Preclinical Evaluation and Monitoring of the Therapeutic Response of a Dual Targeted Hyaluronic Acid Nanodrug.
ABSTRACT: Chemotherapy is a powerful cancer treatment but suffers from poor biocompatibility and a lack of tumor targeting. Here, we developed a CD44-targeted polymeric nanocomplex by encapsulating 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) into hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HANP) for targeted cancer therapy. In vitro, the HANP/HCPT showed improved cytotoxicity to five cancer cell lines including HT29, A549, MDA-MB-231, HepG2, and MDA-MB-435 versus free HCPT. After systemic administration into MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft, tumor growth was significantly inhibited 5.25 ± 0.21 times in the HANP/HCPT treated group relative to the nontreated group. In addition, the treatment response was also accessed and confirmed by 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F] FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). The MDA-MB-231 tumors responded to HANP/HCPT 7 days after the first treatment, which benefits treatment strategy adjustment and personalization. No apparent systemic toxic effects were seen in mice treated with HANP/HCPT. In summary, the HANPs have great promise as a targeted drug carrier for cancer chemotherapy. Our HANP platform can also deliver other hydrophobic chemotherapy agents.
Project description:Paclitaxel (PTX) treatment efficacy varies in breast cancer, yet the underlying mechanism for variable response remains unclear. This study evaluates whether human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression level utilizing advanced molecular positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is correlated with PTX treatment efficacy in preclinical mouse models of HER2+ breast cancer. HER2 positive (BT474, MDA-MB-361), or HER2 negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cells were subcutaneously injected into athymic nude mice and PTX (15 mg/kg) was administrated. In vivo HER2 expression was quantified through [89Zr]-pertuzumab PET/CT imaging. PTX treatment response was quantified by [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) PET/CT imaging. Spearman’s correlation, Kendall’s tau, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis. [89Zr]-pertuzumab mean standard uptake values (SUVmean) of BT474 tumors were 4.9 ± 1.5, MDA-MB-361 tumors were 1.4 ± 0.2, and MDA-MB-231 (HER2−) tumors were 1.1 ± 0.4. [18F]-FDG SUVmean changes were negatively correlated with [89Zr]-pertuzumab SUVmean (r = −0.5887, p = 0.0030). The baseline [18F]-FDG SUVmean was negatively correlated with initial [89Zr]-pertuzumab SUVmean (r = −0.6852, p = 0.0002). This study shows PTX treatment efficacy is positively correlated with HER2 expression level in human breast cancer mouse models. Molecular imaging provides a non-invasive approach to quantify biological interactions, which will help in identifying chemotherapy responders and potentially enhance clinical decision-making.
Project description:The current standard for breast PET imaging is 18F-FDG. The heterogeneity of 18F-FDG uptake in breast cancer limits its utility, varying greatly among receptor status, histopathologic subtypes, and proliferation markers. 18F-FDG PET often exhibits nonspecific internalization and low specificity and sensitivity, especially with tumors smaller than 1 cm3 MYC is a protein involved in oncogenesis and is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Increased surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is a downstream event of MYC upregulation and has been validated as a clinically relevant target for molecular imaging. Transferrin labeled with 89Zr has successfully identified MYC status in many cancer subtypes preclinically and been shown to predict response and changes in oncogene status via treatment with small-molecule inhibitors that target MYC and PI3K signaling pathways. We hypothesized that 89Zr-transferrin PET will noninvasively detect MYC and TfR and improve upon the current standard of 18F-FDG PET for MYC-overexpressing TNBC. Methods: In this study, 89Zr-transferrin and 18F-FDG imaging were compared in preclinical models of TNBC. TNBC cells (MDA-MB-157, MDA-MB-231, and Hs578T) were treated with bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) inhibitors JQ1 and OTX015 (0.5-1 ?M). Cell proliferation, gene expression, and protein expression were assayed to explore the effects of these inhibitors on MYC and TfR. Results: Head-to-head comparison showed that 89Zr-transferrin targets TNBC tumors significantly better (P < 0.05-0.001) than 18F-FDG through PET imaging and biodistribution studies in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 xenografts and a patient-derived xenograft model of TNBC. c-Myc and TfR gene expression was decreased upon treatment with BRD4 inhibitors and c-MYC small interfering RNA (P < 0.01-0.001 for responding cell lines), compared with vehicle treatment. MYC and TfR protein expression, along with receptor-mediated internalization of transferrin, was also significantly decreased upon drug treatment in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 cells (P < 0.01-0.001). Conclusion:89Zr-transferrin targets human TNBC primary tumors significantly better than 18F-FDG, as shown through PET imaging and biodistribution studies. 89Zr-transferrin is a useful tool to interrogate MYC via TfR-targeted PET imaging in TNBC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) have poor prognoses despite aggressive treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are prominent in tumour stroma. Our hypothesis was that CAFs modulate chemotherapy sensitivity.<h4>Methods</h4>TNBC cells and breast fibroblasts were cultured; survival after chemotherapeutics was assessed using luciferase or clonogenic assays. Signalling was investigated using transcriptomics, reporters, recombinant proteins and blocking antibodies. Clinical relevance was investigated using immunohistochemistry.<h4>Results</h4>Breast CAFs dose-dependently protected TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157, but not MDA-MB-468s, from chemotherapy. CAF-induced protection was associated with interferon (IFN) activation. CAFs were induced to express IFNβ1 by chemotherapy and TNBC co-culture, leading to paracrine activation in cancer cells. Recombinant IFNs were sufficient to protect MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 but not MDA-MB-468 cells. In TNBC patients, IFNβ1 expression in CAFs correlated with cancer cell expression of MX1, a marker of activated IFN signalling. High expression of IFNβ1 (CAFs) or MX1 (tumour cells) correlated with reduced survival after chemotherapy, especially in claudin-low tumours (which MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 cells represent). Antibodies that block IFN receptors reduced CAF-dependent chemoprotection.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CAF-induced activation of IFN signalling in claudin-low TNBCs results in chemoresistance. Inhibition of this pathway represents a novel method to improve breast cancer outcomes.
