Changes in Resident Well-Being at One Institution Across a Decade of Progressive Work Hours Limitations.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:To measure changes in markers of resident well-being over time as progressive work hours limitations (WHLs) were enforced, and to investigate resident perceptions of the 2011 WHLs. METHOD:A survey study of internal medicine residents was conducted at the University of Washington's multihospital residency program in 2012. The survey included validated well-being questions: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the two-question PRIME-MD depression screen, and career satisfaction questions. Chi-square tests were used to compare 2012 well-being questionnaire responses against nearly identical surveys conducted in 2001 and 2004 at the same institution. In addition, residents were asked to rate the impact of WHLs on resident well-being and education as well as patient care, and to state preferences for future WHLs. RESULTS:Significantly different proportions of residents met burnout criteria across time, with fewer meeting criteria in 2012 than in 2001 (2001: 76% [87/115]; 2004: 64% [75/118]; 2012: 61% [68/112]; P = .039). Depression screening results also differed across time, with fewer screening positive in 2012 than in 2004 (2001: 45% [52/115]; 2004: 55% [65/118]; 2012 [35/112]: 31%; P = .001). Residents, especially seniors, reported perceived negative impacts of WHLs on their well-being, education, and patient care. Most senior residents favored reverting to the pre-July 2011 system of WHLs. Interns were more divided. CONCLUSIONS:Validated measures of resident well-being changed across the three time points measured. Residents had the lowest rates of burnout and depression in 2012. Resident perceptions of the 2011 WHLs, however, were generally negative.
Project description:It is important to describe the characteristics of well-being in resident physicians to develop resident wellness initiatives in postgraduate medical education.To characterize the predictors of well-being in resident physicians by assessing personal and work-related burnout, work dissatisfaction, nutritional needs while on call, and sleep needs while on call.We set up an online survey in 2012 to collect data from current residents at the University of Calgary in Canada. The WHO-Five Well-Being Index, personal and work-related subscales of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, questions on work dissatisfaction, as well as sleep and nutrition management needs while on call, were used in the survey. Descriptive statistics, univariate analysis, and linear regression were applied to the data.The survey response rate was 45% (317 of 706) of eligible residents, with a mean age of 30.9 years (SD??=??4.3). Fifty-three percent (168 of 317) of residents had a well-being score of 13 or less, indicating poor mental well-being. There were significant differences between men and women with respect to personal burnout (47.9 versus 54.2, P??=??.002) and work-related burnout (46.4 versus 50.4, P??=??.008). The only significant predictors of well-being overall were personal burnout and work dissatisfaction.Survey results suggest that a high proportion of residents at this institution have low well-being. This study did not find work-related burnout to be a significant predictor of well-being, after adjustment for other variables.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Medical knowledge and clinical performance ratings are major criteria for assessing the competence of resident physicians. However, these assessments may be influenced by residents' mental health. The relationship between residents' well-being and empathy and assessments of their global performance remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether resident well-being and empathy are associated with assessments of their medical knowledge and clinical performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied 730 clinical performance assessments completed by peers, supervising residents, and allied health professionals; 193 mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) evaluations; and 260 in-training examinations (ITE) of Mayo Clinic internal medicine residents between January 2009 and August 2010. Multivariate generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate associations between residents' well-being and empathy and assessments of their knowledge and clinical performance. MEASUREMENTS: Independent variables were empathy using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), burnout using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, depression using a standardized two-question screening instrument, and quality of life using a Linear Analog Self-Assessment item and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-8). Dependent variables were mini-CEX, ITE, and the validated six-item Mayo clinical performance assessment. RESULTS: 202 residents (64.7%) provided both well-being and at least one category of assessment data. In multivariate models, residents' scores on the IRI empathy measure of "the tendency to adopt the psychological view of others" were associated with higher peer ratings on "desirability as a physician for a family member" (beta?=?0.023, 95% CI?=?0.007-0.039, p?=?0.004). Additionally, burnout was associated with higher supervisor ratings of communication (beta?=?0.309, 95% CI?=?0.100-0.517, p?=?0.004). There were no observed associations between ITE or mini-CEX scores and resident quality of life, burnout, fatigue, depression, or empathy. CONCLUSIONS: Most dimensions of resident well-being were not associated with residents' knowledge scores and assessments of their clinical performance by other members of the health care team, which supports the trustworthiness of these measures. Nonetheless, correlations of resident empathy and burnout with assessments completed by peers and supervising residents suggest that some ratings of residents may be influenced by interpersonal factors.
