A high yield optimized method for the production of acylated ACPs enabling the analysis of enzymes involved in P. falciparum fatty acid biosynthesis.
ABSTRACT: The natural substrates of the enzymes involved in type-II fatty acid biosynthesis (FAS-II) are acylated acyl carrier proteins (acyl-ACPs). The state of the art method to produce acyl-ACPs involves the transfer of a phosphopantetheine moiety from CoA to apo-ACP by E. coli holo-ACP synthase (EcACPS), yielding holo-ACP which subsequently becomes thioesterified with free fatty acids by the E. coli acyl-ACP synthase (EcAAS). Alternatively, acyl-ACPs can be synthesized by direct transfer of acylated phosphopantetheine moieties from acyl-CoA to apo-ACP by means of EcACPS. The need for native substrates to characterize the FAS-II enzymes of P. falciparum prompted us to investigate the potential and limit of the two methods to efficiently acylate P. falciparum ACP (PfACP) with respect to chain length and ?-modification and in preparative amounts. The EcAAS activity is found to be independent from the oxidation state at the ?-position and accepts fatty acids as substrates with chain lengths starting from C8 to C20, whereas EcACPS accepts very efficiently acyl-CoAs with chain lengths up to C16, and with decreasing activity also longer chains (C18 to C20). Methods were developed to synthesize and purify preparative amounts of high quality natural substrates that are fully functional for the enzymes of the P. falciparum FAS-II system.
Project description:Friulimicin is a cyclic lipodecapeptide antibiotic that is produced by Actinoplanes friuliensis. Similar to the related lipopeptide drug daptomycin, the peptide skeleton of friulimicin is synthesized by a large multienzyme nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) system. The LipD protein plays a major role in the acylation reaction of friulimicin. The attachment of the fatty acid group promotes its antibiotic activity. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that LipD is most closely related to other freestanding acyl carrier proteins (ACPs), for which the genes are located near to NRPS gene clusters. Here, we report that the solution NMR structure of apo-LipD is very similar to other four-helix bundle forming ACPs from fatty acid synthase (FAS), polyketide synthase, and NRPS systems. By recording NMR dynamics data, we found that the backbone motions in holo-LipD are more restricted than in apo-LipD due to the attachment of phosphopantetheine moiety. This enhanced stability of holo-LipD was also observed in differential scanning calorimetry experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, unlike several other ACPs, the folding of LipD does not depend on the presence of divalent cations, although the presence of Mg2+ or Ca2+ can increase the protein stability. We propose that small structural rearrangements in the tertiary structure of holo-LipD which lead to the enhanced stability are important for the cognate enzyme recognition for the acylation reaction. Our results also highlight the different surface charges of LipD and FAS-ACP from A. friuliensis that would allow the acyl-CoA ligase to interact preferentially with the LipD instead of binding to the FAS-ACP.
Project description:Acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety from coenzyme A (CoA) onto a serine residue of apo-ACP, resulting in the conversion of apo-ACP to the functional holo-ACP. The holo form of bacterial ACP plays an essential role in mediating the transfer of acyl fatty acid intermediates during the biosynthesis of fatty acids and phospholipids. AcpS is therefore an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we have purified and characterized the AcpS enzymes from Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which exemplify gram-negative, gram-positive, and atypical bacteria, respectively. Our gel filtration column chromatography and cross-linking studies demonstrate that the AcpS enzyme from M. pneumoniae, like E. coli enzyme, exhibits a homodimeric structure, but the enzyme from S. pneumoniae exhibits a trimeric structure. Our biochemical studies show that the AcpS enzymes from M. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae can utilize both short- and long-chain acyl CoA derivatives but prefer long-chain CoA derivatives as substrates. On the other hand, the AcpS enzyme from E. coli can utilize short-chain CoA derivatives but not the long-chain CoA derivatives tested. Finally, our biochemical studies show that M. pneumoniae AcpS is kinetically a very sluggish enzyme compared with those from E. coli and S. pneumoniae. Together, the results of these studies show that the AcpS enzymes from different bacterial species exhibit different native structures and substrate specificities with regard to the utilization of CoA and its derivatives. These findings suggest that AcpS from different microorganisms plays a different role in cellular physiology.
Project description:During fatty acid biosynthesis, acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) from type I fungal fatty acid synthase (FAS) shuttle substrates and intermediates within a reaction chamber that hosts multiple spatially-fixed catalytic centers. A major challenge in understanding the mechanism of ACP-mediated substrate shuttling is experimental observation of its transient interaction landscape within the reaction chamber. Here, we have shown that ACP spatial distribution is sensitive to the presence of substrates in a catalytically inhibited state, which enables high-resolution investigation of the ACP-dependent conformational transitions within the enoyl reductase (ER) reaction site. In two fungal FASs with distinct ACP localization, the shuttling domain is targeted to the ketoacyl-synthase (KS) domain and away from other catalytic centers, such as acetyl-transferase (AT) and ER domains by steric blockage of the KS active site followed by addition of substrates. These studies strongly suggest that acylation of phosphopantetheine arm of ACP may be an integral part of the substrate shuttling mechanism in type I fungal FAS.
