Developing a Natural History Progression Model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Using the Six-Minute Walk Test.
ABSTRACT: The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is used as a clinical endpoint to evaluate drug efficacy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) trials. A model was developed using digitized 6MWT data that estimated two slopes and two intercepts to characterize 6MWT improvement during development and 6MWT decline. Mean baseline 6MWT was 362 (±87) meters. The model predicted an improvement at a rate of 20 meters/year (95% confidence interval (CI) = 9.4-30) up until 10 years old (95% CI?=?6.78-13.1), and then a decline at a rate of 85 meters/year (95% CI?=?72-98). Interpatient slope variability for improvement and decline were similar at 21.9 percentage of coefficient of variation (%CV) and 23.3%CV, respectively. Model simulations using age demographics from a previous DMD natural history study could reasonably predict the trend in improvement and decline in the 6MWT. This model can be used to quantitate individual patient trajectories, identify prognostic factors for disease progression, and evaluate drug effect.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects ?5 years with nonsense mutations were followed for 48 weeks in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ataluren. Placebo arm data (N = 57) provided insight into the natural history of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints.Evaluations performed every 6 weeks included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), and quantitative strength using hand-held myometry.Baseline age (?7 years), 6MWD, and selected TFT performance are strong predictors of decline in ambulation (?6MWD) and time to 10% worsening in 6MWD. A baseline 6MWD of <350 meters was associated with greater functional decline, and loss of ambulation was only seen in those with baseline 6MWD <325 meters. Only 1 of 42 (2.3%) subjects able to stand from supine lost ambulation.Findings confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the 6MWD as the most accepted primary clinical endpoint in ambulatory DMD trials.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with corticosteroids is recommended for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients to slow the progression of weakness. However, chronic corticosteroid treatment causes significant morbidities. Vamorolone is a first-in-class anti-inflammatory investigational drug that has shown evidence of efficacy in DMD after 24 weeks of treatment at 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day. Here, open-label efficacy and safety experience of vamorolone was evaluated over a period of 18 months in trial participants with DMD. METHODS AND FINDINGS:A multicenter, open-label, 24-week trial (VBP15-003) with a 24-month long-term extension (VBP15-LTE) was conducted by the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG) and evaluated drug-related effects of vamorolone on motor outcomes and corticosteroid-associated safety concerns. The study was carried out in Canada, US, UK, Australia, Sweden, and Israel, from 2016 to 2019. This report covers the initial 24-week trial and the first 12 months of the VBP15-LTE trial (total treatment period 18 months). DMD trial participants (males, 4 to <7 years at entry) treated with 2.0 or 6.0 mg/kg/day vamorolone for the full 18-month period (n = 23) showed clinical improvement of all motor outcomes from baseline to month 18 (time to stand velocity, p = 0.012 [95% CI 0.010, 0.068 event/second]; run/walk 10 meters velocity, p < 0.001 [95% CI 0.220, 0.491 meters/second]; climb 4 stairs velocity, p = 0.001 [95% CI 0.034, 0.105 event/second]; 6-minute walk test, p = 0.001 [95% CI 31.14, 93.38 meters]; North Star Ambulatory Assessment, p < 0.001 [95% CI 2.702, 6.662 points]). Outcomes in vamorolone-treated DMD patients (n = 46) were compared to group-matched participants in the CINRG Duchenne Natural History Study (corticosteroid-naïve, n = 19; corticosteroid-treated, n = 68) over a similar 18-month period. Time to stand was not significantly different between vamorolone-treated and corticosteroid-naïve participants (p = 0.088; least squares [LS] mean 0.042 [95% CI -0.007, 0.091]), but vamorolone-treated participants showed significant improvement compared to group-matched corticosteroid-naïve participants for run/walk 10 meters velocity (p = 0.003; LS mean 0.286 [95% CI 0.104, 0.469]) and climb 4 stairs velocity (p = 0.027; LS mean 0.059 [95% CI 0.007, 0.111]). The vamorolone-related improvements were similar in magnitude to corticosteroid-related improvements. Corticosteroid-treated participants showed stunting of growth, whereas vamorolone-treated trial participants did not (p < 0.001; LS mean 15.86 [95% CI 8.51, 23.22]). Physician-reported incidences of adverse events (AEs) for Cushingoid appearance, hirsutism, weight gain, and behavior change were less for vamorolone than published incidences for prednisone and deflazacort. Key limitations to the study were the open-label design, and use of external comparators. CONCLUSIONS:We observed that vamorolone treatment was associated with improvements in some motor outcomes as compared with corticosteroid-naïve individuals over an 18-month treatment period. We found that fewer physician-reported AEs occurred with vamorolone than have been reported for treatment with prednisone and deflazacort, and that vamorolone treatment did not cause the stunting of growth seen with these corticosteroids. This Phase IIa study provides Class III evidence to support benefit of motor function in young boys with DMD treated with vamorolone 2.0 to 6.0 mg/kg/day, with a favorable safety profile. A Phase III RCT is underway to further investigate safety and efficacy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinical trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov, and the links to each trial are as follows (as provided in manuscript text): VBP15-002 [NCT02760264] VBP15-003 [NCT02760277] VBP15-LTE [NCT03038399].
