Endogenous Ethylene Concentration Is Not a Major Determinant of Fruit Abscission in Heat-Stressed Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).
ABSTRACT: We investigated the role of ethylene in the response of cotton to high temperature using cotton genotypes with genetically interrupted ethylene metabolism. In the first experiment, Sicot 71BRF and 5B (a lintless variant with compromised ethylene metabolism) were exposed to 45°C, either by instantaneous heat shock or by ramping temperatures by 3°C daily for 1 week. One day prior to the start of heat treatment, half the plants were sprayed with 0.8 mM of the ethylene synthesis inhibitor, aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). In a subsequent experiment, Sicot 71BRF and a putatively heat-tolerant line, CIM 448, were exposed to 36 or 45°C for 1 week, and half the plants were sprayed with 20 ?M of the ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, (ACC). High temperature exposure of plants in both experiments was performed at the peak reproductive phase (65-68 days after sowing). Elevated temperature (heat shock or ramping to 45°C) significantly reduced production and retention of fruits in all cotton lines used in this study. At the termination of heat treatment, cotton plants exposed to 45°C had at least 50% fewer fruits than plants under optimum temperature in all three genotypes, while plants at 36°C remained unaffected. Heat-stressed plants continued producing new squares (fruiting buds) after termination of heat stress but these squares did not turn into cotton bolls due to pollen infertility. In vitro inhibition of pollen germination by high temperatures supported this observation. Leaf photosynthesis (Pn) of heat-stressed plants (45°C) measured at the end of heat treatments remained significantly inhibited, despite an increased leaf stomatal conductance (gs), suggesting that high temperature impairs Pn independently of stomatal behavior. Metabolic injury was supported by high relative cellular injury and low photosystem II yield of the heat-stressed plants, indicating that high temperature impaired photosynthetic electron transport. Both heat shock and ramping of heat significantly reduced ethylene release from cotton leaf tissues measured at the end of heat treatment but modulating ethylene production via AVG or ACC application had no significant effect on fruit production or retention in heat-stressed cotton plants. Instead, high temperature accelerated fruit abortion by impairing pollen development and/or restricting leaf photosynthesis.
Project description:Rising global temperatures are proving to be detrimental for the agriculture. Hence, strategies are needed to induce thermotolerance in food crops to sustain the food production. GABA (?-aminobutyric acid), a non-protein amino acid, can partially protect plants from high-temperature stress. This study hypothesises that declining GABA concentrations in the cells of heat-stressed mungbean plants increases the heat-sensitivity of reproductive function. Mungbean plants were grown in a natural, outdoor environment (29.3/16.1?±?1?°C as mean day/night temperature, 1350-1550 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity, 60-65% as mean relative humidity) until the start of the reproductive stage. Subsequently, two temperature treatments were imposed in a controlled environment-control (35/23?°C) and heat stress (45/28?°C)-at about 800 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity and 65-70% as mean relative humidity, until pod maturity. In heat-stressed (HS) plants, endogenous GABA concentrations in leaf and anther samples had declined by 49 and 60%, respectively, and to a much lesser degree in the plants, exogenously supplemented with 1?mM GABA. The reproductive function of GABA-treated heat-stressed plants improved significantly in terms of pollen germination, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and ovule viability, compared to untreated HS controls. In addition, GABA-treated heat-stressed plants had less damage to membranes, photosynthetic machinery (chlorophyll concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence, RuBisCO activity were functionally normal) and carbon assimilation (sucrose synthesis and its utilisation) than the untreated HS controls. Leaf water status improved significantly with GABA application, including enhanced accumulation of osmolytes such as proline and trehalose due to increase in the activities of their biosynthetic enzymes. GABA-treated heat-stressed plants produced more pods (28%) and seed weight (27%) plant-1 than the untreated controls. This study is the first to report the involvement of GABA in protecting reproductive function in mungbean under heat stress, as a result of improved leaf turgor, carbon fixation and assimilation processes, through the augmentation of several enzymes related to these physiological processes.
