Large room temperature spin-to-charge conversion signals in a few-layer graphene/Pt lateral heterostructure.
ABSTRACT: Electrical generation and detection of pure spin currents without the need of magnetic materials are key elements for the realization of full electrically controlled spintronic devices. In this framework, achieving a large spin-to-charge conversion signal is crucial, as considerable outputs are needed for plausible applications. Unfortunately, the values obtained so far have been rather low. Here we exploit the spin Hall effect by using Pt, a non-magnetic metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, to generate and detect pure spin currents in a few-layer graphene channel. Furthermore, the outstanding properties of graphene, with long-distance spin transport and higher electrical resistivity than metals, allow us to achieve in our graphene/Pt lateral heterostructures the largest spin-to-charge output voltage at room temperature reported so far in the literature. Our approach opens up exciting opportunities towards the implementation of spin-orbit-based logic circuits and all electrical control of spin information without magnetic field.Spintronic devices with full electrical control rely on electrical generation and detection of spin currents in the absence of magnetic materials. Here, the authors use Pt, a non-magnetic metal, to generate and detect pure spin currents in a few-layer graphene channel, achieving a remarkable spin-to-charge voltage signal at room temperature.
Project description:Interfacial spin-orbit torques (SOTs) enable the manipulation of the magnetization through in-plane charge currents, which has drawn increasing attention for spintronic applications. The search for material systems providing efficient SOTs, has been focused on polycrystalline ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic metal bilayers. In these systems, currents flowing in the non-magnetic layer generate-due to strong spin-orbit interaction-spin currents via the spin Hall effect and induce a torque at the interface to the ferromagnet. Here we report the observation of robust SOT occuring at a single crystalline Fe/GaAs (001) interface at room temperature. We find that the magnitude of the interfacial SOT, caused by the reduced symmetry at the interface, is comparably strong as in ferromagnetic metal/non-magnetic metal systems. The large spin-orbit fields at the interface also enable spin-to-charge current conversion at the interface, known as spin-galvanic effect. The results suggest that single crystalline Fe/GaAs interfaces may enable efficient electrical magnetization manipulation.
Project description:The proximity of a transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) to graphene imprints a rich spin texture in graphene and complements its high-quality charge/spin transport by inducing spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Rashba and valley-Zeeman SOCs are the origin of charge-to-spin conversion mechanisms such as the Rashba-Edelstein effect (REE) and spin Hall effect (SHE). In this work, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time charge-to-spin conversion due to the REE in a monolayer WS<sub>2</sub>-graphene van der Waals heterostructure. We measure the current-induced spin polarization up to room temperature and control it by a gate electric field. Our observation of the REE and the inverse of the effect (IREE) is accompanied by the SHE, which we discriminate by symmetry-resolved spin precession under oblique magnetic fields. These measurements also allow for the quantification of the efficiencies of charge-to-spin conversion by each of the two effects. These findings are a clear indication of induced Rashba and valley-Zeeman SOC in graphene that lead to the generation of spin accumulation and spin current without using ferromagnetic electrodes. These realizations have considerable significance for spintronic applications, providing accessible routes toward all-electrical spin generation and manipulation in two-dimensional materials.
Project description:Pure spin current, a flow of spin angular momentum without flow of any accompanying net charge, is generated in two common ways. One makes use of the spin Hall effect in normal metals (NM) with strong spin-orbit coupling, such as Pt or Ta. The other utilizes the collective motion of magnetic moments or spin waves with the quasi-particle excitations called magnons. A popular material for the latter is yttrium iron garnet, a magnetic insulator (MI). Here we demonstrate in NM/MI/NM trilayers that these two types of spin currents are interconvertible across the interfaces, predicated as the magnon-mediated current drag phenomenon. The transmitted signal scales linearly with the driving current without a threshold and follows the power-law T(n) with n ranging from 1.5 to 2.5. Our results indicate that the NM/MI/NM trilayer structure can serve as a scalable pure spin current valve device which is an essential ingredient in spintronics.
