Differential expression and accumulation of 14-3-3 paralogs in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and differentiated cells.
ABSTRACT: The 14-3-3 protein family interacts with more than 2000 different proteins in mammals, as a result of its specific phospho-serine/phospho-threonine binding activity. Seven paralogs are strictly conserved in mammalian species. Here, we show that during adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, the level of each 14-3-3 protein paralog is regulated independently. For instance 14-3-3?, ?, and ? protein levels are increased compared to untreated cells. In contrast, 14-3-3? protein levels decreased after differentiation while others remained constant. In silico analysis of the promoter region of each gene showed differences that explain the results obtained at mRNA and protein levels.
Project description:Objective:Ghrelin is a 28-amino-acid peptide that regulates energy hemostasis, glucose and lipid metabolism. We aimed to explore the effects of ghrelin on the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 and human primary preadipocytes. Methods:3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) spectrophotometry, Oil Red O staining, intracellular glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-3-PDH) assays and semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate the action of ghrelin. Results:Ghrelin (0.01-1000 ng/ml) significantly increased the numbers of 3T3-L1 cells, and the maximum stimulatory effect was observed with the 10 ng/ml ghrelin treatment for 24 h (p < 0.05). Ghrelin also promoted the proliferation of human primary preadipocytes from 24 h (p < 0.05) to 48 h (p < 0.05) at a concentration of 1000 ng/ml. Further investigation showed that IGF-1 levels were notably increased in ghrelin-treated 3T3-L1 and human preadipocytes, and IGF-1 antibody was capable to attenuate this stimulatory action of ghrelin (all p < 0.05). Additionally, ghrelin significantly suppressed the differentiation of 3T3-L1 and human primary preadipocytes; 10 ng/ml ghrelin notably downregulated G-3-PDH activities in 3T3-L1 cells on day 3 and in human cells from days 4 to 12 following differentiation (all p < 0.05), and the intracellular lipoprotein lipase mRNA levels were lower than that of the controls (p < 0.05). Further investigation showed that the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?2 (PPAR?2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBPs) were also suppressed in ghrelin-treated human differentiating adipocytes. Conclusion:Ghrelin promotes the proliferation of 3T3-L1 and human primary preadipocytes by increasing the expression of IGF-1. Ghrelin inhibits murine and human adipocyte differentiation by downregulating PPAR?2 and C/EBP? levels, consequently leading to decreased lipid accumulation and lipogenic enzymes expression.
Project description:Pericellular oxygen concentration represents an important factor in the regulation of cell functions, including cell differentiation, growth and mitochondrial energy metabolism. Hypoxia in adipose tissue has been associated with altered adipokine secretion profile and suggested as a possible factor in the development of type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments provide an indispensable tool in metabolic research, however, physical laws of gas diffusion make prolonged exposure of adherent cells to desired pericellular O2 concentrations questionable. The aim of this study was to investigate the direct effect of various O2 levels (1%, 4% and 20% O2) on the proteomic profile and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 differentiated preadipocytes using gas-permeable cultureware. Following differentiation of cells under desired pericellular O2 concentrations, cell lysates were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and protein visualization using Coomassie blue staining. Spots showing differential expression under hypoxia were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. All identified proteins were subjected to pathway analysis. We observed that protein expression of 26 spots was reproducibly affected by 4% and 1% O2 (17 upregulated and 9 downregulated). Pathway analysis showed that mitochondrial energy metabolism and triglyceride synthesis were significantly upregulated by hypoxia. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the direct effects of pericellular O2 levels on adipocyte energy metabolism and triglyceride synthesis, probably mediated through the reversed tricarboxylic acid cycle flux.
Project description:The tristetraprolin (TTP) family comprises zinc finger-containing AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins consisting of three major members: TTP, ZFP36L1, and ZFP36L2. The present study generated specific antibodies against each TTP member to evaluate its expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In contrast to the inducible expression of TTP, results indicated constitutive expression of ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and their phosphorylation in response to differentiation signals. Physical RNA pull-down and functional luciferase assays revealed that ZFP36L1 and ZFP36L2 bound to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) mRNA and downregulated Mkp-1 3'UTR-mediated luciferase activity. Mkp-1 is an immediate early gene for which the mRNA is transiently expressed in response to differentiation signals. The half-life of Mkp-1 mRNA was longer at 30 min of induction than at 1 h and 2 h of induction. Knockdown of TTP or ZFP36L2 increased the Mkp-1 mRNA half-life at 1 h of induction. Knockdown of ZFP36L1, but not ZFP36L2, increased Mkp-1 mRNA basal levels via mRNA stabilization and downregulated ERK activation. Differentiation induced phosphorylation of ZFP36L1 through ERK and AKT signals. Phosphorylated ZFP36L1 then interacted with 14-3-3, which might decrease its mRNA destabilizing activity. Inhibition of adipogenesis also occurred in ZFP36L1 and TTP knockdown cells. The findings indicate that the differential expression of TTP family members regulates immediate early gene expression and modulates adipogenesis.
