free-range cattle are common in the Northeast China area, which have close contact with farmers and may carry virus threatening to cattle and farmers.Using viral metagenomics we analyzed the virome in plasma samples collected from 80 cattle from the forested region of Northeast China.The virome of cattle plasma is composed of the viruses belonging to the families including Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Picobirnaviridae, and divergent viral genomes showing sequence similarity to circular Rep-encoding single stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses. Five such CRESS-DNA genomes were full characterized, with Rep sequences related to circovirus and gemycircularvirus. Three bovine parvoviruses belonging to two different genera were also characterized.The virome in plasma samples of cattle from the forested region of Northeast China was revealed, which further characterized the diversity of viruses in cattle plasma.
Project description:Viral metagenomics of feces collected from 58 Peruvian children with unexplained diarrhea revealed several small circular ssDNA genomes. Two genomes related to sequences previously reported in feces from chimpanzees and other mammals and recently named smacoviruses were characterized and then detected by PCR in 1.7 % (1/58) and 19 % (11/58) of diarrheal samples, respectively. Another three genomes from a distinct small circular ssDNA viral group provisionally called pecoviruses encoded Cap and Rep proteins with <35 % identity to those in related genomes reported in human, seal, porcine and dromedary feces. Pecovirus DNA was detected in 15.5 % (9/58), 5.9 % (3/51) and 3 % (3/100) of fecal samples from unexplained diarrhea in Peru, Nicaragua and Chile, respectively. Feces containing these ssDNA genomes also contained known human enteric viral pathogens. The cellular origins of these circular ssDNA viruses, whether human cells, ingested plants, animals or fungal foods, or residents of the gut microbiome, are currently unknown.
Project description:Here, we present the complete genome sequences of three circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded DNA (CRESS DNA) viruses detected in secondary treated and disinfected wastewater effluent. The discovered viruses, named wastewater CRESS DNA virus (WCDV)-1 to -3, represent novel viral species that seem to persist in wastewater effluent.
Project description:Viral metagenomics has recently revealed the ubiquitous and diverse nature of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses that encode a conserved replication initiator protein (Rep) in the marine environment. Although eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses were originally thought to only infect plants and vertebrates, recent studies have identified these viruses in a number of invertebrates. To further explore CRESS-DNA viruses in the marine environment, this study surveyed CRESS-DNA viruses in various marine invertebrate species. A total of 27 novel CRESS-DNA genomes, with Reps that share less than 60.1% identity with previously reported viruses, were recovered from 21 invertebrate species, mainly crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis based on the Rep revealed a novel clade of CRESS-DNA viruses that included approximately one third of the marine invertebrate associated viruses identified here and whose members may represent a novel family. Investigation of putative capsid proteins (Cap) encoded within the eukaryotic CRESS-DNA viral genomes from this study and those in GenBank demonstrated conserved patterns of predicted intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which can be used to complement similarity-based searches to identify divergent structural proteins within novel genomes. Overall, this study expands our knowledge of CRESS-DNA viruses associated with invertebrates and explores a new tool to evaluate divergent structural proteins encoded by these viruses.
Project description:Single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses are a major component of the earth virome. In particular, the circular, Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS-DNA) viruses show high diversity and abundance in various habitats. By combining sequence similarity network and phylogenetic analyses of the replication proteins (Rep) belonging to the HUH endonuclease superfamily, we show that the replication machinery of the CRESS-DNA viruses evolved, on three independent occasions, from the Reps of bacterial rolling circle-replicating plasmids. The CRESS-DNA viruses emerged via recombination between such plasmids and cDNA copies of capsid genes of eukaryotic positive-sense RNA viruses. Similarly, the rep genes of prokaryotic DNA viruses appear to have evolved from HUH endonuclease genes of various bacterial and archaeal plasmids. Our findings also suggest that eukaryotic polyomaviruses and papillomaviruses with dsDNA genomes have evolved via parvoviruses from CRESS-DNA viruses. Collectively, our results shed light on the complex evolutionary history of a major class of viruses revealing its polyphyletic origins.
