Stress inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase expression in a rat model of depression.
ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) dysfunction is associated with the pathophysiology of depression. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, is believed to have essential role in many mental disorders, including depression. In the present study, we generated a rat model of depression by exposing the animals to stress, and the rats were then treated with paroxetine. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT in the brain and liver tissues were significantly lower in the rat model of depression than in healthy or treated rats. Immunohistochemical analyses of TPH1/2 showed less TPH1 and TPH2 expression, specifically TPH2, in the brain, liver and kidney of the depressive rats than in the healthy rats; In addition, the two TPH isoforms, TPH1 and TPH2, had different spatial distributions,the mRNAs of the TPH1/2 genes were significantly decreased and TPH1/2 were highly methylated in the depressive model rat, but treatment with paroxetine ameliorated the expression and methylation of TPH1/2. All together, stress was able to inhibit expression of TPH1/2 in brain tissue and decrease concentration of 5-HT, the mechanism maybe involve in increasing the methylation of TPH2 genes promoter; Paroxetine has a role in confronting the effect of stress in depressive rat model.
Project description:Serotonin (5-HT) is a hormone and neurotransmitter that modulates neural activity as well as a wide range of other physiological processes including cardiovascular function, bowel motility, and platelet aggregation. 5-HT synthesis is catalyzed by tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) which exists as two distinct isoforms; TPH1 and TPH2, which are responsible for peripheral and central 5-HT, respectively. Due to the implication of 5-HT in a number of pathologies, including depression, anxiety, autism, sexual dysfunction, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and carcinoid syndrome, there has been a growing interest in finding modulators of these enzymes in recent years. We thus performed high-throughput screening (HTS) using a fluorescence-based thermal shift assay (DSF) to search the Prestwick Chemical Library containing 1,280 compounds, mostly FDA-approved drugs, for TPH1 binders. We here report the identification of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, as an inhibitor of TPH1 and TPH2 with low micromolar potency and high selectivity over the other aromatic amino acid hydroxylases. The S-enantiomer of omeprazole, esomeprazole, has recently also been described as an inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), the main enzyme responsible for 5-HT degradation, albeit with lower potency compared to the effect on TPH1 and TPH2. In order to investigate the net effect of simultaneous inhibition of TPH and MAO-A <i>in vivo</i>, we administered high-dose (100 mg/kg) omeprazole to CD-1 mice for 4 days, after which the animals were subjected to the tail suspension test. Finally, central (whole brain) and peripheral (serum) 5-HT content was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Omeprazole treatment significantly increased 5-HT concentrations, both in brain and in serum, and reduced the time spent immobile in the tail suspension test relative to vehicle control. Thus, the MAO-A inhibition afforded by high-dose omeprazole appears to overcome the opposing effect on 5-HT produced by inhibition of TPH1 and TPH2. Further modification of proton pump inhibitor scaffolds may yield more selective modulators of 5-HT metabolism.
Project description:The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays an important role in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The biosynthesis of serotonin is regulated by two rate-limiting enzymes, tryptophan hydroxylase-1 and -2 (TPH1 and TPH2). We used a gene-targeting approach to generate mice with selective and complete elimination of the two known TPH isoforms. This resulted in dramatically reduced central 5-HT levels in Tph2 knockout (TPH2KO) and Tph1/Tph2 double knockout (DKO) mice; and substantially reduced peripheral 5-HT levels in DKO, but not TPH2KO mice. Therefore, differential expression of the two isoforms of TPH was reflected in corresponding depletion of 5-HT content in the brain and periphery. Surprisingly, despite the prominent and evolutionarily ancient role that 5-HT plays in both vertebrate and invertebrate physiology, none of these mutations resulted in an overt phenotype. TPH2KO and DKO mice were viable and normal in appearance. Behavioral alterations in assays with predictive validity for antidepressants were among the very few phenotypes uncovered. These behavioral changes were subtle in the TPH2KO mice; they were enhanced in the DKO mice. Herein, we confirm findings from prior descriptions of TPH1 knockout mice and present the first reported phenotypic evaluations of Tph2 and Tph1/Tph2 knockout mice. The behavioral effects observed in the TPH2 KO and DKO mice strongly confirm the role of 5-HT and its synthetic enzymes in the etiology and treatment of affective disorders.