Project description:INTRODUCTION:In this study we characterized disease progression over 48?weeks among boys receiving deflazacort vs prednisone/prednisolone placebo arm treatment in two recent Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials. METHODS:Ambulatory boys with DMD receiving placebo in the phase 3 ataluren (N = 115) and tadalafil (N = 116) trials were included. The trials required at least 6?months of prior corticosteroid use and stable baseline dosing. Associations between corticosteroid use and 48-week changes in ambulatory function were estimated using mixed models. Adjusted differences between corticosteroid groups were pooled in a meta-analysis. RESULTS:In the meta-analysis, deflazacort-treated patients vs prednisone/prednisolone-treated patients experienced, on average, lower declines of 28.3 meters on 6-minute walk distance (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 50.9; 2.9?seconds on rise from supine [95% CI, 0.9, 4.9?seconds]; 2.3?seconds on 4-stair climb [95% CI, 0.5, 4.1?seconds]; and 2.9 [95% CI, 0.1, 5.8] points on the North Star Ambulatory Assessment linearized score). DISCUSSION:Deflazacort-treated patients experienced significantly lower functional decline over 48?weeks.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exon skipping has been considered a promising therapeutic approach for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Eteplirsen received conditional approval in the United States in 2016. To date, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of exon skipping drugs have been published to determine the pooled estimates for the effect of exon skipping in treating DMD. METHODS:A systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind RCTs comparing exon-skipping drugs with placebo in DMD was performed. Trials were identified by searching published and unpublished studies from electronically available databases and clinical trial registries through October 2017. The primary outcomes were changes in the 6-min walk test (6MWT) distance, North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) scores, and adverse events. Random-effects meta-analysis and assessment of risk of bias were performed. This systematic review was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42016037504). RESULTS:Five studies involving 322 participants were included, investigating eteplirsen in one and drisapersen in four studies. There were no changes in 6MWT distance (mean difference [MD] - 9.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 21.94 to 3.62) or NSAA scores (MD 1.20, 95% CI - 2.35 to 4.75) after 24 weeks of treatment in the exon-skipping group compared with placebo. Subgroup analysis for a 6 mg/kg weekly injection of drisapersen showed significant changes in the 6MWT, favoring drisapersen after 24 weeks (MD - 20.24; 95% CI - 39.59 to - 0.89). However, drisapersen resulted in a significant increase in injection site reactions (risk ratio [RR] 3.67, 95% CI 1.96 to 6.89, p < 0.0001) and renal toxicity (RR 1.81, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.94, p = 0.02). Risk of bias was high in two of the five studies, including the eteplirsen and one drisapersen study. CONCLUSIONS:Current available data do not show evidence that exon-skipping drugs are effective in DMD. Despite potential effectiveness when used at a specific dose, significant side effects were reported with drisapersen. The small number of RCTs with relatively small numbers of participants indicate the difficulty in conducting sufficiently powered studies of DMD. Prospectively planned meta-analysis and utilization of the real-world data may provide a more precise estimate of the effect of exon skipping in this disease.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that mindfulness can reduce stress, and thereby affect other psychological and physiological outcomes as well. Earlier, we reported the direct 3-month results of an online modified mindfulness-based stress reduction training in patients with heart disease, and now we evaluate the effect at 12-month follow-up. 324 patients (mean age 43.2 years, 53.7% male) were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to additional 3-month online mindfulness training or to usual care alone. The primary outcome was exercise capacity measured with the 6 minute walk test (6MWT). Secondary outcomes were blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, NT-proBNP, cortisol levels (scalp hair sample), mental and physical functioning (SF-36), anxiety and depression (HADS), perceived stress (PSS), and social support (PSSS12). Differences