Synergistic effects of 15-deoxy ?12,14-prostaglandin J2 on the anti-tumor activity of doxorubicin in renal cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: An endogenous anticancer agent, 15-deoxy -?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces apoptosis in the chemoresistant renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is a nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ2, and mediates the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2 in many cancerous cells. However, 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis independently of PPAR? in human RCC cell line such as Caki-2. In the present study, we found that 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated the chemoresistance to one of anthracycline antibiotics, doxorubicin, in Caki-2 cells. Doxorubicin alone exhibited weak cytotoxicity at the concentrations effective for other cancer cells such as Hela cells. In addition, it did not activate caspase 3. However, the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was increased remarkably and accompanied with the caspase- 3 activation in the presence of 15d-PGJ2. Doxorubicin alone damaged plasma membrane, and the combined application of 15d-PGJ2 with doxorubicin increased the membrane permeability slightly. PPAR? was involved in neither the anti-tumor activity nor the synergistic effect of 15d-PGJ2. 15d-PGJ2 induces apoptosis in Caki-2 cells via suppressing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. The effect of PI3K inhibitor on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin was additive, but not synergistic. Although the PI3K inhibitor mimicked the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2, it might not be involved in the synergism between 15d-PGJ2 and doxorubicin. In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 enhanced the chemosensitivity of doxorubicin via the pathway independent of PPAR? and PI3K.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Clear cell RCC (ccRCC) accounts for the majority of RCC, which have mutations or epigenetic silencing of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene. VHL-positive Caki-2 cells are killed by an endogenous anticancer substance, 15-deoxy-?12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). The MTT reduction assay reflecting mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity was employed for assessment of cell viability. We confirmed anticancer activities of camptothecin (topoisomerase I inhibitor), etoposide (topoisomerase II inhibitor), doxorubicin (topoisomerase II inhibitor) in VHL-positive Caki-2 cells. Combination of topoisomerase inhibitors with 15d-PGJ2 exhibited the synergistic effect in VHL-positive Caki-2 cells. However, 15d-PGJ2 did not increase cytotoxicities of topoisomerase inhibitors on VHL-negative 786-O cells. In addition, the 15d-PGJ2-enhanced antitumor activity of topoisomerase inhibitors was detected in neither VHL-positive nor VHL-negative RCC4 cells. Our finding indicated that 15d-PGJ2 enhanced the antitumor activity of topoisomerase inhibitors independently of VHL.
Project description:PPAR? belongs to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. Upon activation by an agonist, PPAR? controls a variety of physiological processes via regulation of its target genes. 15-Deoxy-?12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a cyclopentenone prostaglandin that features an electrophilic, ?,?-unsaturated ketone (an enone) in the cyclopentenone ring. Many of 15d-PGJ2's biological effects result from covalent interaction between C9 and the thiol group of a catalytic cysteine (Cys) in target proteins. In this study, we investigated whether 15d-PGJ2 activates PPAR? by forming a covalent adduct. Our data show that 15d-PGJ2 activates PPAR?'s transcriptional activity through formation of a covalent adduct between its endocyclic enone at C9 and Cys249 in the receptor's ligand-binding domain. As expected, no adduct formation was seen following a Cys-to-Ser mutation at residue 249 (C249S) of PPAR? or with a PGD2/PGJ2 analogue that lacks the electrophilic C9. Furthermore, the PPAR? C249S mutation weakened induction of the receptor's DNA binding activity by 15d-PGJ2, which highlights the biological significance of our findings. Calculated chemical properties as well as data from molecular orbital calculations, reactive molecular dynamics simulations, and intrinsic reaction coordinate modeling also supported the selectivity of 15d-PGJ2's C9 toward PPAR?'s Cys thiol. In summary, our results provide the molecular, chemical, and structural basis of 15d-PGJ2-mediated PPAR? activation, designating 15d-PGJ2 as the first covalent PPAR? ligand to be identified.
Project description:15-Deoxy-?-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonist, has been explored in some detail over the last 20 years. By triggering the PPAR-? signalling pathway, it plays many roles and exerts antitumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidation, antifibrosis, and antiangiogenesis effects. Although many synthetic PPAR-? receptor agonists have been developed, as an endogenous product of PPAR-? receptors, 15d-PGJ2 has beneficial characteristics including rapid expression and the ability to contribute to a natural defence mechanism. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in our knowledge of the biological role of 15d-PGJ2 mediated through PPAR-?. It is important to understand its structure, synthesis, and functional mechanisms to develop preventive agents and limit the progression of associated diseases.