Project description:Heat stress is a major cause for yield loss in many crops, including vegetable crops. Even short waves of high temperature, becoming more frequent during recent years, can be detrimental. Pollen development is most heat-sensitive, being the main cause for reduced productivity under heat-stress across a wide range of crops. The molecular mechanisms involved in pollen heat-stress response and thermotolerance are however, not fully understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays a role in tomato (<i>Solanum lycopersicum</i>) pollen thermotolerance. These results were substantiated in the current work showing that increasing ethylene levels by using an ethylene-releasing substance, ethephon, prior to heat-stress exposure, increased pollen quality. A proteomic approach was undertaken, to unravel the mechanisms underlying pollen heat-stress response and ethylene-mediated pollen thermotolerance in developing pollen grains. Proteins were extracted and analyzed by means of a gel LC-MS fractionation protocol, and a total of 1,355 proteins were identified. A dataset of 721 proteins, detected in three biological replicates of at least one of the applied treatments, was used for all analyses. Quantitative analysis was performed based on peptide count. The analysis revealed that heat-stress affected the developmental program of pollen, including protein homeostasis (components of the translational and degradation machinery), carbohydrate, and energy metabolism. Ethephon-pre-treatment shifted the heat-stressed pollen proteome closer to the proteome under non-stressful conditions, namely, by showing higher abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and RNA regulation. Furthermore, up-regulation of protective mechanisms against oxidative stress was observed following ethephon-treatment (including higher abundance of glutathione-disulfide reductase, glutaredoxin, and protein disulfide isomerase). Taken together, the findings identified systemic and fundamental components of pollen thermotolerance, and serve as a valuable quantitative protein database for further research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pollen tube elongation in the pistil is a key step for pollination success in plants, and auxins play an important role in this process. However, the function of auxins in pollen tube elongation in the pistil of rice under heat stress has seldom been previously reported. RESULTS:Two rice genotypes differing in heat tolerance were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for 2 h after flowering. A sharp decrease in spikelet fertility was found in the Nipponbare (NPB) and its mutant High temperature susceptible (HTS) under heat stress, but the stress-induced spikelet sterility was reversed by 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), especially the HTS. Under heat stress, the pollen tubes of NPB were visible in ovule, while those of HTS were invisible. However, we found the pollen tubes in ovule when sprayed with NAA. During this process, a significant increase in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels was found in the pistil of heat-stressed NPB, while in heat-stressed HTS they were obviously decreased. Additionally, the peroxidase (POD) activity in pistil of NPB was significantly decreased by heat stress, whereas there was no difference between the heat-stressed and non-heat-stressed pistils of HTS. CONCLUSION:It was concluded that the enhancement of heat tolerance in plants by NAA was achieved through the increase of the levels of auxins, which prevented the inhibition of pollen tube elongation in pistil, and the crosstalk between auxins and ROS, which might be involved in this process. In addition, POD might be a negative mediator in pollen tube elongation under heat stress due to its ability to scavenge ROS and degrade auxin.
Project description:*High-temperature environments with >30 degrees C during flowering reduce boll retention and yield in cotton. Therefore, identification of cotton cultivars with high-temperature tolerance would be beneficial in both current and future climates. *Response to temperature (10-45 degrees C at 5 degrees C intervals) of pollen germination and pollen tube growth was quantified, and their relationship to cell membrane thermostability was studied in 12 cultivars. A principal component analysis was carried out to classify the genotypes for temperature tolerance. *Pollen germination and pollen tube length of the cultivars ranged from 20 to 60 % and 411 to 903 microm, respectively. A modified bilinear model best described the response to temperature of pollen germination and pollen tube length. Cultivar variation existed for cardinal temperatures (T(min), T(opt) and T(max)) of pollen germination percentage and pollen tube growth. Mean cardinal temperatures calculated from the bilinear model for the 12 cultivars were 15.0, 31.8 and 43.3 degrees C for pollen germination and 11.9, 28.6 and 42.9 degrees C for pollen tube length. No significant correlations were found between pollen parameters and leaf membrane thermostability. Cultivars were classified into four groups based on principal component analysis. *Based on principal component analysis, it is concluded that higher pollen germination percentages and longer pollen tubes under optimum conditions and with optimum temperatures above 32 degrees C for pollen germination would indicate tolerance to high temperature.