Project description:Unique electronic spin textures in topological states of matter are promising for emerging spin-orbit driven memory and logic technologies. However, there are several challenges related to the enhancement of their performance, electrical gate-tunability, interference from trivial bulk states, and heterostructure interfaces. We address these challenges by integrating two-dimensional graphene with a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) in van der Waals heterostructures to take advantage of their remarkable spintronic properties and engineer proximity-induced spin-charge conversion phenomena. In these heterostructures, we experimentally demonstrate a gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect (SGE) at room temperature, allowing for efficient conversion of a non-equilibrium spin polarization into a transverse charge current. Systematic measurements of SGE in various device geometries via a spin switch, spin precession, and magnetization rotation experiments establish the robustness of spin-charge conversion in the Gr-TI heterostructures. Importantly, using a gate voltage, we reveal a strong electric field tunability of both amplitude and sign of the spin-galvanic signal. These findings provide an efficient route for realizing all-electrical and gate-tunable spin-orbit technology using TIs and graphene in heterostructures, which can enhance the performance and reduce power dissipation in spintronic circuits.
Project description:The interconversion of charge and spin currents via spin-Hall effect is essential for spintronics. Energy-efficient and deterministic switching of magnetization can be achieved when spin polarizations of these spin currents are collinear with the magnetization. However, symmetry conditions generally restrict spin polarizations to be orthogonal to both the charge and spin flows. Spin polarizations can deviate from such direction in nonmagnetic materials only when the crystalline symmetry is reduced. Here, we show control of the spin polarization direction by using a non-collinear antiferromagnet Mn<sub>3</sub>GaN, in which the triangular spin structure creates a low magnetic symmetry while maintaining a high crystalline symmetry. We demonstrate that epitaxial Mn<sub>3</sub>GaN/permalloy heterostructures can generate unconventional spin-orbit torques at room temperature corresponding to out-of-plane and Dresselhaus-like spin polarizations which are forbidden in any sample with two-fold rotational symmetry. Our results demonstrate an approach based on spin-structure design for controlling spin-orbit torque, enabling high-efficient antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Project description:Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
Project description:The field of spintronics involves the study of both spin and charge transport in solid-state devices. Ultrafast magnetism involves the use of femtosecond laser pulses to manipulate magnetic order on subpicosecond time scales. We unite these phenomena by using picosecond charge current pulses to rapidly excite conduction electrons in magnetic metals. We observe deterministic, repeatable ultrafast reversal of the magnetization of a GdFeCo thin film with a single sub-10-ps electrical pulse. The magnetization reverses in ~10 ps, which is more than one order of magnitude faster than any other electrically controlled magnetic switching, and demonstrates a fundamentally new electrical switching mechanism that does not require spin-polarized currents or spin-transfer/orbit torques. The energy density required for switching is low, projecting to only 4 fJ needed to switch a (20 nm)<sup>3</sup> cell. This discovery introduces a new field of research into ultrafast charge current-driven spintronic phenomena and devices.
Project description:The origin of spin-orbit torques, which are generated by the conversion of charge-to-spin currents in non-magnetic materials, is of considerable debate. One of the most interesting materials is tungsten, for which large spin-orbit torques have been found in thin films that are stabilized in the A15 (?-phase) structure. Here we report large spin Hall angles of up to approximately -0.5 by incorporating oxygen into tungsten. While the incorporation of oxygen into the tungsten films leads to significant changes in their microstructure and electrical resistivity, the large spin Hall angles measured are found to be remarkably insensitive to the oxygen-doping level (12-44%). The invariance of the spin Hall angle for higher oxygen concentrations with the bulk properties of the films suggests that the spin-orbit torques in this system may originate dominantly from the interface rather than from the interior of the films.
Project description:Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.
Project description:Recent reports of current-induced switching of ferrimagnetic oxides coupled to heavy metals have opened prospects for implementing magnetic insulators into electrically addressable devices. However, the configuration and dynamics of magnetic domain walls driven by electrical currents in insulating oxides remain unexplored. Here we investigate the internal structure of the domain walls in Tm3Fe5O12 (TmIG) and TmIG/Pt bilayers, and demonstrate their efficient manipulation by spin-orbit torques with velocities of up to 400?ms-1 and minimal current threshold for domain wall flow of 5?×?106?A?cm-2. Domain wall racetracks are defined by Pt current lines on continuous TmIG films, which allows for patterning the magnetic landscape of TmIG in a fast and reversible way. Scanning nitrogen-vacancy magnetometry reveals that the domain walls of TmIG thin films grown on Gd3Sc2Ga3O12 exhibit left-handed Néel chirality, changing to an intermediate Néel-Bloch configuration upon Pt deposition. These results indicate the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction in magnetic garnets, opening the possibility to stabilize chiral spin textures in centrosymmetric magnetic insulators.