GRL-09510, a Unique P2-Crown-Tetrahydrofuranylurethane -Containing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Maintains Its Favorable Antiviral Activity against Highly-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants in vitro.
ABSTRACT: We report that GRL-09510, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a newly-generated P2-crown-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (Crwn-THF), a P2'-methoxybenzene, and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory and primary clinical HIV-1 isolates (EC50: 0.0014-0.0028??M) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 39.0??M). Similarly, GRL-09510 efficiently blocked the replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants, which were capable of propagating at high-concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, and amprenavir (APV). GRL-09510 was also potent against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants and HIV-2ROD. Under the selection condition, where HIV-1NL4-3 rapidly acquired significant resistance to APV, an integrase inhibitor raltegravir, and a GRL-09510 congener (GRL-09610), no variants highly resistant against GRL-09510 emerged over long-term in vitro passage of the virus. Crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the Crwn-THF moiety of GRL-09510 forms strong hydrogen-bond-interactions with HIV-1 protease (PR) active-site amino acids and is bulkier with a larger contact surface, making greater van der Waals contacts with PR than the bis-THF moiety of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-09510 has favorable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants, that the newly generated P2-Crwn-THF moiety confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency. The use of the novel Crwn-THF moiety sheds lights in the design of novel PIs.
Project description:We report that GRL-0519, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) containing tris-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (tris-THF) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0005 to 0.0007 ?M) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 44.6 ?M). GRL-0519 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to a 5 ?M concentration of ritonavir, lopinavir, or atazanavir (EC50, 0.0028 to 0.0033 ?M). GRL-0519 was also potent against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, highly darunavir (DRV)-resistant variants, and HIV-2ROD. The development of resistance against GRL-0519 was substantially delayed compared to other PIs, including amprenavir (APV) and DRV. The effects of nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on GRL-0519's antiviral activity were insignificant. Our analysis of the crystal structures of GRL-0519 (3OK9) and DRV (2IEN) with protease suggested that the tris-THF moiety, compared to the bis-THF moiety present in DRV, has greater water-mediated polar interactions with key active-site residues of protease and that the tris-THF moiety and paramethoxy group effectively fill the S2 and S2' binding pockets, respectively, of the protease. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0519 has highly favorable features as a potential therapeutic agent for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-PI-resistant variants and that the tris-THF moiety is critical for strong binding of GRL-0519 to the HIV protease substrate binding site and appears to be responsible for its favorable antiretroviral characteristics.
Project description:We identified four novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-078, -079, -077, and -058, containing an alkylamine at the C-5 position of P2 tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF) and a P2' cyclopropyl (Cp) (or isopropyl)-aminobenzothiazole (Abt) moiety. Their 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) were 2.5 to 30 nM against wild-type HIV-1NL4-3, 0.3 to 6.7 nM against HIV-2EHO, and 0.9 to 90 nM against laboratory-selected PI-resistant HIV-1 and clinical HIV-1 variants resistant to multiple FDA-approved PIs (HIVMDR). GRL-078, -079, -077, and -058 also effectively blocked the replication of HIV-1 variants highly resistant to darunavir (DRV) (HIVDRVrp51), with EC50s of 38, 62, 61, and 90 nM, respectively, while four FDA-approved PIs examined (amprenavir, atazanavir, lopinavir [LPV], and DRV) had virtually no activity (EC50s of >1,000 nM) against HIVDRVrp51 Structurally, GRL-078, -079, and -058 form strong hydrogen bond interactions between Tp-THF modified at C-5 and Asp29/Asp30/Gly48 of wild-type protease, while the P2' Cp-Abt group forms strong hydrogen bonds with Asp30'. The Tp-THF and Cp-Abt moieties also have good nonpolar interactions with protease residues located in the flap region. For selection with LPV and DRV by use of a mixture of 11 HIVMDR strains (HIV11MIX), HIV11MIX became highly resistant to LPV and DRV over 13 to 32 and 32 to 41 weeks, respectively. However, for selection with GRL-079 and GRL-058, HIV11MIX failed to replicate at >0.08 μM and >0.2 μM, respectively. Thermal stability results supported the highly favorable anti-HIV-1 potency of GRL-079 as well as other PIs. The present data strongly suggest that the P2 Tp-THF group modified at C-5 and the P2' Abt group contribute to the potent anti-HIV-1 profiles of the four PIs against HIV-1NL4-3 and a wide spectrum of HIVMDR strains.