Project description:BackgroundMedical students and residents were found to have suffered from depression, anxiety, and burnout in various studies. However, these entities have not been adequately explored in the context of Nepal. We proposed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, burnout, their associated factors, and identify their predictors in a sample of medical students and residents in a Nepalese medical school.MethodsIt was a cross-sectional study with 651 medical students and residents chosen at random between December 2018 and February 2019. The validated Nepali version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, and Medical Students’ Stressor Questionnaire were used to assess depression, anxiety, burnout, and stressors respectively. We used univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify the correlation of predictor variables with depression, anxiety, and burnout.ResultsThe overall prevalence of burnout (48.8%; 95% CI 44.9–52.7) and anxiety (45.3%; 95% CI 41.4–49.2) was more than that of depression (31%; 95% CI 27.5–34.7). Burnout and depression were more prevalent in residents than in medical students (burnout: 64.5% vs 37.6%, P-value <?0.0001; depression: 33.7% vs 29.1%, P-value 0.21). Whereas, medical students were found more anxious than residents (46.3% versus 43.96%, P-value 0.55). Academic related stressors caused high-grade stress to participants. Multivariable model for depression significantly showed anxiety, personal burnout, and work-related burnout as risk enhancing correlates; satisfaction with academic performance as a protective correlate. Similarly, the multivariate model for anxiety significantly identified female gender, depression, personal burnout, teaching and learning related stressors, and past history of mental illness as risk enhancing correlates; being satisfied with academic performance, getting adequate sleep, and being a second-year resident as protective correlates. The logistic model for burnout significantly showed being a first-year resident, depression, anxiety, and drive and desire related stressors as positive predictors. None of the variables were identified as significant negative predictors of burnout.ConclusionsA high prevalence of depression, anxiety, and burnout was seen among medical students and residents. Most of them were stressed with academic-related factors. A strong correlation between teaching and learning-related stressors with depression and anxiety may be a call for an efficient and more student-friendly curriculum.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>Burnout among physicians is high, with resulting concern about quality of care. With burnout beginning early in physician training, much-needed data are lacking on interventions to decrease burnout and improve well-being among resident physicians.<h4>Objectives</h4>To design a departmental-level burnout intervention, evaluate its association with otolaryngology residents' burnout and well-being, and describe how residents used and perceived the study intervention.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>A prospective, nonrandomized crossover study was conducted from September 25, 2017, to June 24, 2018, among all 19 current residents in the Department of Otolaryngology at the University of Minnesota. Statistical analysis was performed from June 28 to August 7, 2018.<h4>Interventions</h4>All participants were assigned 2 hours per week of protected nonclinical time alternating with a control period of no intervention at 6-week intervals.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and Mini-Z Survey. Well-being was measured by the Resident and Fellow Well-Being Index and a quality-of-life single-item self-assessment. In addition to a baseline demographic survey, participants completed the aforementioned surveys at approximately 6-week intervals during the study period.<h4>Results</h4>Among the 19 residents in the study (10 men [53%]), the overall protected time intervention (week 0 to week 32) was associated with a mean decrease of 0.63 points (95% CI, -1.03 to -0.22 points) in the Maslach Burnout Inventory emotional exhaustion score, indicating a clinically meaningful decrease in burnout, and a mean decrease of 1.26 points (95% CI, -2.18 to -0.34 points) in the Resident and Fellow Well-Being Index score, indicating a clinically meaningful improvement in well-being. The baseline to week 32 mean changes in the Maslach Burnout Inventory depersonalization score, Maslach Burnout Inventory personal accomplishment score, and quality-of-life single-item self-assessment were not clinically meaningful. There were clinically meaningful improvements in 4 of 6 tested Mini-Z Questionnaire items from baseline to week 32: job stress (weighted ? statistic, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.11 to 0.53), burnout (weighted ? statistic, 0.25; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.53), control over workload (weighted ? statistic, 0.26; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.53), and sufficient time for documentation (weighted ? statistic, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.54).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>This study found that 2 hours per week of protected nonclinical time was associated with decreased burnout and increased well-being in a small sample of otolaryngology residents. Future randomized clinical studies in larger cohorts are warranted to infer causality of decreased burnout and increased well-being as a result of protected nonclinical time.
