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Multiscale design and synthesis of biomimetic gradient protein/biosilica composites for interfacial tissue engineering.

ABSTRACT: Continuous gradients present at tissue interfaces such as osteochondral systems, reflect complex tissue functions and involve changes in extracellular matrix compositions, cell types and mechanical properties. New and versatile biomaterial strategies are needed to create suitable biomimetic engineered grafts for interfacial tissue engineering. Silk protein-based composites, coupled with selective peptides with mineralization domains, were utilized to mimic the soft-to-hard transition in osteochondral interfaces. The gradient composites supported tunable mineralization and mechanical properties corresponding to the spatial concentration gradient of the mineralization domains (R5 peptide). The composite system exhibited continuous transitions in terms of composition, structure and mechanical properties, as well as cytocompatibility and biodegradability. The gradient silicified silk/R5 composites promoted and regulated osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in an osteoinductive environment in vitro. The cells differentiated along the composites in a manner consistent with the R5-gradient profile. This novel biomimetic gradient biomaterial design offers a useful approach to meet a broad range of needs in regenerative medicine.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC5610098 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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