MAb Das-1 is specific for high-risk and malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).
ABSTRACT: Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) consists of four epithelial subtypes that correlate with histological grades and risks for malignant transformation. mAb Das-1 is a monoclonal antibody against a colonic epithelial phenotype that is reactive to premalignant conditions of the upper GI tract. We sought to assess the ability of mAb Das-1 to identify IPMN with high risk of malignant transformation.mAb Das-1 reactivity was evaluated in 94 patients with IPMNs by immunohistochemistry. Lesional fluid from 38 separate patients with IPMN (n=27), low-grade non-mucinous cystic neoplasms (n=7) and pseudocysts (n=4) was analysed by ELISA and western blot.Immunohistochemistry-Normal pancreatic ducts were non-reactive and low-grade gastric-type IPMN (IPMN-G) (1/17) and intermediate-grade IPMN-G (1/23) were minimally reactive with mAb Das-1. In contrast, mAb Das-1 reactivity was significantly higher in high-risk/malignant lesions (p<0.0001) including: intestinal-type IPMN with intermediate-grade dysplasia (9/10); high-grade dysplasia of gastric (4/7), intestinal (12/12), oncocytic (2/2) and pancreatobiliary types (2/2); and invasive tubular (8/12), colloid (7/7) and oncocytic (2/2) carcinoma. The sensitivity and specificity of mAb Das-1 for high-risk/malignant IPMNs were 85% and 95%, respectively. Lesional fluid-Samples from low- and intermediate-grade IPMN-G (n=9), and other low-grade/benign non-mucinous lesions demonstrated little reactivity with mAb Das-1. Conversely, cyst fluid from high-risk/malignant IPMNs (n=18) expressed significantly higher reactivity (p<0.0001). The sensitivity and specificity of mAbDas-1 in detecting high-risk/malignant IPMNs were 89% and 100%, respectively.mAb Das-1 reacts with high specificity to tissue and cyst fluid from high-risk/malignant IPMNs and thus may help in preoperative clinical risk stratification.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate Plectin-1 expression as a biomarker of malignant risk for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).Plectin-1 immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed retrospectively on surgical (n = 71) and cytological (n = 33) specimens from Mayo Clinic Jacksonville and UCLA Medical Center, including IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia (HGD), or an associated invasive adenocarcinoma.Plectin-1 expression was increased in invasive adenocarcinoma compared with adjacent in situ IPMN (P = 0.005), as well as the in situ HGD component of IPMNs with invasive cancer compared with HGD of IPMNs without invasive cancer (P = 0.02). Plectin IHC discriminated IPMNs with invasive adenocarcinoma from noninvasive IPMN (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.79, 75% sensitivity, and 85% specificity) but was insufficient for discriminating HGD IPMN from low-grade dysplasia IPMNs in surgical resections (AUC of 0.67, 56% sensitivity, and 64% specificity) or fine-needle aspiration specimens (AUC of 0.45).Although Plectin-1 IHC has insufficient accuracy to be used as a definitive biomarker for malignant risk in the evaluation of IPMN biopsy or cytological specimens, increased Plectin-1 expression observed in both invasive cancer and in situ HGD of malignant IPMNs suggests that it might be successfully leveraged as a cyst fluid biomarker or molecular imaging target.
Project description:Invasive cancers arising from intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) are recognised as a morphologically and biologically heterogeneous group of neoplasms. Less is known about the epithelial subtypes of the precursor IPMN from which these lesions arise. The authors investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and the impact on survival of both the invasive component and its background IPMN.The study cohort comprised 61 patients with invasive IPMN (study group) and 570 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC, control group) resected at a single institution. Multivariate analyses were performed using a stage-matched Cox proportional hazard model.The histology of invasive components of the IPMN cohort was tubular in 38 (62%), colloid in 16 (26%), and oncocytic in seven (12%). Compared with PDAC, invasive IPMNs were associated with a lower incidence of adverse pathological features and improved mortality by multivariate analysis (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.86). In subtype analysis, this favourable outcome remained only for colloid and oncocytic carcinomas, while tubular adenocarcinoma was associated with worse overall survival, not significantly different from that of PDAC (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.53 to 1.36). Colloid and oncocytic carcinomas arose only from intestinal- and oncocytic-type IPMNs, respectively, and were mostly of the main-duct type, whereas tubular adenocarcinomas primarily originated in the gastric background, which was often associated with branch-duct IPMN. Overall survival of patients with invasive adenocarcinomas arising from gastric-type IPMN was significantly worse than that of patients with non-gastric-type IPMN (p=0.016).Tubular, colloid and oncocytic invasive IPMNs have varying prognosis, and arise from different epithelial subtypes. Colloid and oncocytic types have markedly improved biology, whereas the tubular type has a course that resembles PDAC. Analysis of these subtypes indicates that the background epithelium plays an equally, if not more, important role in defining the biology and prognosis of invasive IPMNs.