Project description:Introduction:There is significant variability in the preparedness of incoming interns at the start of residency training with regard to medical knowledge, procedural skills, and attitudes. Specialty-specific preparatory courses aimed at improving clinical skills exist; however, no preparatory courses targeting wellness promotion or burnout prevention have previously been described. Resident well-being has gained increasing attention from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and numerous studies have demonstrated high levels of burnout among resident physicians. The American Medical Association (AMA) divides resident well-being into the following six categories: nutrition, fitness, emotional health, financial health, preventative care, and mindset and behavioral adaptability. Using the AMA's conceptual framework for well-being in residency, we performed a targeted needs assessment to support the development of a "pre-residency" well-being curriculum. Our aim was to discover what current residents and faculty felt were the perceived areas of under-preparedness, in relation to resident well-being, for incoming interns at the start of their residency training. Methods:Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted a series of semi-structured, focus group interviews. Focus groups consisted of junior residents (postgraduate years [PGY] 1-3), senior residents (PGY-4), and current faculty members. A standardized interview guide was used to prompt discussion and themes were identified from audio recording. We modified theories based on latent and manifest content analysis, and we performed member checking and an external audit to improve validity. Results:Participants noted variable exposure to both formal and informal well-being training prior to residency. Regardless, participants uniformly agreed that their past experiences did not adequately prepare them for the challenges, specific to burnout prevention, faced during residency training. Of the six domains of resident well-being described by the AMA, emotional health, mindset and behavioral adaptability, and financial health were the domains most cited for interns to be underprepared for at the start of residency training. Conclusion:Despite variability in prior medical school and life experiences, incoming interns were underprepared in several domains of well-being, including emotional health, mindset and behavioral adaptability, and financial health. Targeted interventions toward these areas of well-being should be piloted and studied further for their potential to mitigate effects of burnout among resident physicians.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of resident physicians' distress on their personal safety. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of internal medicine residents at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Participants completed surveys quarterly from July 1, 2007, through July 31, 2011, during their training period. Frequency of self-reported blood and body fluid (BBF) exposures and motor vehicle incidents was recorded. Associations of validated measures of quality of life, burnout, symptoms of depression, fatigue, and sleepiness with a subsequently reported BBF exposure or motor vehicle incident were determined using generalized estimating equations for repeated measures. RESULTS: Data were provided by 340 of 384 eligible residents (88.5%). Of the 301 participants providing BBF exposure data, 23 (7.6%) reported having at least 1 BBF exposure during the study period. Motor vehicle incidents were reported by 168 of 300 respondents (56.0%), including 34 (11.3%) reporting a motor vehicle crash and 130 (43.3%) reporting a near-miss motor vehicle crash. Other than the low personal accomplishment domain of burnout, distress and fatigue at one time point exhibited no statistically significant associations with BBF exposure in the subsequent 3 months. However, diminished quality of life, burnout, positive screening for depression, fatigue, and sleepiness were each associated with statistically significantly increased odds of reporting a motor vehicle incident in the subsequent 3 months. CONCLUSION: Exposures to BBF are relatively uncommon among internal medicine residents in current training environments. Motor vehicle incidents, however, remain common. Our results confirm the importance of fatigue and sleepiness to resident safety concerns. In addition, higher levels of distress may be contributory factors to motor vehicle crashes and other related incidents. Interventions designed to address both fatigue and distress may be needed to optimally promote patient and resident safety.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Professional burnout among medical trainees has been identified as a national concern in need of attention. A significant challenge for residency programs is designing and implementing effective strategies to promote resident wellness and reduce burnout. Emerging evidence highlights the importance of developing organizational changes targeting physician burnout. METHODS:To address this critical need, Harvard South Shore (HSS) Psychiatry Residency Training Program aimed to assess burnout among residents, identify areas for wellness-related growth, and implement strategies for organizational change to reduce burnout and increase wellness. We aligned closely to the Standards for Quality Improvement Reporting Excellence (SQUIRE) 2.0 guidelines to systematically approach planning, conducting, and evaluating this quality improvement effort. We developed a wellness action team and assessed burnout using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). We also conducted a survey to investigate high opportunity areas for wellness-related growth and using this data we designed and implemented four organizational initiatives to (i) improve residents' on-call experience, (ii) increase social activities, (iii) support preventative care, and (iv) promote wellness education. We then re-assessed burnout 1?year after implementation and performed two-sample t-tests to compare CBI scores. We additionally gathered and analyzed feedback from residents on the implemented organizational initiatives' relevance to wellness and their well-being. RESULTS:There was an overall clinically meaningful reduction in burnout averaged among all residents that participated. Participants indicated that fitness-oriented activities were most likely to lead to change in wellness habits. CONCLUSION:Our implemented wellness program was resident-led and involved continuous feedback from both residents and leadership. Given that there may be multiple factors that affect resident burnout, future studies involving a control group could help reveal whether our intervention contributed to the change in burnout scores we observed.
