Modeling of Oligosaccharides within Glycoproteins from Free-Energy Landscapes.
ABSTRACT: In spite of the abundance of glycoproteins in biological processes, relatively little three-dimensional structural data is available for glycan structures. Here, we study the structure and flexibility of the vast majority of mammalian oligosaccharides appearing in N- and O-glycosylated proteins using a bottom up approach. We report the conformational free-energy landscapes of all relevant glycosidic linkages as obtained from local elevation simulations and subsequent umbrella sampling. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first complete conformational library for the construction of N- and O-glycan structures. Next, we systematically study the effect of neighboring residues, by extensively simulating all relevant trisaccharides and one tetrasaccharide. This allows for an unprecedented comparison of disaccharide linkages in large oligosaccharides. With a small number of exceptions, the conformational preferences in the larger structures are very similar as in the disaccharides. This, finally, allows us to suggest several efficient approaches to construct complete N- and O-glycans on glycoproteins, as exemplified on two relevant examples.
Project description:A novel chemoenzymatic approach for the synthesis of disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes found as the terminal oligosaccharides of GD1?, GT1a?, and GQ1b? is described. It relies on chemical manipulation of enzymatically generated trisaccharides as conformationally constrained acceptors for regioselective enzymatic ?2-6-sialylation. This strategy provides a new route for easy access to disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes and their derivatives.
Project description:We present an extension of the all-atom internal-coordinate force field, ICMFF, that allows for simulation of heterogeneous systems including hexopyranose saccharides and glycan chains in addition to proteins. A library of standard glycan geometries containing α- and β-anomers of the most common hexapyranoses, i.e., d-galactose, d-glucose, d-mannose, d-xylose, l-fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, sialic, and glucuronic acids, is created based on the analysis of the saccharide structures reported in the Cambridge Structural Database. The new force field parameters include molecular electrostatic potential-derived partial atomic charges and the torsional parameters derived from quantum mechanical data for a collection of minimal molecular fragments and related molecules. The ϕ/ψ torsional parameters for different types of glycosidic linkages are developed using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates, i.e., glycosidic-linked tetrahydropyran-cyclohexane dimers. Target data for parameter optimization include two-dimensional energy surfaces corresponding to the ϕ/ψ glycosidic dihedral angles in the disaccharide analogues, as determined by quantum mechanical MP2/6-31G** single-point energies on HF/6-31G** optimized structures. To achieve better agreement with the observed geometries of glycosidic linkages, the bond angles at the O-linkage atoms are added to the internal variable set and the corresponding bond bending energy term is parametrized using quantum mechanical data. The resulting force field is validated on glycan chains of 1-12 residues from a set of high-resolution X-ray glycoprotein structures based on heavy atom root-mean-square deviations of the lowest-energy glycan conformations generated by the biased probability Monte Carlo (BPMC) molecular mechanics simulations from the native structures. The appropriate BPMC distributions for monosaccharide-monosaccharide and protein-glycan linkages are derived from the extensive analysis of conformational properties of glycoprotein structures reported in the Protein Data Bank. Use of the BPMC search leads to significant improvements in sampling efficiency for glycan simulations. Moreover, good agreement with the X-ray glycoprotein structures is achieved for all glycan chain lengths. Thus, average/median RMSDs are 0.81/0.68 Å for one-residue glycans and 1.32/1.47 Å for three-residue glycans. RMSD from the native structure for the lowest-energy conformation of the 12-residue glycan chain (PDB ID 3og2) is 1.53 Å. Additionally, results obtained for free short oligosaccharides using the new force field are in line with the available experimental data, i.e., the most populated conformations in solution are predicted to be the lowest energy ones. The newly developed parameters allow for the accurate modeling of linear and branched hexopyranose glycosides in heterogeneous systems.
Project description:Automated glycan assembly (AGA) has advanced from a concept to a commercial technology that rapidly provides access to diverse oligosaccharide chains as long as 30-mers. To date, AGA was mainly employed to incorporate trans-glycosidic linkages, where C2 participating protecting groups ensure stereoselective couplings. Stereocontrol during the installation of cis-glycosidic linkages cannot rely on C2-participation and anomeric mixtures are typically formed. Here, we demonstrate that oligosaccharides containing multiple cis-glycosidic linkages can be prepared efficiently by AGA using monosaccharide building blocks equipped with remote participating protecting groups. The concept is illustrated by the automated syntheses of biologically relevant oligosaccharides bearing various cis-galactosidic and cis-glucosidic linkages. This work provides further proof that AGA facilitates the synthesis of complex oligosaccharides with multiple cis-linkages and other biologically important oligosaccharides.