Project description:Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) serves as a key factor in the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and is a potential therapeutic target for breast cancer. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect remain largely unknown. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced and overexpressed in various cancers and is associated with features of tumor aggressiveness. Recent studies have shown that HO-1 is a major downstream target of PPAR?. In this study, we investigated the effects of induction of HO-1 by PPAR? on TPAinduced MMP-9 expression and cell invasion using MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TPA treatment increased NF-?B /AP-1 DNA binding as well as MMP-9 expression. These effects were significantly blocked by 15d-PGJ2, a natural PPAR? ligand. 15d-PGJ2 induced HO-1 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, HO-1 siRNA significantly attenuated the inhibition of TPA-induced MMP-9 protein expression and cell invasion by 15d-PGJ2. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits TPA-induced MMP- 9 expression and invasion of MCF-7 cells by means of a heme oxygenase-1-dependent mechanism. Therefore, PPAR?/HO-1 signaling- pathway inhibition may be beneficial for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. [BMB Reports 2020; 53(4): 212-217].
Project description:AIM: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has a wide range of biological functions, including anti-inflammation. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of PPAR-gamma on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced interleukin-8 (IL-8) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). METHODS: HK-2 cells were pretreated with 15d-PGJ2 or troglitazone (TGL) and then treated with TGF-beta1. Expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 was measured using real-time PCR and ELISA. RESULTS: Treatment with 5 ng/mL TGF-beta1 for 24 h increased both MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNA and protein levels in HK-2 cells. Both 15d-PGJ2 at 2.5 and 5 micromol/L and TGL at 2.5 micromol/L exhibited inhibitory effects on TGF-beta1-induced MCP-1 expression. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 at 2.5 and 5 micromol/L and TGL at 2.5 micromol/L inhibited TGF-beta1-induced expression of IL-8. CONCLUSION: PPAR-gamma agonists (15d-PGJ2 and TGL) could inhibit the TGF-beta1-induced expression of chemokines in HK-2 cells. Our results suggest that PPAR-gamma agonists have the potential to be used as a treatment regimen to reduce inflammation in renal tubulointerstitial disease.
Project description:HO-1 (haem oxygenase 1) is an essential antioxidant enzyme in the cell that exerts its effects through removal of pro-oxidant haem groups and the formation of antioxidant molecules and carbon monoxide. The electrophilic cyclopentenone 15d-PGJ2 (15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2) induces the expression of HO-1 protein through the covalent modification of protein thiols. It has been shown that specific thiol residues of the redox-sensor Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) are modified by 15d-PGJ2, leading to activation of the transcription factor Nrf-2 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 2) and up-regulation of genes under control of the electrophile-response element, including HO-1. However, 15d-PGJ2 has also been shown to modify other proteins which comprise the electrophile-responsive proteome. Since 15d-PGJ2 has been shown to localize to the mitochondria in endothelial cells, we hypothesized that mitochondrial protein modification may also be important in Keap1/Nrf-2 signal transduction, leading to HO-1 up-regulation. In order to determine the role of mitochondrial protein thiol modification in HO-1 induction, we used the mitochondrial-targeted thiol-reactive compound IBTP [(4-iodobutyl)triphenylphosphonium]. IBTP had no effect on basal HO-1 levels, but effectively blocked HO-1 induction by a variety of reagents including haemin, iodoacetamide and 15d-PGJ2. Mechanistically, IBTP did not prevent the covalent modification of Keap1 by 15d-PGJ2. However, IBTP prevented the 15d-PGJ2-dependent increases in HO-1 mRNA and protein. Furthermore, IBTP prevented the nuclear accumulation of Nrf-2, suggesting cross-talk between mitochondria and antioxidant-response signal transduction. This effect was independent of reactive oxygen species formation or mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, IBTP significantly enhanced the toxicity of high concentrations of 15d-PGJ2, suggesting that loss of mitochondrial control of HO-1 leads to increased susceptibility to electrophilic stress in endothelial cells. The implications for these studies in understanding the balance between cytoprotection and cytotoxicity in the context of diseases such as atherosclerosis is discussed.
Project description:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been originally thought to be restricted to lipid metabolism or glucose homeostasis. Recently, evidence is growing that PPAR? ligands have inhibitory effects on tumor growth. To shed light on the potential therapeutic effects on melanoma we tested a panel of PPAR agonists on their ability to block tumor proliferation in vitro. Whereas ciglitazone, troglitazone and WY14643 showed moderate effects on proliferation, 15d-PGJ2 displayed profound anti-tumor activity on four different melanoma cell lines tested. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 inhibited proliferation of tumor-associated fibroblasts and tube formation of endothelial cells. 15d-PGJ2 induced the tumor suppressor gene p21, a G(2)/M arrest and inhibited tumor cell migration. Shot gun proteome analysis in addition to 2D-gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation of A375 melanoma cells suggested that 15d-PGJ2 might exert its effects via modification and/or downregulation of Hsp-90 (heat shock protein 90) and several chaperones. Applying the recently established CPL/MUW database with a panel of defined classification signatures, we demonstrated a regulation of proteins involved in metastasis, transport or protein synthesis including paxillin, angio-associated migratory cell protein or matrix metalloproteinase-2 as confirmed by zymography. Our data revealed for the first time a profound effect of the single compound 15d-PGJ2 on melanoma cells in addition to the tumor-associated microenvironment suggesting synergistic therapeutic efficiency.