between groups on the repeated outcome measures were analyzed with linear mixed models. At 12-months follow-up, participants showed a trend significant improvement exercise capacity (6MWT: 17.9 meters, p = 0.055) compared to UC. Cohen's D showed significant but small improvement on exercise capacity (d = 0.22; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.39), systolic blood pressure (d = 0.19; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.36), mental functioning (d = 0.22; 95%CI 0.05 to 0.38) and depressive symptomatology (d = 0.18; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.35). All other outcome measures did not change statistically significantly. In the as-treated analysis, systolic blood pressure decreased significantly with 5.5 mmHg (p = 0.045; d = 0.23 (95%CI 0.05-0.41)). Online mindfulness training shows favorable albeit small long-term effects on exercise capacity, systolic blood pressure, mental functioning, and depressive symptomatology in patients with heart disease and might therefore be a beneficial addition to current clinical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:www.trialregister.nl NTR3453.
Project description:Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a variant of dystrophin deficiency resulting from DMD gene mutations. Phenotype is variable with loss of ambulation in late teenage or late mid-life years. There is currently no treatment for this condition. In this BMD proof-of-principle clinical trial, a potent myostatin antagonist, follistatin (FS), was used to inhibit the myostatin pathway. Extensive preclinical studies, using adeno-associated virus (AAV) to deliver follistatin, demonstrated an increase in strength. For this trial, we used the alternatively spliced FS344 to avoid potential binding to off target sites. AAV1.CMV.FS344 was delivered to six BMD patients by direct bilateral intramuscular quadriceps injections. Cohort 1 included three subjects receiving 3?×?10(11) vg/kg/leg. The distance walked on the 6MWT was the primary outcome measure. Patients 01 and 02 improved 58 meters (m) and 125 m, respectively. Patient 03 showed no change. In Cohort 2, Patients 05 and 06 received 6?×?10(11) vg/kg/leg with improved 6MWT by 108 m and 29 m, whereas, Patient 04 showed no improvement. No adverse effects were encountered. Histological changes corroborated benefit showing reduced endomysial fibrosis, reduced central nucleation, more normal fiber size distribution with muscle hypertrophy, especially at high dose. The results are encouraging for treatment of dystrophin-deficient muscle diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Late-onset Pompe disease (LOPD) is a rare, metabolic disease primarily affecting the musculoskeletal and respiratory systems. Forced vital capacity (FVC) is commonly used to measure pulmonary function; however, associations between FVC and other LOPD outcomes remain unclear. METHODS:A systematic literature review was conducted on November 2015, updated September 2016 and supplemented with clinical trial data from the sponsor. Outcomes included: 6-min walk test distance (6MWT), FVC, maximal inspiratory/expiratory pressure (MIP/MEP), Medical Research Council-skeletal muscle strength score (MRC), 36-item short-form survey-physical component score (SF-36), Rotterdam Handicap Scale (RHS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and survival. Individual patient data meta-analysis was used for cross-sectional analyses and longitudinal analyses to determine associations between percent of predicted FVC and LOPD measures and outcomes. RESULTS:Fifteen studies were selected. From cross-sectional analyses, FVC and MRC were most strongly associated. Specifically, patients with 10% higher FVC (a round number for illustrative purposes only) were associated with a 4.72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.37, 6.07) higher MRC score, indicating a positive association. Similarly, slopes for the 6MWT and SF-36 relative to a 10% higher FVC were estimated at 33.2 meters (95% CI 24.0, 42.4) and 1.2% (95% CI 0.24, 2.16%), respectively. From longitudinal analyses, a 10% incremental increase in predicted FVC was associated with an average increase of 4.12% in MRC score (95% CI 1.29, 6.95), 35.6 m in the 6MWT (95% CI 19.9, 51.6), and 1.34% in SF-36 (95% CI 0.08, 2.60). There was insufficient data to conduct analyses for RHS, FSS and survival. CONCLUSIONS:FVC is positively associated with LOPD measures and outcomes across multiple domains. Additionally, longitudinal changes in FVC are positively associated with changes in the 6MWT, MRC and SF-36.
