Long time-lapse nanoscopy with spontaneously blinking membrane probes.
ABSTRACT: Imaging cellular structures and organelles in living cells by long time-lapse super-resolution microscopy is challenging, as it requires dense labeling, bright and highly photostable dyes, and non-toxic conditions. We introduce a set of high-density, environment-sensitive (HIDE) membrane probes, based on the membrane-permeable silicon-rhodamine dye HMSiR, that assemble in situ and enable long time-lapse, live-cell nanoscopy of discrete cellular structures and organelles with high spatiotemporal resolution. HIDE-enabled nanoscopy movies span tens of minutes, whereas movies obtained with labeled proteins span tens of seconds. Our data reveal 2D dynamics of the mitochondria, plasma membrane and filopodia, and the 2D and 3D dynamics of the endoplasmic reticulum, in living cells. HIDE probes also facilitate acquisition of live-cell, two-color, super-resolution images, expanding the utility of nanoscopy to visualize dynamic processes and structures in living cells.
Project description:Performing multi-color nanoscopy for extended times is challenging due to the rapid photobleaching rate of most fluorophores. Here we describe a new fluorophore (Yale-595) and a bio-orthogonal labeling strategy that enables two-color super-resolution (STED) and 3D confocal imaging of two organelles simultaneously for extended times using high-density environmentally sensitive (HIDE) probes. Because HIDE probes are small, cell-permeant molecules, they can visualize dual organelle dynamics in hard-to-transfect cell lines by super-resolution for over an order of magnitude longer than with tagged proteins. The extended time domain possible using these tools reveals dynamic nanoscale targeting between different organelles.
Project description:Abstract Subdiffraction super?resolution fluorescence microscopy, or nanoscopy, has seen remarkable developments in the last two decades. Yet, for the visualization of plant cells, nanoscopy is still rarely used. In this study, we established RESOLFT nanoscopy on living green plant tissue. Live?cell RESOLFT nanoscopy requires and utilizes comparatively low light doses and intensities to overcome the diffraction barrier. We generated a transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant line expressing the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2 fused to the mammalian microtubule?associated protein 4 (MAP4) in order to ubiquitously label the microtubule cytoskeleton. We demonstrate the use of RESOLFT nanoscopy for extended time?lapse imaging of cortical microtubules in Arabidopsis leaf discs. By combining our approach with fluorescence lifetime gating, we were able to acquire live?cell RESOLFT images even close to chloroplasts, which exhibit very strong autofluorescence. The data demonstrate the feasibility of subdiffraction resolution imaging in transgenic plant material with minimal requirements for sample preparation.
Project description:Super-resolution microscopy is broadening our in-depth understanding of cellular structure. However, super-resolution approaches are limited, for numerous reasons, from utilization in longer-term intravital imaging. We devised a combinatorial imaging technique that combines deconvolution with stepwise optical saturation microscopy (DeSOS) to circumvent this issue and image cells in their native physiological environment. Other than a traditional confocal or two-photon microscope, this approach requires no additional hardware. Here, we provide an open-access application to obtain DeSOS images from conventional microscope images obtained at low excitation powers. We show that DeSOS can be used in time-lapse imaging to generate super-resolution movies in zebrafish. DeSOS was also validated in live mice. These movies uncover that actin structures dynamically remodel to produce a single pioneer axon in a 'top-down' scaffolding event. Further, we identify an F-actin population - stable base clusters - that orchestrate that scaffolding event. We then identify that activation of Rac1 in pioneer axons destabilizes stable base clusters and disrupts pioneer axon formation. The ease of acquisition and processing with this approach provides a universal technique for biologists to answer questions in living animals.
Project description:We present an open-source implementation of the fluctuation-based nanoscopy method MUSICAL for ImageJ. This implementation improves the algorithm's computational efficiency and takes advantage of multi-threading to provide orders of magnitude faster reconstructions than the original MATLAB implementation. In addition, the plugin is capable of generating super-resolution videos from large stacks of time-lapse images via an interleaved reconstruction, thus enabling easy-to-use multi-color super-resolution imaging of dynamic systems.