Project description:Some bacterial type II fatty-acid synthesis (FAS II) enzymes have been shown to be important candidates for drug discovery. The scientific and medical quest for new FAS II protein targets continues to stimulate research in this field. One of the possible additional candidates is the acyl-carrier-protein synthase (AcpS) enzyme. Its holo form post-translationally modifies the apo form of an acyl carrier protein (ACP), which assures the constant delivery of thioester intermediates to the discrete enzymes of FAS II. At the Center for Structural Genomics of Infectious Diseases (CSGID), AcpSs from Staphylococcus aureus (AcpS(SA)), Vibrio cholerae (AcpS(VC)) and Bacillus anthracis (AcpS(BA)) have been structurally characterized in their apo, holo and product-bound forms, respectively. The structure of AcpS(BA) is emphasized because of the two 3',5'-adenosine diphosphate (3',5'-ADP) product molecules that are found in each of the three coenzyme A (CoA) binding sites of the trimeric protein. One 3',5'-ADP is bound as the 3',5'-ADP part of CoA in the known structures of the CoA-AcpS and 3',5'-ADP-AcpS binary complexes. The position of the second 3',5'-ADP has never been described before. It is in close proximity to the first 3',5'-ADP and the ACP-binding site. The coordination of two ADPs in AcpS(BA) may possibly be exploited for the design of AcpS inhibitors that can block binding of both CoA and ACP.
Project description:Members of the LuxI protein family catalyze synthesis of acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing signals from S-adenosyl-L-methionine and an acyl thioester. Some LuxI family members prefer acyl-CoA, and others prefer acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) as the acyl-thioester substrate. We sought to understand the evolutionary history and mechanisms mediating this substrate preference. Our phylogenetic and motif analysis of the LuxI acyl-HSL synthase family indicates that the acyl-CoA-utilizing enzymes evolved from an acyl-ACP-utilizing ancestor. To further understand how acyl-ACPs and acyl-CoAs are recognized by acyl-HSL synthases we studied BmaI1, an octanoyl-ACP-dependent LuxI family member from Burkholderia mallei, and BjaI, an isovaleryl-CoA-dependent LuxI family member from Bradyrhizobium japonicum. We synthesized thioether analogs of their thioester acyl-substrates to probe recognition of the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety common to both acyl-ACP and acyl-CoA substrates. The kinetics of catalysis and inhibition of these enzymes indicate that they recognize the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety and they recognize non-preferred substrates with this moiety. We find that CoA substrate utilization arose through exaptation of acyl-phosphopantetheine recognition in this enzyme family.
Project description:We have characterized an acyl carrier protein (ACP) presumed to be involved in the synthesis of fatty acids in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). This is the third ACP to have been identified in S. coelicolor; the two previously characterized ACPs are involved in the synthesis of two aromatic polyketides: the blue-pigmented antibiotic actinorhodin and a grey pigment associated with the spore walls. The three ACPs are clearly related. The presumed fatty acid synthase (FAS) ACP was partially purified, and the N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained. The corresponding gene (acpP) was cloned and sequenced and found to lie within 1 kb of a previously characterized gene (fabD) encoding another subunit of the S. coelicolor FAS, malonyl coenzyme A:ACP acyl-transferase. Expression of S. coelicolor acpP in Escherichia coli yielded several different forms, whose masses corresponded to the active (holo) form of the protein carrying various acyl substituents. To test the mechanisms that normally prevent the FAS ACP from substituting for the actinorhodin ACP, acpP was cloned in place of actI-open reading frame 3 (encoding the actinorhodin ACP) to allow coexpression of acpP with the act polyketide synthase (PKS) genes. Pigmented polyketide production was observed, but only at a small fraction of its former level. This suggests that the FAS and PKS ACPs may be biochemically incompatible and that this could prevent functional complementation between the FAS and PKSs that potentially coexist within the same cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Modular polyketide synthases are multifunctional megasynthases which biosynthesize a variety of secondary metabolites using various combinations of dehydratase (DH), ketoreductase (KR) and enoyl-reductase (ER) domains. During the catalysis of various reductive steps these domains act on a substrate moiety which is covalently attached to the phosphopantetheine (P-pant) group of the holo-Acyl Carrier Protein (holo-ACP) domain, thus necessitating the formation of holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes. Even though three dimensional structures are available for DH, KR and ACP domains, no structures are available for DH or KR domains in complex with ACP or substrate moieties. Since Ser of holo-ACP is covalently attached to a large phosphopantetheine group, obtaining complexes involving holo-ACP by standard protein-protein docking has been a difficult task. RESULTS: We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes for identifying specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. A novel combination of protein-protein and protein-ligand docking has been used to first model complexes involving apo-ACP and then dock the phosphopantetheine and substrate moieties using covalent connectivity between ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety as constraints. The holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes obtained from docking have been further refined by restraint free explicit solvent MD simulations to incorporate effects of ligand and receptor flexibilities. The results from 50?ns MD simulations reveal that substrate enters into a deep tunnel in DH domain while in case of KR domain the substrate binds a shallow surface exposed cavity. Interestingly, in case of DH domain the predicted binding site overlapped with the binding site in the inhibitor bound crystal structure of FabZ, the DH domain from E.Coli FAS. In case of KR domain, the substrate binding site identified by our simulations was in proximity of the known stereo-specificity determining residues. CONCLUSIONS: We have modeled the holo-ACP:DH and holo-ACP:KR complexes and identified the specific residues on DH and KR domains which are involved in interaction with ACP, phosphopantetheine and substrate moiety. Analysis of the conservation profile of binding pocket residues in homologous sequences of DH and KR domains indicated that, these results can also be extrapolated to reductive domains of other modular PKS clusters.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fatty acid synthase 1 (FAS I) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an essential protein and a promising drug target. FAS I is a multi-functional, multi-domain protein that is organized as a large (1.9 MDa) homohexameric complex. Acyl intermediates produced during fatty acid elongation are attached covalently to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) domain. This domain is activated by the transfer of a 4'-Phosphopantetheine (4'-PP, also termed P-pant) group from CoA to ACP catalyzed by a 4'-PP transferase, termed acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS). METHODS:In order to obtain an activated FAS I in E. coli, we transformed E. coli with tagged Mtb fas1 and acpS genes encoded by a separate plasmid. We induced the expression of Mtb FAS I following induction of AcpS expression. FAS I was purified by Strep-Tactin affinity chromatography. RESULTS:Activation of Mtb FAS I was confirmed by the identification of a bound P-pant group on serine at position 1808 by mass spectrometry. The purified FAS I displayed biochemical activity shown by spectrophotometric analysis of NADPH oxidation and by CoA production, using the Ellman reaction. The purified Mtb FAS I forms a hexameric complex shown by negative staining and cryo-EM. CONCLUSION:Purified hexameric and active Mtb FAS I is required for binding and drug inhibition studies and for structure-function analysis of this enzyme. This relatively simple and short procedure for Mtb FAS I production should facilitate studies of this enzyme.
Project description:Acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an essential co-factor protein in fatty acid biosynthesis that shuttles covalently bound fatty acyl intermediates in its hydrophobic pocket to various enzyme partners. To characterize acyl chain-ACP interactions and their influence on enzyme interactions, we performed 19 molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of Escherichia coli apo-, holo-, and acyl-ACPs. The simulations were started with the acyl chain in either a solvent-exposed or a buried conformation. All four short-chain (< or = C10) and one long-chain (C16) unbiased acyl-ACP MD simulation show the transition of the solvent-exposed acyl chain into the hydrophobic pocket of ACP, revealing its pathway of acyl chain binding. Although the acyl chain resides inside the pocket, Thr-39 and Glu-60 at the entrance stabilize the phosphopantetheine linker through hydrogen bonding. Comparisons of the different ACP forms indicate that the loop region between helices II and III and the prosthetic linker may aid in substrate recognition by enzymes of fatty acid synthase systems. The MD simulations consistently show that the hydrophobic binding pocket of ACP is best suited to accommodate an octanoyl group and is capable of adjusting in size to accommodate chain lengths as long as decanoic acid. The simulations also reveal a second, novel binding mode of the acyl chains inside the hydrophobic binding pocket directed toward helix I. This study provides a detailed dynamic picture of acyl-ACPs that is in excellent agreement with available experimental data and, thereby, provides a new understanding of enzyme-ACP interactions.
Project description:Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) are large multidomain proteins present in microorganisms that produce bioactive compounds. Curacin A is such a bioactive compound with potent anti-proliferative activity. During its biosynthesis the growing substrate is bound covalently to an acyl carrier protein (ACP) that is able to access catalytic sites of neighboring domains for chain elongation and modification. While ACP domains usually occur as monomers, the curacin A cluster codes for a triplet ACP (ACP(I)-ACP(II)-ACP(III)) within the CurA PKS module. We have determined the structure of the isolated holo-ACP(I) and show that the ACPs are independent of each other within this tridomain system. In addition, we have determined the structure of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-loaded holo-ACP(I), which is the substrate for the unique halogenase (Hal) domain embedded within the CurA module. We have identified the interaction surface of both proteins using mutagenesis and MALDI-based identification of product formation. Amino acids affecting product formation are located on helices II and III of ACP(I) and form a contiguous surface. Since the CurA Hal accepts substrate only when presented by one of the ACPs within the ACP(I)-ACP(II)-ACP(III) tridomain, our data provide insight into the specificity of the chlorination reaction.