Project description:We report here that GRL-0739, a novel nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing a tricycle (cyclohexyl-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane [THF]) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0019 to 0.0036 μM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 21.0 μM). GRL-0739 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by concentrations of up to 5 μM ritonavir or atazanavir (EC50, 0.035 to 0.058 μM). GRL-0739 was also highly active against multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, as well as against the HIV-2ROD variant. The development of resistance against GRL-0739 was substantially delayed compared to that of amprenavir (APV). The effects of the nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on the anti-HIV-1 activity of GRL-0739 were insignificant. In addition, GRL-0739 showed a desirable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property, as assessed using a novel in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Molecular modeling demonstrated that the tricyclic ring and methoxybenzene of GRL-0739 have a larger surface and make greater van der Waals contacts with protease than in the case of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0739 has desirable features as a compound with good CNS-penetrating capability for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants and that the newly generated cyclohexyl-bis-THF moiety with methoxybenzene confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency in the design of novel protease inhibitors with greater CNS penetration profiles.
Project description:We report here that GRL-10413, a novel nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a modified P1 moiety and a hydroxyethylamine sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50] of 0.00035 to 0.0018 μM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] = 35.7 μM). GRL-10413 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by use of atazanavir, lopinavir, or amprenavir (APV) at concentrations of up to 5 μM (EC50 = 0.0021 to 0.0023 μM). GRL-10413 also maintained its strong antiviral activity against multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to various antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy. The development of resistance against GRL-10413 was significantly delayed compared to that against APV. In addition, GRL-10413 showed favorable central nervous system (CNS) penetration properties as assessed with an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) reconstruction system. Analysis of the crystal structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with GRL-10413 demonstrated that the modified P1 moiety of GRL-10413 has a greater hydrophobic surface area and makes greater van der Waals contacts with active site amino acids of protease than in the case of darunavir. Moreover, the chlorine substituent in the P1 moiety interacts with protease in two distinct configurations. The present data demonstrate that GRL-10413 has desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants, with favorable CNS penetration capability, and that the newly modified P1 moiety may confer desirable features in designing novel anti-HIV-1 PIs.
Project description:We designed, synthesized, and identified two novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-04810 and GRL-05010, containing the structure-based designed privileged cyclic ether-derived nonpeptide P2 ligand, bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF), and a difluoride moiety, both of which are active against the laboratory strain HIV-1LAI (50% effective concentrations [EC50s], 0.0008 and 0.003 μM, respectively) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentrations [CC50s], 17.5 and 37.0 μM, respectively, in CD4(+) MT-2 cells). The two compounds were active against multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to various antiviral regimens. GRL-04810 and GRL-05010 also blocked the infectivity and replication of each of the HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to 5 μM lopinavir (EC50s, 0.03 and 0.03 μM, respectively) and atazanavir (EC50s, 0.02 and 0.04 μM, respectively). Moreover, they were active against darunavir (DRV)-resistant variants (EC50 in 0.03 to 0.034 μM range for GRL-04810 and 0.026 to 0.043 μM for GRL-05010), while DRV had EC50s between 0.02 and 0.174 μM. GRL-04810 had a favorable lipophilicity profile as determined with the partition (log P) and distribution (log D) coefficients of -0.14 and -0.29, respectively. The in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability assay revealed that GRL-04810 and GRL-05010 may have a greater advantage in terms of crossing the BBB than the currently available PIs, with apparent penetration indexes of 47.8 × 10(-6) and 61.8 × 10(-6) cm/s, respectively. The present data demonstrate that GRL-04810 and GRL-05010 exert efficient activity against a wide spectrum of HIV-1 variants in vitro and suggest that two fluorine atoms added to their bis-THF moieties may well enhance their penetration across the BBB.