Project description:PURPOSE:To determine whether higher rates of medical errors were associated with positive screenings for depression or burnout among resident physicians. METHOD:The authors conducted a prospective cohort study from 2011 to 2013 in seven pediatric academic medical centers in the United States and Canada. Resident physicians were screened for burnout and depression using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) and Harvard Department of Psychiatry/National Depression Screening Day Scale (HANDS). A two-step surveillance methodology, involving a research nurse and two physician reviewers, was used to measure and categorize errors. Bivariate and mixed-effects regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between burnout, depression, and rates of harmful, nonharmful, and total errors. RESULTS:A total of 388/537 (72%) resident physicians completed the MBI-HSS and HANDS surveys. Seventy-six (20%) and 178 (46%) resident physicians screened positive for depression and burnout, respectively. Screening positive for depression was associated with a 3.0-fold higher rate of harmful errors (incidence rate ratio = 2.99 [95% CI 1.40-6.36], P = .005). However, there was no statistically significant association between depression and total or nonharmful errors or between burnout and harmful, nonharmful, or total errors. CONCLUSIONS:Resident physicians with a positive depression screen were three times more likely than those who screened negative to make harmful errors. This association suggests resident physician mental health could be an important component of patient safety. If further research confirms resident physician depression increases the risk of harmful errors, it will become imperative to determine what interventions might mitigate this risk.
Project description:PURPOSE: Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job. The purpose of our cross-sectional study was to estimate the burnout rates among medical residents in the largest Greek hospital in 2012 and identify factors associated with it, based on the job demands-resources model (JD-R). METHOD: Job demands were examined via a 17-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (emotional demands, intellectual demands, workload, and home-work demands' interface) and job resources were measured via a 14-item questionnaire assessing 4 characteristics (autonomy, opportunities for professional development, support from colleagues, and supervisor's support). The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to measure burnout. RESULTS: Of the 290 eligible residents, 90.7% responded. In total 14.4% of the residents were found to experience burnout. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that each increased point in the JD-R questionnaire score regarding home-work interface was associated with an increase in the odds of burnout by 25.5%. Conversely, each increased point for autonomy, opportunities in professional development, and each extra resident per specialist were associated with a decrease in the odds of burnout by 37.1%, 39.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout among medical residents is associated with home-work interface, autonomy, professional development, and resident to specialist ratio.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Increasing complexity of medical care, coupled with limits on resident work hours, has prompted consideration of extending Internal Medicine training. It is unclear whether further hour reductions and extension of training beyond the current duration of 3 years would be accepted by trainees. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine if further work-hour reductions and extension of training would be accepted by trainees and whether resident burnout affects their opinions. DESIGN: A postal survey was sent to all 143 Internal Medicine residents at the University of Colorado School of Medicine in May 2004. MEASUREMENTS: The survey contained questions related to opinions on work-hour limits using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Burnout was measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, organized into three subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment, with burnout defined as high EE or DP. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent (106/143) of residents returned the survey. The vast majority (84%) of residents disagreed or strongly disagreed with extending training to 4 or 5 years. Burnout residents were less averse to extending training (strongly agree or agree, 18.9% vs 4.3%, P = .04). The majority of residents (68.9%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with establishing a 60-hour/week limit. Residents who met the criteria for burnout were more likely to agree that a 60-hour limit would be better than an 80-hour limit (strongly agree or agree, 22% vs 8%, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: In this program, most Internal Medicine residents are strongly opposed to extending their training to 4 or 5 years and would prefer the current 80 hours/week cap. A longer, less intense pace of Internal Medicine training seems to be less attractive in the eyes of current trainees.