Project description:An international clinical trial enrolled 174 ambulatory males ?5 years old with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy (nmDMD). Pretreatment data provide insight into reliability, concurrent validity, and minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints.Screening and baseline evaluations included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), quantitative strength by myometry, the PedsQL, heart rate-determined energy expenditure index, and other exploratory endpoints.The 6MWT proved feasible and reliable in a multicenter context. Concurrent validity with other endpoints was excellent. The MCID for 6MWD was 28.5 and 31.7 meters based on 2 statistical distribution methods.The ratio of MCID to baseline mean is lower for 6MWD than for other endpoints. The 6MWD is an optimal primary endpoint for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) clinical trials that are focused therapeutically on preservation of ambulation and slowing of disease progression.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:In the last few years some of the therapeutical approaches for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are specifically targeting distinct groups of mutations, such as deletions eligible for skipping of individual exons. The aim of this observational study was to establish whether patients with distinct groups of mutations have different profiles of changes on the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) over a 12 month period. METHODS:The 6MWT was performed in 191 ambulant DMD boys at baseline and 12 months later. The results were analysed using a test for heterogeneity in order to establish possible differences among different types of mutations (deletions, duplications, point mutations) and among subgroups of deletions eligible to skip individual exons. RESULTS:At baseline the 6MWD ranged between 180 and 560,80 metres (mean 378,06, SD 74,13). The 12 month changes ranged between -325 and 175 (mean -10.8 meters, SD 69.2). Although boys with duplications had better results than those with the other types of mutations, the difference was not significant. Similarly, boys eligible for skipping of the exon 44 had better baseline results and less drastic changes than those eligible for skipping exon 45 or 53, but the difference was not significant. CONCLUSIONS:even if there are some differences among subgroups, the mean 12 month changes in each subgroup were all within a narrow Range: from the mean of the whole DMD cohort. This information will be of help at the time of designing clinical trials with small numbers of eligible patients.
Project description:To continue evaluation of the long-term efficacy and safety of eteplirsen, a phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer designed to skip DMD exon 51 in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Three-year progression of eteplirsen-treated patients was compared to matched historical controls (HC).Ambulatory DMD patients who were ≥7 years old and amenable to exon 51 skipping were randomized to eteplirsen (30/50mg/kg) or placebo for 24 weeks. Thereafter, all received eteplirsen on an open-label basis. The primary functional assessment in this study was the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT). Respiratory muscle function was assessed by pulmonary function testing (PFT). Longitudinal natural history data were used for comparative analysis of 6MWT performance at baseline and months 12, 24, and 36. Patients were matched to the eteplirsen group based on age, corticosteroid use, and genotype.At 36 months, eteplirsen-treated patients (n = 12) demonstrated a statistically significant advantage of 151m (p < 0.01) on 6MWT and experienced a lower incidence of loss of ambulation in comparison to matched HC (n = 13) amenable to exon 51 skipping. PFT results remained relatively stable in eteplirsen-treated patients. Eteplirsen was well tolerated. Analysis of HC confirmed the previously observed change in disease trajectory at age 7 years, and more severe progression was observed in patients with mutations amenable to exon skipping than in those not amenable. The subset of patients amenable to exon 51 skipping showed a more severe disease course than those amenable to any exon skipping.Over 3 years of follow-up, eteplirsen-treated patients showed a slower rate of decline in ambulation assessed by 6MWT compared to untreated matched HC.