Project description:GlycoSuiteDB is a relational database that curates information from the scientific literature on glyco-protein derived glycan structures, their biological sources, the references in which the glycan was described and the methods used to determine the glycan structure. To date, the database includes most published O:-linked oligosaccharides from the last 50 years and most N:-linked oligosaccharides that were published in the 1990s. For each structure, information is available concerning the glycan type, linkage and anomeric configuration, mass and composition. Detailed information is also provided on native and recombinant sources, including tissue and/or cell type, cell line, strain and disease state. Where known, the proteins to which the glycan structures are attached are reported, and cross-references to the SWISS-PROT/TrEMBL protein sequence databases are given if applicable. The GlycoSuiteDB annotations include literature references which are linked to PubMed, and detailed information on the methods used to determine each glycan structure are noted to help the user assess the quality of the structural assignment. GlycoSuiteDB has a user-friendly web interface which allows the researcher to query the database using mono-isotopic or average mass, monosaccharide composition, glycosylation linkages (e.g. N:- or O:-linked), reducing terminal sugar, attached protein, taxonomy, tissue or cell type and GlycoSuiteDB accession number. Advanced queries using combinations of these parameters are also possible. GlycoSuiteDB can be accessed on the web at http://www.glycosuite.com.
Project description:The partnership of humans and dogs goes back to over 10'000 years, yet relatively little is known about a dog's first extra-uterine nutrition particularly when it comes to milk oligosaccharides. We set out to identify and quantify milk oligosaccharides over the course of lactation from different dog breeds (Labrador retriever, Schnauzer and 3 Alaskan husky crossbreeds). To this end, 2 different chromatographic methods with fluorescence and mass spectrometry detection were developed and one was validated for quantification. Besides lactose and lactose-sulphate, we identified 2 different trisaccharides composed of 3 hexose units, 3'sialyllactose (3'SL), 6'sialyllactose (6'SL), 2'fucosyllactose (2'FL), and a tetrasaccharide composed of 2 hexoses, an N-acetylhexosamine and a deoxyhexose. 3'SL was present at the highest levels in milk of all dog breeds starting at around 7.5 g/L and dropping to about 1.5 g/L in the first 10 days of lactation. 6'SL was about 10 times less abundant and 2'FL and the tetrasaccharide had rather varying levels in the milk of the different breeds with the tetrasaccharide only detectable in the Alaskan husky crossbreeds. The longitudinal and quantitative data of milk oligosaccharides from different dog breeds are an important basis to further our understanding on their specific biological roles and also on the specific nutritional requirements of lactating puppies.
Project description:The conformation of saccharides in solution is challenging to characterize in the context of a single well-defined three-dimensional structure. Instead, they are better represented by an ensemble of conformations associated with their structural diversity and flexibility. In this study, we delineate the conformational heterogeneity of five trisaccharides via a combination of experimental and computational techniques. Experimental NMR measurements target conformationally sensitive parameters, including J couplings and effective distances around the glycosidic linkages, while the computational simulations apply the well-calibrated additive CHARMM carbohydrate force field in combination with efficient enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulation methods. Analysis of conformational heterogeneity is performed based on sampling of discreet states as defined by dihedral angles, on root-mean-square differences of Cartesian coordinates and on the extent of volume sampled. Conformational clustering, based on the glycosidic linkage dihedral angles, shows that accounting for the full range of sampled conformations is required to reproduce the experimental data, emphasizing the utility of the molecular simulations in obtaining an atomic detailed description of the conformational properties of the saccharides. Results show the presence of differential conformational preferences as a function of primary sequence and glycosidic linkage types. Significant differences in conformational ensembles associated with the anomeric configuration of a single glycosidic linkage reinforce the impact of such changes on the conformational properties of carbohydrates. The present structural insights of the studied trisaccharides represent a foundation for understanding the range of conformations adopted in larger oligosaccharides and how these molecules encode their conformational heterogeneity into the monosaccharide sequence.