Project description:To effectively inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) by the combination method of chemotherapy and magnetic hyperthermia, we fabricated a biomimetic drug delivery (CSiFePNs) system composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) containing superparamagnetic ferroferric oxide and Paclitaxel (PTX) coated with MDA-MB-231 cell membranes (CMs). In the in vitro cytotoxicity tests, the MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with CSiFePNs obtained IC<sub>50</sub> value of 0.8 ?gL<sup>-1</sup>, 3.5-fold higher than that of SiFePNs. The combination method of chemotherapy and magnetic hyperthermia can effectively inhibit the growth of MDA-MB-231 cells.
Project description:Triple-negative tumor cells, a malignant subtype of breast cancer, lack a biologically targeted therapy. Given its DNA repair inhibiting properties, caffeine has been shown to enhance the effectiveness of specific tumor chemotherapies. In this work, we have investigated the effects of caffeine, cisplatin, and a combination of the two as potential treatments in energy metabolism for three cell lines, triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), estrogen-receptor lacking breast cancer (MCF7) and breast epithelial cells (MCF10A) using a sensitive label-free approach, phasor-fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (phasor-FLIM). We found that solely using caffeine to treat MDA-MB-231 shifts their metabolism towards respiratory-chain phosphorylation with a lower ratio of free to bound NADH, and a similar trend is seen in MCF7. However, MDA-MB-231 cells shifted to a higher ratio of free to bound NADH when cisplatin was added. The combination of cisplatin and caffeine together reduced the survival rate for MDA-MD231 and shifted their energy metabolism to a higher fraction of bound NADH indicative of oxidative phosphorylation. The FLIM and viability results of MCF10A cells demonstrate that the treatments targeted cancer cells over the normal breast tissue. The identification of energy metabolism alteration could open up strategies of improving chemotherapy for malignant breast cancer.
Project description:IGF1R and CD44 are overexpressed in most advanced melanomas so we designed chemotherapeutic nanoparticles to target those receptors. Tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium (Tris DBA-Pd) is a novel inhibitor of N-myristoyltransferase 1 (NMT-1) and has proven in vivo activity against melanoma. However, poor solubility impairs its effectiveness. To improve its therapeutic efficacy and overcome drug resistance in advanced melanomas, we synthesized Tris DBA-Pd hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (Tris DBA-Pd HANP) and evaluated them against in vivo xenografts of LM36R, an aggressive BRAF mutant human melanoma resistant to BRAF inhibitors. We treated xenografted mice in four arms: empty HANPs, free Tris DBA-Pd, Tris DBA-Pd HANPs, and Tris DBA-Pd HANPs with IGF1R antibody. The Tris DBA-Pd HANP group was the most responsive to treatment and showed the greatest depletion of CD44-positive cells on IHC. Surprisingly, the HANP containing IGF1R antibody was less effective than particles without antibody, possibly due to steric hindrance of IGF1R and CD44 binding. Tris DBA-Pd nanoparticles are an effective therapy for CD44-positive tumors like melanoma, and further development of these nanoparticles should be pursued.
Project description:Aerobic glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer glucose metabolism. Here we suggest that extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from cancer cells can modulate glucose metabolism in the recipient cancer cells and induce cell proliferation and aggressive cancer phenotypes. Two breast cancer cell lines with different levels of glycolytic activity, MDA-MB-231 and MCF7, were selected and co-cultured, as the originating and recipient cells. The change in 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake of the recipient MCF7 cells was assessed after co-culture with the MDA-MB-231 cells. Proteomics analysis was performed to investigate the changes in the protein expression patterns in the recipient MCF7 cells. FDG uptake by the recipient MCF7 cells was sig-nificantly increased after co-culture with the MDA-MB-231 cells.