Project description:Viruses encoding a replication-associated protein (Rep) within a covalently closed, single-stranded (ss)DNA genome are among the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotic organisms, including economically valuable agricultural crops and livestock. Although circular Rep-encoding ssDNA (CRESS DNA) viruses are a widespread group for which our knowledge is rapidly expanding, biased sampling toward vertebrates and land plants has limited our understanding of their diversity and evolution. Here, we screened terrestrial arthropods for CRESS DNA viruses and report the identification of 44 viral genomes and replicons associated with specimens representing all three major terrestrial arthropod lineages, namely Euchelicerata (spiders), Hexapoda (insects), and Myriapoda (millipedes). We identified virus genomes belonging to three established CRESS DNA viral families (Circoviridae, Genomoviridae, and Smacoviridae); however, over half of the arthropod-associated viral genomes are only distantly related to currently classified CRESS DNA viral sequences. Although members of viral and satellite families known to infect plants (Geminiviridae, Nanoviridae, Alphasatellitidae) were not identified in this study, these plant-infecting CRESS DNA viruses and replicons are transmitted by hemipterans. Therefore, members from six out of the seven established CRESS DNA viral families circulate among arthropods. Furthermore, a phylogenetic analysis of Reps, including endogenous viral sequences, reported to date from a wide array of organisms revealed that most of the known CRESS DNA viral diversity circulates among invertebrates. Our results highlight the vast and unexplored diversity of CRESS DNA viruses among invertebrates and parallel findings from RNA viral discovery efforts in undersampled taxa.
Project description:Over the last decade, arthropods have been shown to harbour a rich diversity of viruses. Through viral metagenomics a large diversity of single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses have been identified. Here we examine the ssDNA virome of the hematophagous New Zealand blackfly using viral metagenomics. Our investigation reveals a plethora of novel ssDNA viral genomes, some of which cluster in the viral families Genomoviridae (n = 9), Circoviridae (n = 1), and Microviridae (n = 108), others in putative families that, at present, remain unclassified (n = 20) and one DNA molecule that only encodes a replication associated protein. Among these novel viruses, two putative multi-component virus genomes were recovered, and these are most closely related to a Tongan flying fox faeces-associated multi-component virus. Given that the only other known multi-component circular replication-associated (Rep) protein encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses infecting plants are in the families Geminiviridae (members of the genus Begomovirus) and Nanoviridae, it appears these are likely a new multi-component virus group which may be associated with animals. This study reiterates the diversity of ssDNA viruses in nature and in particular with the New Zealand blackflies.
Project description:Numerous metagenomic studies have uncovered a remarkable diversity of circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, the majority of which are uncultured and unclassified. Unlike capsid proteins, the Reps show significant similarity across different groups of CRESS DNA viruses and have conserved domain organization with the N-terminal nuclease and the C-terminal helicase domain. Consequently, Rep is widely used as a marker for identification, classification and assessment of the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses. However, it has been shown that in certain viruses the Rep nuclease and helicase domains display incongruent evolutionary histories. Here, we systematically evaluated the co-evolutionary patterns of the two Rep domains across classified and unclassified CRESS DNA viruses. Our analysis indicates that the Reps encoded by members of the families Bacilladnaviridae, Circoviridae, Geminiviridae, Genomoviridae, Nanoviridae and Smacoviridae display largely congruent evolutionary patterns in the two domains. By contrast, among the unclassified CRESS DNA viruses, 71% appear to have chimeric Reps. Such massive chimerism suggests that unclassified CRESS DNA viruses represent a dynamic population in which exchange of gene fragments encoding the nuclease and helicase domains is extremely common. Furthermore, purging of the chimeric sequences uncovered six monophyletic Rep groups that may represent new families of CRESS DNA viruses.