Project description:Alterations in serotonin (5-HT) are suspected in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin and has two isoforms: TPH1 and TPH2. Genetic variants in both genes have been studied in various disorders related to serotonin dysregulation. The aim of this study was to examine whether TPH gene variants were associated with IBS and IBS-related gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms.Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the TPH1 and one SNP from the TPH2 were genotyped in 199 IBS patients and 79 healthy controls. All subjects were Caucasian women of European origin. Irritable bowel syndrome patients filled in a daily diary with five GI symptoms and stool characteristics for 28 days.The TPH1 SNPs showed no association with the diagnosis of IBS. However, among IBS patients, all five TPH1 SNPs showed some association with diarrhea and loose type of stool consistency, with P-values rating from 0.01 to 0.20. The TPH2 SNP showed a trend towards a reduced risk of IBS and possible associations with stool characteristics, both hard and loose stools. However, no P-values were less than the conservative multiple-comparison-adjusted threshold of 0.001 and hence these results must be interpreted cautiously.This study is the first to assess associations of TPH gene variants with IBS-related GI symptoms and stool characteristics. The possible association of TPH gene variants with diarrhea needs to be verified in an independent sample.
Project description:Brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission plays a key role in the regulation of mood and has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric conditions. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of 5-HT. Recently, we discovered a second TPH isoform (TPH2) in vertebrates, including man, which is predominantly expressed in brain, while the previously known TPH isoform (TPH1) is primarly a non-neuronal enzyme. Overwhelming evidence now points to TPH2 as a candidate gene for 5-HT-related psychiatric disorders. To assess the role of TPH2 gene variability in the etiology of psychiatric diseases we performed cDNA sequence analysis of TPH2 transcripts from human post mortem amygdala samples obtained from individuals with psychiatric disorders (drug abuse, schizophrenia, suicide) and controls. Here we show that TPH2 exists in two alternatively spliced variants in the coding region, denoted TPH2a and TPH2b. Moreover, we found evidence that the pre-mRNAs of both splice variants are dynamically RNA-edited in a mutually exclusive manner. Kinetic studies with cell lines expressing recombinant TPH2 variants revealed a higher activity of the novel TPH2B protein compared with the previously known TPH2A, whereas RNA editing was shown to inhibit the enzymatic activity of both TPH2 splice variants. Therefore, our results strongly suggest a complex fine-tuning of central nervous system 5-HT biosynthesis by TPH2 alternative splicing and RNA editing. Finally, we present molecular and large-scale linkage data evidencing that deregulated alternative splicing and RNA editing is involved in the etiology of psychiatric diseases, such as suicidal behaviour.
Project description:Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in various physiological processes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Serotonin is also a precursor for melatonin biosynthesis, which mainly occurs in the pineal gland of vertebrates. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) acts as the rate-limiting enzyme in serotonin biosynthesis and is the initial enzyme involved in the synthesis of melatonin. Recently, two enzymes-TPH1 and TPH2-were reported to form the TPH family in vertebrates and to play divergent roles in serotonergic systems. Here, we examined the evolution of the TPH family from 70 vertebrate genomes. Based on the sequence similarity, we extracted 184 predicted tph homologs in the examined vertebrates. A phylogenetic tree, constructed on the basis of these protein sequences, indicated that tph genes could be divided into two main clades (tph1 and tph2), and that the two clades were further split into two subgroups of tetrapods and Actinopterygii. In tetrapods, and some basal non-teleost ray-finned fishes, only two tph isotypes exist. Notably, tph1 in most teleosts that had undergone the teleost-specific genome duplication could be further divided into tph1a and tph1b. Moreover, protein sequence comparisons indicated that TPH protein changes among vertebrates were concentrated at the NH?-terminal. The tertiary structures of TPH1 and TPH2 revealed obvious differences in the structural elements. Five positively selected sites were characterized in TPH2 compared with TPH1; these sites may reflect the functional divergence in enzyme activity and substrate specificity. In summary, our current work provides novel insights into the evolution of tph genes in vertebrates from a comprehensive genomic perspective.