Project description:Preclinical breast cancer models recapitulating the clinical course of metastatic disease are crucial for drug development. Highly metastatic cell lines forming spontaneous metastasis following orthotopic implantation were previously developed and characterized regarding their biological and histological characteristics. This study aimed to non-invasively and longitudinally characterize the spatiotemporal pattern of metastasis formation and progression in the MDA-MB-231-derived triple negative LM2-4 and HER2+ LM2-4H2N cell lines, using bioluminescence imaging (BLI), contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT), fluorescence imaging, and 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET).LM2-4, LM2-4H2N, and MDA-MB-231 tumors were established in the right inguinal mammary fat pad (MFP) of female SCID mice and resected 14-16 days later. Metastasis formation was monitored using BLI. Metabolic activity of primary and metastatic lesions in mice bearing LM2-4 or LM2-4H2N was assessed by [18F]FDG-PET. Metastatic burden at study endpoint was assessed by CT and fluorescence imaging following intravenous dual-modality liposome agent administration.Comparable temporal metastasis patterns were observed using BLI for the highly metastatic cell lines LM2-4 and LM2-4H2N, while metastasis formed about 10 days later for MDA-MB-231. 21 days post primary tumor resection, metastases were detected in 86% of LM2-4, 69% of LM2-4H2N, and 60% of MDA-MB-231 inoculated mice, predominantly in the axillary region, contralateral MFP, and liver/lung. LM2-4 and LM2-4H2N tumors displayed high metabolism based on [18F]FDG-PET uptake. Lung metastases were detected as the [18F]FDG-PET uptake increased significantly between pre- and post-metastasis scan. Using a liposomal dual-modality agent, CT and fluorescence confirmed BLI detected lesions and identified additional metastatic nodules in the intraperitoneal cavity and lung.The combination of complementary anatomical and functional imaging techniques can provide high sensitivity characterization of metastatic disease spread, progression and overall disease burden. The described models and imaging toolset can be implemented as an effective means for quantitative treatment response evaluation in metastatic breast cancer.
Project description:Recently, emerging evidence has suggested that carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) could contribute to chemotherapy resistances in breast cancer treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the gene expression profiling of CAFs before and after chemotherapy and pick up candidate genes that might associate with chemotherapy resistance and could be used as predictors of treatment response. CAFs were cultured from surgically resected primary breast cancers and identified with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Flow cytometry (FCM). MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured as the breast cancer cell line. Cell adhesion assay, invasion assay, and proliferation assay (MTT) were performed to compare the function of MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with CAFs and MDA-MB-231 cells without co-culture, after chemotherapy. Totally 6 pairs of CAFs were prepared for microarray analysis. Each pair of CAFs were obtained from the same patient and classified into two groups. One group was treated with Taxotere (regarded as after chemotherapy) while the other group was not processed with Taxotere (regarded as before chemotherapy). According to our study, the primary-cultured CAFs exhibited characteristic phenotype. After chemotherapy, MDA-MB-231 cells co-cultured with CAFs displayed increasing adhesion, invasiveness and proliferation abilities, compared with MDA-MB-231 cells without CAFs. Moreover, 35 differentially expressed genes (absolute fold change >2) were identified between CAFs after chemotherapy and before chemotherapy, including 17 up-regulated genes and 18 down-regulated genes. CXCL2, MMP1, IL8, RARRES1, FGF1, and CXCR7 were picked up as the candidate markers, of which the differential expression in CAFs before and after chemotherapy was confirmed. The results indicate the changes of gene expression in CAFs induced by Taxotere treatment and propose the candidate markers that possibly associate with chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE:Pathological complete response to the neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is predictive of prolonged patient survival. Methods for early evaluation of NAT efficiency are still needed, in order to rapidly adjust the therapeutic strategy in case of initial non-response. One option for this is molecular imaging of apoptosis induced by chemotherapy. Therefore, we investigated the capacity of [18F]ML-10 PET imaging, an apoptosis radiotracer, to detect tumor cell apoptosis and early predict the therapeutic response of human TNBC. RESULTS:Initially, the induction of apoptosis by different therapies was quantified. We confirmed, in vitro, that paclitaxel or epirubicin, the fundamental cytotoxic drugs for breast cancer, induce apoptosis in TNBC cell lines. Exposure of TNBC models MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 to these drugs induced a significant increase (p < 0.01) of the apoptotic hallmarks: DNA fragmentation, membrane phospholipid scrambling, and PARP activation. Secondarily, apoptotic fraction was compared to the intracellular accumulation of the radiotracer. [18F]ML-10 accumulated in the apoptotic cells after 72 h of treatment by paclitaxel in vitro; this accumulation positively correlated with the apoptotic fraction. In vivo, [18F]ML-10 was rapidly cleared from the nontarget organs and mainly eliminated by the kidneys. Comparison of the in vivo [18F]FDG, [18F]FMISO, and [18F]ML-10 uptakes revealed that the tumor accumulation of [18F]ML-10 was directly related to the tumor hypoxia level. Finally, after the in vivo treatment of TNBC murine xenografts by paclitaxel, apoptosis was well induced, as demonstrated by the cleaved caspase-3 levels; however, no significant increase of [18F]ML-10 accumulation in the tumors was observed, either on day 3 or day 6 after the end of the treatment. CONCLUSIONS:These results highlighted that PET imaging using [18F]ML-10 allows the visualization of apoptotic cells in TNBC models. Nevertheless, the increase of the chemotherapy-induced apoptotic response when using paclitaxel could not be assessed using this radiotracer in our mouse model.