Project description:Carbohydrate sequences occur in both glycolipids and glycoproteins on all cell surfaces and on excreted glycoconjugates such as mucins. These oligosaccharide sequences change during development and in adults constitute antigens responsible for many of the heritable blood groups. During tumorigenesis of a particular tissue, glycosylation may revert to an earlier developmental form found in foetal precursor cells. As these structures are immunogenic, many cancer-associated antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies are oligosaccharides. In this study, antibodies submitted to the lung cancer workshop were screened by an enzyme-linked immunoassay for binding to synthetic glycoproteins produced by coupling chemically-defined oligosaccharide haptens to either bovine or human serum albumin. The 34 different synthetic glycoproteins that were screened contain the following carbohydrate structures: ‘T-antigen’, lactose, melibiose, maltose, cellobiose, 2?-fucosyllactosamine, globotriose, A-trisaccharide, B-trisaccharide, chitotriose, 3?-sialyllactose, 6?-sialyllactose, Man?1-3Man?1-4(GlcNAc), Ley-tetrasaccharide, gangliotetraose, lacto-N-tetraose, lacto-N-neotetraose, A-tetrasaccharide, globotetraose, Man?1-2Man?1-3Man?1-4(GlcNAc), lacto-N-fucopentaose I, lacto-N-fucopentaose II, lacto-N-fucopentoase III, sialyllacto-N-tetraose a, sialyllactotetraose b, sialyllacto-N-neotetraose c, lacto-N-difucohexaose I, lacto-N-hexaose, lacto-N-neohexaose, sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose II, sialyllacto-N-fucopentaose III, disialyllacto-N-tetraose, A-heptasaccharide and bi-antennary octasaccharide. Of the 99 antibodies submitted to the workshop, 14 bound at least one of these oligosaccharides (Table I). By comparing the binding specificities of the antibodies to different but structurally similar carbohydrates sequences, a detailed epitope map is defined for each carbohydrate-binding antibody.
Project description:Type 1 (Gal?1-3GlcNAc) and type 2 (Gal?1-4GlcNAc) sequences are constituents of the backbones of a large family of glycans of glycoproteins and glycolipids whose branching and peripheral substitutions are developmentally regulated. It is highly desirable to have microsequencing methods that can be used to precisely identify and monitor these oligosaccharide sequences with high sensitivity. Negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation has been used for characterization of branching points, peripheral substitutions, and partial assignment of linkages in reducing oligosaccharides. We now extend this method to characterizing entire sequences of linear type 1 and type 2 chain-based glycans, focusing on the type 1 and type 2 units in the internal regions including the linkages connecting type 1 and type 2 disaccharide units. We apply the principles to sequence analysis of closely related isomeric oligosaccharides and demonstrate by microarray analyses distinct binding activities of antibodies and a lectin toward various combinations of type 1 and 2 units joined by 1,3- and 1,6-linkages. These sequence-specific carbohydrate-binding proteins are in turn valuable tools for detecting and distinguishing the type 1 and type 2-based developmentally regulated glycan sequences.
Project description:The C-type lectins dectin-1 and dectin-2 contribute to innate immunity against microbial pathogens by recognizing their foreign glycan structures. These receptors are promising targets for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapy. However, currently available agonists are heterogeneous glycoconjugates and polysaccharides from natural sources. Herein, we designed and synthesized the first chemically defined ligands for dectin-1 and dectin-2. They comprised glycopolypeptides bearing mono-, di-, and trisaccharides and were built through polymerization of glycosylated N-carboxyanhydrides. Through this approach, we achieved glycopolypeptides with high molecular weights and low dispersities. We identified structures that elicit a pro-inflammatory response through dectin-1 or dectin-2 in antigen-presenting cells. With their native proteinaceous backbones and natural glycosidic linkages, these agonists are attractive for translational applications.
Project description:The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of human parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs) both binds (H) and cleaves (N) oligosaccharides that contain N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). H is thought to correspond to receptor binding and N to receptor-destroying activity. At present, N's role in infection remains unclear: does it destroy only receptors, or are there other targets? We previously demonstrated that hPIV1 and 3 HNs bind to oligosaccharides containing the motif Neu5Ac?2-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc (M. Amonsen, D. F. Smith, R. D. Cummings, and G. M. Air, J. Virol. 81:8341-8345, 2007). In the present study, we tested the binding specificity of hPIV2 on the Consortium for Functional Glycomics' glycan array and found that hPIV2 binds to oligosaccharides containing the same motif. We determined the specificities of N on red blood cells, soluble small-molecule and glycoprotein substrates, and the glycan array and compared them to the specificities of H. hPIV2 and -3, but not hPIV1, cleaved their ligands on red blood cells. hPIV1, -2, and -3 cleaved their NeuAc?2-3 ligands on the glycan array; hPIV2 and -3 also cleaved NeuAc?2-6 ligands bound by influenza A virus. While all three HNs exhibited similar affinities for all cleavable soluble substrates, their activities were 5- to 10-fold higher on small molecules than on glycoproteins. In addition, some soluble glycoproteins were not cleaved, despite containing oligosaccharides that were cleaved on the glycan array. We conclude that the susceptibility of an oligosaccharide substrate to N increases when the substrate is fixed to a surface. These findings suggest that HN may undergo a conformational change that activates N upon receptor binding at a cell surface.