Project description:Preadipocytes contribute to the inflammatory responses within adipose tissue. Whilst fatty acids are known to elicit an inflammatory response within adipose tissue, the relative contribution of preadipocytes and mature adipocytes to this is yet to be determined. We aimed to examine the actions of common dietary fatty acids on the acute inflammatory and adipokine response in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and differentiated mature adipocytes. Gene expression levels of key adipokines in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and adipocytes were determined following incubation with palmitic acid, myristic acid or oleic acid and positive inflammatory control, lipopolysaccharide for 2 and 4 h. Inflammatory kinase signalling was assessed by analysis of nuclear factor-?B, p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-jun amino-terminal kinase phosphorylation. Under basal conditions, intracellular monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression levels were increased in preadipocytes, whereas mature adipocytes expressed increased gene expression levels of leptin and adiponectin. Fatty acid exposure at 2 and 4 h increased both monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-6 gene expression levels in preadipocytes to greater levels than in mature adipocytes. There was an accompanying increase of inhibitor of ?B-? degradation and nuclear factor-?B (p65) (Ser536) phosphorylation with fatty acid exposure in the preadipocytes only. The current study points to preadipocytes rather than the adipocytes as the contributors to both immune cell recruitment and inflammatory adipokine secretion with acute increases in fatty acids.
Project description:Background:Smoking is a strong risk factor for the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Immediate early genes (IEGs) are overexpressed in patients with active GO compared to healthy controls. The aim of this study was to study the effects of tobacco smoking and simvastatin on preadipocytes and orbital fibroblasts (OFs) in the adipogenic process. Methods:Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was generated by a validated pump system. Mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes or OFs were exposed to 10% CSE with or without simvastatin. Gene expression was studied in preadipocytes and OFs exposed to CSE with or without simvastatin and compared to unexposed cells or cells treated with a differentiation cocktail. Results:In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, Cyr61, Ptgs2, Egr1 and Zfp36 expression levels were two-fold higher in cells exposed to CSE than in unexposed cells. Simvastatin downregulated the expression of these genes (1.6-fold, 5.5-fold, 3.3-fold, 1.4-fold, respectively). CSE alone could not stimulate preadipocytes to differentiate. Scd1, Ppar-? and adipogenesis were downregulated in simvastatin-treated preadipocytes compared to nontreated preadipocytes 18-, 35- and 1.7-fold, respectively. In OFs, similar effects of CSE were seen on the expression of CYR61 (1.4-fold) and PTGS2 (3-fold). Simvastatin downregulated adipogenesis, PPAR-? (2-fold) and SCD (27-fold) expression in OFs. Conclusion:CSE upregulated early adipogenic genes in both mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and human OFs but did not by itself induce adipogenesis. Simvastatin inhibited the expression of both early and late adipogenic genes and adipogenesis in preadipocytes and human OFs. The effect of simvastatin should be investigated in a clinical trial of patients with GO.
Project description:When mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes are induced to differentiate into adipocytes, they change from an extended fibroblast-like morphology to a rounded one. This change most likely occurs through extracellular matrix remodelling, a process known to be mediated in part by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we have shown by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, zymographic and immunoblot analysis that MMP-2, MMP-9 and membrane type 1 (MT1)-MMP are regulated during adipose conversion. To assess the importance of MMPs for adipocytic differentiation we have used MMP-specific inhibitors as well as neutralizing antibodies. Treatment of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with the broad MMP inhibitor Ilomastat or the more restricted MMP-2 Inhibitor I prevented their differentiation into adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, as evidenced by absence of triglyceride accumulation. Inhibitor treatment prevented the fibronectin-network degradation, as well as the induction of the genes for peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma and adipsin, two adipocyte phenotype markers. Inhibitor treatment was effective when applied during the early stages of adipocytic conversion, whereas inhibitor treatment during later stages had little effect. Inhibitor treatment did not inhibit clonal mitotic expansion; nor did it affect the expression pattern of the adipogenic transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) or its nuclear translocation. It did, however, markedly reduce C/EBPbeta DNA-binding capacity. Taken together, these results suggest that MMPs, and notably MMP-2 and MMP-9, may be necessary mediators of adipocytic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.