Project description:There is currently no specific therapeutics for the HIV-1-related central nervous system (CNS) complications. Here we report that three newly designed CNS-targeting HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-083-13, GRL-084-13, and GRL-087-13, which contain a P1-3,5-bis-fluorophenyl or P1-para-monofluorophenyl ring, and P2-bis-tetrahydrofuran (bis-THF) or P2-tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF), with a sulfonamide isostere, are highly active against wild-type HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0002 to ?0.003??M), with minimal cytotoxicity. These CNS-targeting PIs efficiently suppressed the replication of HIV-1 variants (EC50, 0.002 to ?0.047??M) that had been selected to propagate at high concentrations of conventional HIV-1 PIs. Such CNS-targeting PIs maintained their antiviral activity against HIV-2ROD as well as multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from AIDS patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term therapy. Long-term drug selection experiments revealed that the emergence of resistant-HIV-1 against these CNS-targeting PIs was substantially delayed. In addition, the CNS-targeting PIs showed the most favorable CNS penetration properties among the tested compounds, including various FDA-approved anti-HIV-1 drugs, as assessed with the in vitro blood-brain barrier reconstruction system. Crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the bicyclic rings at the P2 moiety of the CNS-targeting PIs form strong hydrogen-bond interactions with HIV-1 protease (PR) active site. Moreover, both the P1-3,5-bis-fluorophenyl and P1-para-monofluorophenyl rings sustain greater van der Waals contacts with PR than in the case of darunavir (DRV). The data suggest that the present CNS-targeting PIs have desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 strains and might serve as promising preventive and/or therapeutic candidates for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and other CNS complications.
Project description:Combination antiretroviral therapy has achieved dramatic reductions in the mortality and morbidity in people with HIV-1 infection. Darunavir (DRV) represents a most efficacious and well-tolerated protease inhibitor (PI) with a high genetic barrier to the emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1. However, highly DRV-resistant variants have been reported in patients receiving long-term DRV-containing regimens. Here, we report three novel HIV-1 PIs (GRL-057-14, GRL-058-14, and GRL-059-14), all of which contain a P2-amino-substituted-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF) and a P2'-cyclopropyl-amino-benzothiazole (Cp-Abt). These PIs not only potently inhibit the replication of wild-type HIV-1 (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.22?nM to 10.4?nM) but also inhibit multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 variants, including highly DRV-resistant HIVDRV R P51 (EC50, 1.6?nM to 30.7?nM). The emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to the three compounds was much delayed in selection experiments compared to resistance to DRV, using a mixture of 11 highly multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 isolates as a starting HIV-1 population. GRL-057-14 showed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity and greatest thermal stability with wild-type protease, and potently inhibited HIV-1 protease's proteolytic activity (Ki value, 0.10?nM) among the three PIs. Structural models indicate that the C-5-isopropylamino-bis-THF moiety of GRL-057-14 forms additional polar interactions with the active site of HIV-1 protease. Moreover, GRL-057-14's P1-bis-fluoro-methylbenzene forms strong hydrogen bonding and effective van der Waals interactions. The present data suggest that the combination of C-5-aminoalkyl-bis-THF, P1-bis-fluoro-methylbenzene, and P2'-Cp-Abt confers highly potent activity against wild-type and multi-PI-resistant HIV strains and warrant further development of the three PIs, in particular, that of GRL-057-14, as potential therapeutic for HIV-1 infection and AIDS.