Project description:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of pancreas has a high risk to develop into invasive cancer or co-occur with malignant lesion. Therefore, it is important to assess its malignant risk by less-invasive approach. Pancreatic juice cell-free DNA (PJD) would be an ideal material in this purpose, but genetic biomarkers for predicting malignant risk from PJD are not yet established. We here performed deep exome sequencing analysis of PJD from 39 IPMN patients with or without malignant lesion. Somatic alterations and copy number alterations (CNAs) detected in PJD were compared with the histologic grade of IPMN to evaluate their potential as a malignancy marker. Somatic mutations of KRAS, GNAS, TP53, and RNF43 were commonly detected in PJD of IPMNs, but no association with the histologic grades of IPMN was found. Instead, mutation burden was positively correlated with the histologic grade (r = 0.427, P = 0.015). We also observed frequent copy number deletions in 17p13 (TP53) and amplifications in 7q21 and 8q24 (MYC) in PJDs. The amplifications in 7q21 and 8q24 were positively correlated with the histologic grade and most prevalent in the cases of invasive carcinoma (P = 0.002 and 7/11; P = 0.011 and 6/11, respectively). We concluded that mutation burden and CNAs detected in PJD may have potential to assess the malignant progression risk of IPMNs.
Project description:Intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm (IOPN) is a rare intraductal tumor of the pancreatobiliary system. Currently, little is known about its distinct characteristics, unlike intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) and intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct (IPNB). The present study compared 22 IOPNs (18 pancreatic and 4 biliary) with those of 61 IPMNs/8 IPNBs. IOPNs were classified into pure and combined types, depending on the coexistence of IPMN/IPNB. Multiple gene expression analysis (nCounter system) was performed, and hierarchical clustering analysis separated IOPNs(n?=?4) and IPMNs(n?=?3)/ IPNBs(n?=?3), and pathway score analysis supported the result. Volcano plot identified follistatin (FST) as the most upregulated mRNA in IOPN in comparison to the gastric subtype (log2 fold change of 5.34) and the intestinal subtype (that of 5.81) of IPMN/IPNB. The expression of FST in IOPN was also high in quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. We also found lower apoptotic activity in IOPN, particularly in pure type, compared to high-grade or invasive IPMN/IPNB using immunohistochemistry for cleaved caspase 3. But, combined type IOPN was more similar to IPMN/IPNB than pure IOPN. In conclusion, we proved that IOPN, particularly pure IOPN, is distinct from IPMN/IPNB in FST mRNA overexpression and exhibits lower apoptotic activity.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide, partly because methods are lacking to detect disease at an early, operable stage. Noninvasive PDAC precursors called intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) exist, and strategies are needed to aid in their proper diagnosis and management. Data support the importance of miRNAs in the progression of IPMNs to malignancy, and we hypothesized that miRNAs may be shed from IPMN tissues and detected in blood. Our primary goals were to measure the abundance of miRNAs in archived preoperative plasma from individuals with pathologically confirmed IPMNs and healthy controls and discover plasma miRNAs that distinguish between IPMN patients and controls and between "malignant" and "benign" IPMNs. Using novel nCounter technology to evaluate 800 miRNAs, we showed that a 30-miRNA signature distinguished 42 IPMN cases from 24 controls [area underneath the curve (AUC) = 74.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 62.3-86.5, P = 0.002]. The signature contained novel miRNAs and miRNAs previously implicated in pancreatic carcinogenesis that had 2- to 4-fold higher expression in cases than controls. We also generated a 5-miRNA signature that discriminated between 21 malignant (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma) and 21 benign (low- and moderate-grade dysplasia) IPMNs (AUC = 73.2; 95% CI, 57.6-73.2, P = 0.005), and showed that paired plasma and tissue samples from patients with IPMNs can have distinct miRNA expression profiles. This study suggests feasibility of using new cost-effective technology to develop a miRNA-based blood test to aid in the preoperative identification of malignant IPMNs that warrant resection while sparing individuals with benign IPMNs the morbidity associated with overtreatment.
Project description:The diagnosis of pancreatic cystic lesions has increased dramatically. Most are benign, whereas some, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN), represent precursors of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Therapeutic stratification of IPMNs is challenging without precise information on dysplasia grade and presence of invasion. We assessed the diagnostic benefit of using miRNAs as biomarkers in pancreatic cyst fluid, focusing on IPMNs because of their frequency and malignant potential.RNA was extracted from 55 microdissected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) IPMN specimens, and 65 cyst fluid specimens aspirated following surgical resection. Expression of 750 miRNAs was evaluated with TaqMan miRNA Arrays using 22 FFPE and 15 cyst fluid specimens. Differential expression of selected miRNA candidates was validated in 33 FFPE and 50 cyst fluid specimens using TaqMan miRNA Assays.We identified 26 and 37 candidate miRNAs that distinguish low-grade from high-grade IPMNs using FFPE and cyst fluid specimens, respectively. A subset of 18 miRNAs, selected from FFPE and cyst fluid data, separated high-grade IPMNs from low-grade IPMNs, serous cystadenomas (SCA) and uncommon cysts, such as solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) and cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). A logistic regression model using nine miRNAs allowed prediction of cyst pathology implying resection (high-grade IPMNs, PanNETs, and SPNs) versus conservative management (low-grade IPMNs, SCAs), with a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 100%, and area under the curve of 1.We found candidate miRNAs that helped identify patients with high-grade IPMN and exclude nonmucinous cysts. These classifiers will require validation in a prospective setting to ultimately confirm their clinical usefulness.