Project description:Mitochondria are highly dynamic organelles that exhibit a complex inner architecture. They exhibit a smooth outer membrane and a highly convoluted inner membrane that forms invaginations called cristae. Imaging cristae in living cells poses a formidable challenge for super-resolution light microscopy. Relying on a cell line stably expressing the mitochondrial protein COX8A fused to the SNAP-tag and using STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy, we demonstrate the visualization of cristae dynamics in cultivated human cells. We show that in human HeLa cells lamellar cristae are often arranged in groups separated by voids that are generally occupied by mitochondrial nucleoids.
Project description:Far-field optical nanoscopy has been widely used to image small objects with sub-diffraction-limit spatial resolution. Particularly, reversible saturable optical fluorescence transition (RESOLFT) nanoscopy with photoswitchable fluorescent proteins is a powerful method for super-resolution imaging of living cells with low light intensity. Here we demonstrate for the first time the implementation of RESOLFT nanoscopy for a biological system using organic fluorophores, which are smaller in size and easier to be chemically modified. With a covalently-linked dye pair of Cy3 and Alexa647 to label subcellular structures in fixed cells and by optimizing the imaging buffer and optical parameters, our RESOLFT nanoscopy achieved a spatial resolution of ~74?nm in the focal plane. This method provides a powerful alternative for low light intensity RESOLFT nanoscopy, which enables biological imaging with small organic probes at nanoscale resolution.
Project description:We show far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of different structural elements labeled with an organic dye within living mammalian cells. The diffraction barrier limiting far-field light microscopy is outperformed by using stimulated emission depletion. We used the tagging protein hAGT (SNAP-tag), which covalently binds benzylguanine-substituted organic dyes, for labeling. Tetramethylrhodamine was used to image the cytoskeleton (vimentin and microtubule-associated protein 2) as well as structures located at the cell membrane (caveolin and connexin-43) with a resolution down to 40 nm. Comparison with structures labeled with the yellow fluorescent protein Citrine validates this labeling approach. Nanoscopic movies showing the movement of connexin-43 clusters across the cell membrane evidence the capability of this technique to observe structural changes on the nanoscale over time. Pulsed or continuous-wave lasers for excitation and stimulated emission depletion yield images of similar resolution in living cells. Hence fusion proteins that bind modified organic dyes expand widely the application range of far-field fluorescence nanoscopy of living cells.
Project description:The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ? 50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.
Project description:Development of nanoparticles for super-resolution imaging (sriNPs) can greatly enrich the toolbox of robust optical probes for biological studies. Moreover, sriNPs enable us to monitor the behavior of engineered nanomaterials in complex biological environments with high spatial resolution, which is important for advancing our understanding of nano-bio interactions. Up to now, reports on sriNPs have been scarce. In this work, we report a facile strategy to prepare protein-based fluorescent NPs that can be utilized as probes in super-resolution microscopy. The method is simple and straightforward, and easily extendible to other types of fluorophores. By using Atto647N-transferrin NPs as an example, we have achieved a roughly four-fold resolution improvement by using STED nanoscopy. These protein-based sriNPs possess excellent biocompatibility, good colloidal stability and photostability, making them attractive candidates for biological studies. Moreover, STED nanoscopy enables the precise imaging of NP structures in living cells, and revealed the co-existence of multiple NPs within one endosomal vesicle.
Project description:Overexpression is a notorious concern in conventional and especially in super-resolution fluorescence light microscopy studies because it may cause numerous artifacts including ectopic sub-cellular localizations, erroneous formation of protein complexes, and others. Nonetheless, current live cell super-resolution microscopy studies generally rely on the overexpression of a host protein fused to a fluorescent protein. Here, we establish CRISPR/Cas9-mediated generation of heterozygous and homozygous human knockin cell lines expressing fluorescently tagged proteins from their respective native genomic loci at close to endogenous levels. We tagged three different proteins, exhibiting various localizations and expression levels, with the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein rsEGFP2. We demonstrate the benefit of endogenous expression levels compared to overexpression and show that typical overexpression-induced artefacts were avoided in genome-edited cells. Fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis revealed a narrow distribution of fusion protein expression levels in genome-edited cells, compared to a pronounced variability in transiently transfected cells. Using low light intensity RESOLFT (reversible saturable optical fluorescence transitions) nanoscopy we show sub-diffraction resolution imaging of living human knockin cells. Our strategy to generate human cell lines expressing fluorescent fusion proteins at endogenous levels for RESOLFT nanoscopy can be extended to other fluorescent tags and super-resolution approaches.