Project description:We identified GRL-1388 and -1398, potent nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) containing a bicyclic P2 functional moiety, tetrahydropyrano-tetrahydrofuran (Tp-THF). GRL-1388 was as potent as darunavir (DRV) against various drug-resistant HIV-1 laboratory strains with 50% effective concentration (EC(50)s) of 2.6 to 32.6 nM. GRL-1398 was significantly more potent against such variants than DRV with EC(50)s of 0.1 to 5.7 nM. GRL-1388 and -1398 were also potent against multiple-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants ((CL)HIV-1(MDR)) with EC(50)s ranging from 2.7 to 21.3 nM and from 0.3 to 4.8 nM, respectively. A highly DRV-resistant HIV-1 variant selected in vitro remained susceptible to GRL-1398 with the EC(50) of 21.9 nM, while the EC(50) of DRV was 214.1 nM. When HIV-1(NL4-3) was selected with GRL-1398, four amino acid substitutions--leucine to phenylalanine at a position 10 (L10F), A28S, L33F, and M46I--emerged, ultimately enabling the virus to replicate in the presence of >1.0 ?M the compound beyond 57 weeks of selection. When a mixture of 10 different (CL)HIV-1(MDR) strains was selected, the emergence of resistant variants was more substantially delayed with GRL-1398 than with GRL-1388 and DRV. Modeling analyses revealed that GRL-1398 had greater overall hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions than GRL-1388 and DRV and that GRL-1388 and -1398 had hydrogen bonding interactions with the main chain of the active-site amino acids (Asp29 and Asp30) of protease. The present findings warrant that GRL-1398 be further developed as a potential drug for treating individuals with HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Natural products with macrocyclic structural features often display intriguing biological properties. Molecular design incorporating macrocycles may lead to molecules with unique protein-ligand interactions. We generated novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitors (PIs) containing a macrocycle and bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane. Four such compounds exerted potent activity against HIV-1LAI and had 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of as low as 0.002 microM with minimal cytotoxicity. GRL-216 and GRL-286 blocked the replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by up to 5 microM saquinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, or atazanavir; they had EC50s of 0.020 to 0.046 microM and potent activities against six multi-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 (HIVmPIr) variants with EC50s of 0.027 to 0.089 microM. GRL-216 and -286 also blocked HIV-1 protease dimerization as efficiently as darunavir. When HIV-1NL4-3 was selected by GRL-216, it replicated progressively more poorly and failed to replicate in the presence of >0.26 microM GRL-216, suggesting that the emergence of GRL-216-resistant HIV-1 variants is substantially delayed. At passage 50 with GRL-216 (the HIV isolate selected with GRL-216 at up to 0.16 microM [HIV216-0.16 microM]), HIV-1NL4-3 containing the L10I, L24I, M46L, V82I, and I84V mutations remained relatively sensitive to PIs, including darunavir, with the EC50s being 3- to 8-fold-greater than the EC50 of each drug for HIV-1NL4-3. Interestingly, HIV216-0.16 microM had 10-fold increased sensitivity to tipranavir. Analysis of the protein-ligand X-ray structures of GRL-216 revealed that the macrocycle occupied a greater volume of the binding cavity of protease and formed greater van der Waals interactions with V82 and I84 than darunavir. The present data warrant the further development of GRL-216 as a potential antiviral agent for treating individuals harboring wild-type and/or HIVmPIr.
Project description:We generated two novel nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs), GRL-001-15 and GRL-003-15, which contain unique crown-like tetrahydropyranofuran (Crn-THF) and P2'-cyclopropyl-aminobenzothiazole (Cp-Abt) moieties as P2 and P2' ligands, respectively. GRL-001-15 and GRL-003-15 have meta-monofluorophenyl and para-monofluorophenyl at the P1 site, respectively, exert highly potent activity against wild-type HIV-1 with 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 57 and 50 pM, respectively, and have favorable cytotoxicity profiles with 50% cytotoxic concentrations (CC50s) of 38 and 11??M, respectively. The activity of GRL-001-15 against multi-PI-resistant HIV-1 variants was generally greater than that of GRL-003-15. The EC50 of GRL-001-15 against an HIV-1 variant that was highly resistant to multiple PIs, including darunavir (DRV) (HIV-1DRV R P30), was 0.17?nM, and that of GRL-003-15 was 3.3?nM, while DRV was much less active, with an EC50 of 216?nM. The emergence of HIV-1 variants resistant to GRL-001-15 and GRL-003-15 was significantly delayed compared to that of variants resistant to selected PIs, including DRV. Structural analyses of wild-type protease (PRWT) complexed with the novel PIs revealed that GRL-001-15's meta-fluorine atom forms halogen bond interactions (2.9 and 3.0?Å) with Gly49 and Ile50, respectively, of the protease flap region and with Pro81' (2.7 and 3.2?Å), which is located close to the protease active site, and that two fluorine atoms of GRL-142-13 form multiple halogen bond interactions with Gly49, Ile50, Pro81', Ile82', and Arg8'. In contrast, GRL-003-15 forms halogen bond interactions with Pro81' alone, suggesting that the reduced antiviral activity of GRL-003-15 is due to the loss of the interactions with the flap region.