Project description:To assess the performance of CT-based radiomics analysis in differentiating benign from malignant intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN), preoperative scans of 408 resected patients with IPMN were retrospectively analyzed. IPMNs were classified as benign (low-grade dysplasia, n = 181), or malignant (high grade, n = 128, and invasive, n = 99). Clinicobiological data were reported. Patients were divided into a training cohort (TC) of 296 patients and an external validation cohort (EVC) of 112 patients. After semi-automatic tumor segmentation, PyRadiomics was used to extract radiomics features. A multivariate model was developed using a logistic regression approach. In the training cohort, 85/107 radiomics features were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant IPMNs. Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed four distinct clusters of patients with similar radiomics features patterns with malignancy as the most significant association. The multivariate model differentiated benign from malignant tumors in TC with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.84, sensitivity (Se) of 0.82, specificity (Spe) of 0.74, and in EVC with an AUC of 0.71, Se of 0.69, Spe of 0.57. This large study confirms the high diagnostic performance of preoperative CT-based radiomics analysis to differentiate between benign from malignant IPMNs.
Project description:An intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a common pancreatic precursor lesion, and it often harbors mutations in KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43. To clarify the molecular profiles of IPMNs, we conducted mutation analysis of KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43 in 61 IPMN formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens. The mutation rates of codons 12, 13, and 61 in KRAS and codon 201 in GNAS were detected by Sanger sequencing. Next-generation sequencing was performed on RNF43, and the results were further verified by Sanger sequencing. We identified KRAS and GNAS mutations in 35 (57%) and 40 (66%) IPMN cases, respectively. GNAS mutations were significantly correlated with the morphologic subtype (P < 0.001) and were more prevalent in the intestinal subtype (93%) than in the gastric (55%) and pancreatobiliary subtypes (44%) but were absent in the oncocytic subtype. RNF43 mutations were found in 5 cases (8%), all of which occurred in high-grade dysplasia and invasive lesions (2/5 and 3/5). All 5 cases harboring RNF43 mutations also exhibited GNAS mutations. RNF43 mutations were associated with a worse prognosis in invasive IPMN patients (P = 0.002), while KRAS and GNAS mutations did not affect the prognosis of patients.
Project description:Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) is a benign tumor that grows within the pancreatic ducts characterized by the production of thick mucinous fluid by surrounding tumor cells. IPMN is the most important precursor lesion for pancreatic cancer that is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths. Differentiating between low-grade dysplasia (LGD), high-grade dysplasia (HGD), and invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) remains a diagnostic challenge with current biomarkers, necessitating the development of novel biomarkers that can distinguish IPMN malignancy. We investigated differentially expressed proteins among pancreatic cyst fluids consisted of LGD, HGD, and invasive IPMN patients by using our novel proteomic strategy, and finally we discovered pancreatic cyst fluid protein marker candidates that can predict the malignant potential of IPMNs.
Project description:To evaluate the association of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) with malignant progression in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) and to study the cyst fluid from these lesions for biomarkers of the inflammation-carcinogenesis association.There is a strong link between TANs and malignant progression. Inflammatory mediators released by these cells may be a measurable surrogate marker of this progression.We evaluated 78 resected IPMNs (2004-2013). Lesions were divided into the low-risk (low- and intermediate-grade dysplasia: n?=?48) and high-risk (high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma: n?=?30) groups. TANs were assessed and categorized (negative, low, and high). A multiplexed assay was performed to evaluate 87 different cyst fluid proteins, including cyst fluid inflammatory markers (CFIMs), as possible surrogate markers for parenchymal inflammation.Significant positive correlation between grade of dysplasia and TANs was found. High levels of TANs were identified in 2%, 33%, and 89% of the lesions when stratified by grade of dysplasia into low/intermediate-grade dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive carcinoma, respectively (P?<?0.001). Higher grades of dysplasia were also found to have positive correlation with 29 of the measured proteins, of which 23 (79%) were CFIMs. Higher levels of TANs correlated with higher levels of 18 CFIMs, of which 16 (89%) were also found to be associated with higher grades of dysplasia.In this study, TANs were strongly associated with malignant progression in IPMNs. Measurement of CFIMs may be a surrogate marker for IPMN progression and allow for the identification of high-risk disease.