Project description:Tree mortality during global-change-type drought is usually attributed to xylem dysfunction, but as climate change increases the frequency of extreme heat events, it is necessary to better understand the interactive role of heat stress. We hypothesized that some drought-stressed plants paradoxically open stomata in heatwaves to prevent leaves from critically overheating. We experimentally imposed heat (>40°C) and drought stress onto 20 broadleaf evergreen tree/shrub species in a glasshouse study. Most well-watered plants avoided lethal overheating, but drought exacerbated thermal damage during heatwaves. Thermal safety margins (TSM) quantifying the difference between leaf surface temperature and leaf critical temperature, where photosynthesis is disrupted, identified species vulnerability to heatwaves. Several mechanisms contributed to high heat tolerance and avoidance of damaging leaf temperatures-small leaf size, low leaf osmotic potential, high leaf mass per area (i.e., thick, dense leaves), high transpirational capacity, and access to water. Water-stressed plants had smaller TSM, greater crown dieback, and a fundamentally different stomatal heatwave response relative to well-watered plants. On average, well-watered plants closed stomata and decreased stomatal conductance (g<sub>s</sub> ) during the heatwave, but droughted plants did not. Plant species with low g<sub>s</sub> , either due to isohydric stomatal behavior under water deficit or inherently low transpirational capacity, opened stomata and increased g<sub>s</sub> under high temperatures. The current paradigm maintains that stomata close before hydraulic thresholds are surpassed, but our results suggest that isohydric species may dramatically increase g<sub>s</sub> (over sixfold increases) even past their leaf turgor loss point. By actively increasing water loss at high temperatures, plants can be driven toward mortality thresholds more rapidly than has been previously recognized. The inclusion of TSM and responses to heat stress could improve our ability to predict the vulnerability of different tree species to future droughts.
Project description:Extreme high temperatures are threatening cotton production around the world due to the intensification of global warming. To cope with high-temperature stress, heat-tolerant cotton cultivars have been bred, but the heat-tolerant mechanism remains unclear. This study selected heat-tolerant ('Xinluzao36') and heat-sensitive ('Che61-72') cultivars of cotton treated with high-temperature stress as plant materials and performed comparative nanopore sequencing transcriptome analysis to reveal the potential heat-tolerant mechanism of cotton. Results showed that 120,605 nonredundant sequences were generated from the raw reads, and 78,601 genes were annotated. Differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis showed that a total of 19,600 DEGs were screened; the DEGs involved in the ribosome, heat shock proteins, auxin and ethylene signaling transduction, and photosynthesis pathways may be attributed to the heat tolerance of the heat-tolerant cotton cultivar. This study also predicted a total of 5118 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs)and 24,462 corresponding target genes. Analysis of the target genes revealed that the expression of some ribosomal, heat shock, auxin and ethylene signaling transduction-related and photosynthetic proteins may be regulated by lncRNAs and further participate in the heat tolerance of cotton. This study deepens our understandings of the heat tolerance of cotton.
Project description:Heat stress is a major cause for yield loss in many crops, including vegetable crops. Even short waves of high temperature, becoming more frequent during recent years, can be detrimental. Pollen development is most heat-sensitive, being the main cause for reduced productivity under heat-stress across a wide range of crops. The molecular mechanisms involved in pollen heat-stress response and thermotolerance are however not fully understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone, plays a role in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) pollen thermotolerance. These results were substantiated in the current work showing that increasing ethylene levels by using an ethylene-releasing substance, ethephon, prior to heat-stress exposure, increased pollen quality. A proteomic approach was undertaken, to unravel the mechanisms underlying pollen heat-stress response and ethylene-mediated pollen thermotolerance in developing pollen grains. Proteins were extracted and analyzed by means of a gel LC-MS fractionation protocol, and a total of 1355 proteins were identified. A dataset of 721 proteins, detected in three biological replicates of at least one of the applied treatments, was used for all analyses. Quantitative analysis was performed based on peptide count. The analysis revealed that heat-stress affected the developmental program of pollen, including protein homeostasis (components of the translational and degradation machinery), carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Ethephon-pretreatment shifted the heat-stressed pollen proteome closer to the proteome under non-stressful conditions, namely, by showing higher abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, tricarboxylic acid cycle and RNA regulation. Furthermore, up-regulation of protective mechanisms against oxidative stress was observed following ethephon-treatment (including higher abundance of glutathione-disulfide reductase, glutaredoxin and protein disulfide isomerase). Taken together, the findings identified systemic and fundamental components of pollen thermotolerance, and serve as a valuable quantitative protein database for further research.