Project description:15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory downstream product of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. It has been implicated to play a protective role in a variety of inflammatory mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, neural damage, and myocardial infarctions. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 also plays a role in Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside phagocytic immune cells, allowing for bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. Salmonella species cause a wide range of morbidity and mortality due to gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Previously we have shown that in mouse models of typhoid fever, Salmonella infection causes a major perturbation in the prostaglandin pathway. Specifically, we saw that 15d-PGJ2 production was significantly increased in both liver and feces. In this work we show that 15d-PGJ2 production is also significantly increased in macrophages infected with Salmonella. Furthermore, we show that the addition of 15d-PGJ2 to Salmonella infected RAW264.7, J774, and bone marrow derived macrophages is sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial colonization. We also show evidence that 15d-PGJ2 is reducing bacterial uptake by macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 reduces the inflammatory response of these infected macrophages, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of cytokines and reactive nitrogen species. The inflammatory response of the macrophage is important for full Salmonella virulence, as it can give the bacteria cues for virulence. The reduction in bacterial colonization is independent of the expression of Salmonella virulence genes SPI1 and SPI2, and is independent of the 15d-PGJ2 ligand PPAR-?. 15d-PGJ2 also causes an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in infected macrophages. In conclusion, we show here that 15d-PGJ2 mediates the outcome of bacterial infection, a previously unidentified role for this prostaglandin.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the US. While RCC is highly metastatic, there are few therapeutics options available for patients with metastatic RCC, and progression-free survival of patients even with the newest targeted therapeutics is only up to two years. Thus, novel therapeutic targets for this disease are desperately needed. Based on our previous metabolomics studies showing alteration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) related events in both RCC patient and xenograft mice materials, this pathway was further examined in the current study in the setting of RCC. PPAR? is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor for genes including those encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism; while PPAR? has been reported to regulate tumor growth in several cancers, it has not been evaluated in RCC. A specific PPAR? antagonist, GW6471, induced both apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in VHL(+) and VHL(-) RCC cell lines (786-O and Caki-1) associated with attenuation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins c-Myc, Cyclin D1, and CDK4; this data was confirmed as specific to PPAR? antagonism by siRNA methods. Interestingly, when glycolysis was blocked by several methods, the cytotoxicity of GW6471 was synergistically increased, suggesting a switch to fatty acid oxidation from glycolysis and providing an entirely novel therapeutic approach for RCC.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms are endogenous, self-sustained oscillations with approximately 24-hr rhythmicity that are manifested in various physiological and metabolic processes. The circadian organization of these processes in mammals is governed by the master oscillator within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recent findings revealed that circadian oscillators exist in most organs, tissues, and even in immortalized cells, and that the oscillators in peripheral tissues are likely to be coordinated by SCN, the master oscillator. Some candidates for endogenous entrainment factors have sporadically been reported, however, their details remain mainly obscure. RESULTS: We developed the in vitro real-time oscillation monitoring system (IV-ROMS) by measuring the activity of luciferase coupled to the oscillatory gene promoter using photomultiplier tubes and applied this system to screen and identify factors able to influence circadian rhythmicity. Using this IV-ROMS as the primary screening of entrainment factors for circadian clocks, we identified 12 candidates as the potential entrainment factor in a total of 299 peptides and bioactive lipids. Among them, four candidates (endothelin-1, all-trans retinoic acid, 9-cis retinoic acid, and 13-cis retinoic acid) have already been reported as the entrainment factors in vivo and in vitro. We demonstrated that one of the novel candidates, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a natural ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), triggers the rhythmic expression of endogenous clock genes in NIH3T3 cells. Furthermore, we showed that 15d-PGJ2 transiently induces Cry1, Cry2, and Roralpha mRNA expressions and that 15d-PGJ2-induced entrainment signaling pathway is PPAR-gamma--and MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38MAPK)-independent. CONCLUSION: Here, we identified 15d-PGJ2 as an entrainment factor in vitro. Using our developed IV-ROMS to screen 299 compounds, we found eight novel and four known molecules to be potential entrainment factors for circadian clocks, indicating that this assay system is a powerful and useful tool in initial screenings.