Project description:Tryptophan catabolites pathway disorders are observed in patients with depression. Moreover, single nucleotide polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase genes may modulate the risk of depression occurrence. The objective of our study was to confirm the association between the presence of polymorphic variants of TPH1 and TPH2 genes, and the development of depressive disorders. Six polymorphisms were selected: c.804-7C>A (rs10488682), c.-1668T>A (rs623580), c.803+221C>A (rs1800532), c.-173A>T (rs1799913)-TPH1, c.-1449C>A (rs7963803), and c.-844G>T (rs4570625)-TPH2. A total of 510 DNA samples (230 controls and 280 patients) were genotyped using TaqMan probes. Among the studied polymoorphisms, the G/G genotype and G allele of c.804-7C>A-TPH1, the T/T homozygote of c.803+221C>A-TPH1, the A/A genotype and A allele of c.1668T>A-TPH1, the G/G homozygote and G allele of c.-844G>T-TPH2, and the C/A heterozygote and A allele of c.-1449C>A-TPH2 were associated with the occurrence of depression. However, the T/T homozygote of c.-1668T>A-TPH1, the G/T heterozygote and T allele of c.-844G>T-TPH2, and the C/C homozygote and C allele of c.-1449C>A-TPH2 decreased the risk of development of depressive disorders. Each of the studied polymorphisms modulated the risk of depression for selected genotypes and alleles. These results support the hypothesis regarding the involvement of the pathway in the pathogenesis of depression.
Project description:Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the stress response by interacting with the hormonal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and neuronal sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in 5-HT biosynthesis, and the recent identification of a second, neuron-specific TPH isoform (TPH2) opened up a new area of research. While TPH2 genetic variance has been linked to numerous behavioral traits and disorders, findings on TPH2 gene expression have not only reinforced, but also provided new insights into, the long-recognized but not yet fully understood 5-HT-stress interaction. In this review, we summarize advances in TPH2 expression regulation and its relevance to the stress response and clinical implications. Particularly, based on findings on rhesus monkey TPH2 genetics and other relevant literature, we propose that: (i) upon activation of adrenal cortisol secretion, the cortisol surge induces TPH2 expression and de novo 5-HT synthesis; (ii) the induced 5-HT in turn inhibits cortisol secretion by modulating the adrenal sensitivity to ACTH via the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)-SNS-adrenal system, such that it contributes to the feedback inhibition of cortisol production; (iii) basal TPH2 expression or 5-HT synthesis, as well as early-life experience, influence basal cortisol primarily via the hormonal HPA axis; and (iv) 5'- and 3'-regulatory polymorphisms of TPH2 may differentially influence the stress response, presumably due to their differential roles in gene expression regulation. Our increasing knowledge of TPH2 expression regulation not only helps us better understand the 5-HT-stress interaction and the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, but also provides new strategies for the treatment of stress-associated diseases.