Project description:Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a main component of safflor yellow, has been demonstrated to prevent steroid-induced avascular necrosis of femoral head by inhibiting primary bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells adipogenic differentiation induced by steroid. In this study, we investigate the effect of HSYA on the proliferation and adipogenesis of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The effects of HSYA on proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and its possible mechanism were studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide spectrophotometry, Oil Red O staining, intracellular triglyceride assays, real-time quantitative RT-PCR, transient transfection and dual luciferase reporter gene methods. HSYA inhibited the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and cell viability greatly decreased in a dose and time dependent manner. HSYA (1 mg/l) notably reduced the amount of intracellular lipid and triglyceride content in adipocytes by 21.3 % (2.13 ± 0.36 vs 2.71 ± 0.40, P < 0.01) and 22.6 % (1.33 ± 0.07 vs 1.72 ± 0.07, P < 0.01) on days 8 following the differentiation, respectively. HSYA (1 mg/l) significantly increased hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) mRNA expression and promoter activities by 2.4- and 1.55-fold, respectively (P < 0.01), in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. HSYA inhibits the proliferation and adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. The inhibitory action of HYSA on adipogenesis may be due to the promotion of lipolytic-specific enzyme HSL expression by increasing HSL promoter activity.
Project description:Differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes is accompanied by increased expression of the nuclear protein C/EBP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein) and by transcriptional activation of a group of adipose-specific genes. We report here the isolation of the murine C/EBP gene and the characterization of its promoter. Consistent with its proposed role in coordinating transcription during preadipocyte differentiation, an increase in the rate of transcription of the C/EBP gene precedes that of several adipose-specific genes whose promoters are transactivated by C/EBP. DNase I cleavage-inhibition patterns (footprinting) of the C/EBP gene promoter by nuclear factors from differentiated and undifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells identified two sites of differential factor binding. One site in the C/EBP gene promoter between nucleotides -252 and -239 binds a nuclear factor(s) present in preadipocytes that is lost or modified upon differentiation. Another site, between nucleotides -203 and -176, exhibits different but overlapping footprints by nuclear factors present in differentiated and undifferentiated cells. Gel retardation analysis with oligonucleotides corresponding to these sites revealed protein-oligonucleotide complexes containing these differentially expressed nuclear factors. The factor present in differentiated cells that binds at this site was identified as C/EBP (possibly in heterodimeric form with a homologous leucine-zipper protein), suggesting that C/EBP may regulate expression of its own gene.
Project description:Dexamethasone is a synthetic glucocorticoid that is widely used as an adipogenic inducer in both murine and human in vitro models. Glucocorticoids have been shown to regulate early transcriptional events in adipogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been also implicated in the regulation of preadipocyte differentiation; however, the effects of glucocorticoids on miRNA expression levels during this process have not been studied. In this study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on the expression levels of miR-155 in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. We found that miR-155 levels were up-regulated (2.4-fold) by glucocorticoids in differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and this enhancement was abolished in the presence of RU486, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist. In contrast, treatment with rosiglitazone, another adipogenic inducer decreased the expression levels of miR-155 in these cells. Further, our data show that endogenous miR-155 is unlikely to be involved in adipogenesis as we show that both dexamethasone and rosiglitazone induced adipogenesis to similar levels. Furthermore, using miR-155 inhibitor, we showed that the dexamethasone mediated miR-155 enhancement did not alter adipogenesis. Our data show that dexamethasone but not rosiglitazone increases miR-155 expression and that the increased expression of miR-155 is not involved in the dexamethasone-mediated adipogenesis in the 3T3-L1 model.
Project description:Aging is characterized by mild hyperglycemia and accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Effects of chronic exposure to hyperglycemia or AGEs on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes remain unclear. We examined the chronic effect of AGEs and high glucose on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by culturing 3T3-L1 cells in the presence of AGEs or 25 mM glucose for 1 month. Chronic incubation of 3T3-L1 cells with AGEs or high glucose blocked their differentiation into mature adipocytes as evidenced by reduced levels of adipocyte markers such as accumulated oil droplets, GPDH, aP2, adiponectin and of adipogenesis regulators PPAR? and C/EBP?. Levels or activities of Src, PDK1, Akt, and NF-?B were higher in AGEs- and high glucose-treated cells than those in 3T3-L1 cells. Levels of Bcl-2 were elevated in AGEs- and high glucose-treated cells, and were attenuated by inhibitors of PI3-kinase, Akt and NF-?B. Moreover, adipogenesis was attenuated in 3T3-L1 cells stably expressing Bcl-2 or YAP. These results suggest that chronic AGEs and high glucose treatments up-regulate Bcl-2 and YAP via the Akt-NF-?B pathway and impair adipogenesis.