Project description:The global climate change is leading to increased frequency of heatwaves with crops getting exposed to extreme temperature events. Such temperature spikes during the reproductive stage of plant development can harm crop fertility and productivity. Here we report the response of short-term heat stress events on the pollen and pistil tissues in a commercially grown cultivar of <i>Brassica napus</i>. Our data reveals that short-term temperature spikes not only affect pollen fitness but also impair the ability of the pistil to support pollen germination and pollen tube growth and that the heat stress sensitivity of pistil can have severe consequences for seed set and yield. Comparative transcriptome profiling of non-stressed and heat-stressed (40°C for 30 min) pollen and pistil (stigma + style) highlighted the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in heat stress response in these reproductive tissues. In pollen, cell wall organization and cellular transport-related genes possibly regulate pollen fitness under heat stress while the heat stress-induced repression of transcription factor encoding transcripts is a feature of the pistil response. Overall, high temperature altered the expression of genes involved in protein processing, regulation of transcription, pollen-pistil interactions, and misregulation of cellular organization, transport, and metabolism. Our results show that short episodes of high-temperature exposure in <i>B. napus</i> modulate key regulatory pathways disrupted reproductive processes, ultimately translating to yield loss. Further investigations on the genes and networks identified in the present study pave a way toward genetic improvement of the thermotolerance and reproductive performance of <i>B. napus</i> varieties.
Project description:Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is a highly nutritious crop that is resilient to a wide range of abiotic stresses; however, sensitivity to high temperatures is regarded as an impediment to adoption in regions prone to heat waves. Heat stress is usually associated with a decrease in crop reproductive capacity (e.g., pollen viability), yet little is known about how leaf physiological performance of quinoa is affected by high temperatures. Several trials were conducted to understand the effect of high temperatures, without confounding stressors such as drought, on ten selected quinoa genotypes considered to encompass heat sensitive and heat tolerant plant material. Plants were grown under favorable temperatures and exposed to two temperature treatments over four consecutive days. The heat treatment simulated heat waves with maximum and minimum temperatures higher during the day and night, while the control treatment was maintained under favorable temperatures (maximum and minimum temperatures for 'Heat': 45/30 °C and 'Control': 20/14 °C). Leaf gas exchange (day), chlorophyll fluorescence (predawn and day) and dark respiration (night) were measured. Results show that most quinoa genotypes under the heat treatment increased their photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance, resulting in a lower intrinsic water use efficiency. This was partly corroborated by an increase in the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). Dark respiration decreased under the heat treatment in most genotypes, and temperature treatment did not affect aboveground biomass by harvest (shoot and seeds). These results suggest that heat stress alone favors increases in leaf carbon assimilation capacity although the tradeoff is higher plant water demand, which may lead to plant water stress and lower yields under non-irrigated field conditions.
Project description:NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors that play essential roles in regulating development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. We show that over-expression of the cotton GhNAC2 under the CaMV35S promoter increases root growth in both Arabidopsis and cotton under unstressed conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also show improved root growth in presence of mannitol and NaCl while transgenic cotton expressing GhNAC2 show reduced leaf abscission and wilting upon water stress compared to control plants. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants also have larger leaves, higher seed number and size under well watered conditions, reduced transpiration and higher relative leaf water content. Micro-array analysis of transgenic plants over-expressing GhNAC2 reveals activation of the ABA/JA pathways and a suppression of the ethylene pathway at several levels to reduce expression of ERF6/ERF1/WRKY33/ MPK3/MKK9/ACS6 and their targets. This probably suppresses the ethylene-mediated inhibition of organ expansion, leading to larger leaves, better root growth and higher yields under unstressed conditions. Suppression of the ethylene pathway and activation of the ABA/JA pathways also primes the plant for improved stress tolerance by reduction in transpiration, greater stomatal control and suppression of growth retarding factors.