Project description:Objective Intestinal autoimmunity with gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction has been shown in patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED). Patients lack entero-endocrine (EE) cells and have circulating autoantibodies (Aabs) against critical enzymes in serotonin (5-HT) biosynthesis. Design We sought to determine the serum levels of 5-HT, tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and L-DOPA in 37 Finnish APECED patients and to correlate their abundance with the presence of TPH and AADC Aabs, GI dysfunction and depressive symptoms. We also performed an exploratory analysis of the gut microbiome. Methods Serum 5-HT, L-DOPA and Trp metabolite levels were determined by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). TPH and AADC Aabs were measured by ELISA. Depression was assessed with a structured RBDI questionnaire. The V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced for gut microbiome exploration. Results Serum 5-HT levels were significantly decreased (130 ± 131 nmol/L vs 686 ± 233 nmol/L, P < 0.0001) in APECED patients with TPH-1 (±AADC) Aabs compared to controls and patients with only AADC Aabs. Reduced 5-HT levels correlated with constipation. The genus Escherichia/Shigella was overrepresented in the intestinal microbiome. No correlation between serum Trp, 5-HT or l-DOPA levels and the RBDI total score, fatigue or sleep disorders was found. Conclusions This exploratory study found low serum levels of 5-HT to be associated with constipation and the presence of TPH-1 and AADC Aabs, but not with symptoms of depression. Hence, serum 5-HT, TPH1 and AADC Aabs should be determined in APECED patients presenting with GI symptoms.
Project description:Serotonin (5-HT) has long been recognized as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, where it modulates a variety of behavioral functions. Availability of 5-HT depends on the expression of the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), and the recent discovery of a dual system for 5-HT synthesis in the brain (TPH2) and periphery (TPH1) has renewed interest in studying the potential functions played by 5-HT in nonnervous tissues. Moreover, characterization of the TPH1 knockout mouse model (TPH1(-/-)) led to the identification of unsuspected roles for peripheral 5-HT, revealing the importance of this monoamine in regulating key physiological functions outside the brain. Here, we present in vivo data showing that mice deficient in peripheral 5-HT display morphological and cellular features of ineffective erythropoiesis. The central event occurs in the bone marrow where the absence of 5-HT hampers progression of erythroid precursors expressing 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2B) receptors toward terminal differentiation. In addition, red blood cells from 5-HT-deficient mice are more sensitive to macrophage phagocytosis and have a shortened in vivo half-life. The combination of these two defects causes TPH1(-/-) animals to develop a phenotype of macrocytic anemia. Direct evidence for a 5-HT effect on erythroid precursors is provided by supplementation of the culture medium with 5-HT that increases the proliferative capacity of both 5-HT-deficient and normal cells. Our thorough analysis of TPH1(-/-) mice provides a unique model of morphological and functional aberrations of erythropoiesis and identifies 5-HT as a key factor for red blood cell production and survival.
Project description:AIM: Clinical evidence shows that co-administration of pravastatin and paroxetine deregulates glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to verify this phenomenon in diabetic rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes mellitus was induced in male SD rats by a high-fat diet combined with a low-dose streptozotocin injection. The rats were orally administered paroxetine (10 mg/kg) and pravastatin (10 mg/d) or both the drugs daily for 28 d. The pharmacokinetics of paroxetine and pravastatin were examined on d 1 and d 28. Biochemical parameters including serum insulin, glucose and lipids were monitored during the treatments. An insulin-secreting cell line (INS-1) was used for measuring insulin secretion. RESULTS: In diabetic rats, co-administration of paroxetine and pravastatin markedly increased the concentrations of both the drugs compared with administration of each drug alone. Furthermore, co-administration severely impaired glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats, as demonstrated by significantly increased serum glucose level, decreased serum and pancreatic insulin levels, and decreased pancreatic Insulin-2 mRNA and tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (Tph-1) mRNA levels. Treatment of INS-1 cells with paroxetine (5 and 10 μmol/L) significantly inhibited insulin secretion, decreased the intracellular insulin, 5-HT, Insulin-2 mRNA and Tph-1 mRNA levels. Treatment of the cells with pravastatin (10 μmol/L) significantly stimulated insulin secretion, which was weakened by co-treatment with paroxetine. CONCLUSION: Paroxetine inhibits insulin secretion at least via decreasing intracellular 5-HT and insulin biosynthesis. The deregulation of glucose homeostasis by co-administration of paroxetine and pravastatin in diabetic rats can be attributed to enhanced paroxetine exposure.