New Insights into the Genome Organization of Yeast Killer Viruses Based on "Atypical" Killer Strains Characterized by High-Throughput Sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Viral M-dsRNAs encoding yeast killer toxins share similar genomic organization, but no overall sequence identity. The dsRNA full-length sequences of several known M-viruses either have yet to be completed, or they were shorter than estimated by agarose gel electrophoresis. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze some M-dsRNAs previously sequenced by traditional techniques, and new dsRNAs from atypical killer strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii. All dsRNAs expected to be present in a given yeast strain were reliably detected and sequenced, and the previously-known sequences were confirmed. The few discrepancies between viral variants were mostly located around the central poly(A) region. A continuous sequence of the ScV-M2 genome was obtained for the first time. M1 virus was found for the first time in wine yeasts, coexisting with Mbarr-1 virus in T. delbrueckii. Extra 5'- and 3'-sequences were found in all M-genomes. The presence of repeated short sequences in the non-coding 3'-region of most M-genomes indicates that they have a common phylogenetic origin. High identity between amino acid sequences of killer toxins and some unclassified proteins of yeast, bacteria, and wine grapes suggests that killer viruses recruited some sequences from the genome of these organisms, or vice versa, during evolution.
Project description:Wine Torulaspora delbrueckii strains producing a new killer toxin (Kbarr-1) were isolated and selected for wine making. They killed all the previously known Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer strains, in addition to other non-Saccharomyces yeasts. The Kbarr-1 phenotype is encoded by a medium-size 1.7 kb dsRNA, TdV-Mbarr-1, which seems to depend on a large-size 4.6 kb dsRNA virus (TdV-LAbarr) for stable maintenance and replication. The TdV-Mbarr-1 dsRNA was sequenced by new generation sequencing techniques. Its genome structure is similar to those of S. cerevisiae killer M dsRNAs, with a 5'-end coding region followed by an internal A-rich sequence and a 3'-end non-coding region. Mbarr-1 RNA positive strand carries cis acting signals at its 5' and 3' termini for transcription and replication respectively, similar to those RNAs of yeast killer viruses. The ORF at the 5' region codes for a putative preprotoxin with an N-terminal secretion signal, potential Kex2p/Kexlp processing sites, and N-glycosylation sites. No relevant sequence identity was found either between the full sequence of Mbarr-1 dsRNA and other yeast M dsRNAs, or between their respective toxin-encoded proteins. However, a relevant identity of TdV-Mbarr-1 RNA regions to the putative replication and packaging signals of most of the M-virus RNAs suggests that they are all evolutionarily related.
Project description:Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was ?-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae.
Project description:Torulaspora delbrueckii presents metabolic features interesting for biotechnological applications (in the dairy and wine industries). Recently, the T. delbrueckii CBS 1146 genome, which has been maintained under laboratory conditions since 1970, was published. Thus, a genome of a new mezcal yeast was sequenced and characterized and showed genetic differences and a higher genome assembly quality, offering a better reference genome.
Project description:In winemaking, the use of alternative yeast starters is becoming increasingly popular. They contribute to the diversity and complexity of wine sensory features and are typically used in combination with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, to ensure complete fermentation. This practice has drawn the interest on interactions between different oenological yeasts, which are also relevant in spontaneous and conventional fermentations, or in the vineyard. Although several interactions have been described and some mechanisms have been suggested, the possible involvement of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has not yet been considered. This work describes the production of EVs by six wine yeast species (S. cerevisiae, Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Candida sake and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) in synthetic grape must. Proteomic analysis of EV-enriched fractions from S. cerevisiae and T. delbrueckii showed enrichment in glycolytic enzymes and cell-wall-related proteins. The most abundant protein found in S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii and L. thermotolerans EV-enriched fractions was the enzyme exo-1,3-?-glucanase. However, this protein was not involved in the here-observed negative impact of T. delbrueckii extracellular fractions on the growth of other yeast species. These findings suggest that EVs may play a role in fungal interactions during wine fermentation and other aspects of wine yeast biology.
Project description:A new type of fruit wine made from red dragon fruit juice was produced through alcoholic fermentation (AF) with different yeasts: Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC-1118, Torulaspora delbrueckii Biodiva and Lachancea thermotolerans Concerto. Complete AF with similar fermentation rates in terms of sugar utilisation and ethanol production (8-9%, v/v) was achieved by three yeast strains. T. delbrueckii produced a significantly lower amount of glycerol and acetic acid, while L. thermotolerans produced more lactic and succinic acids. In addition, the two non-Saccharomyces strains were more efficient in proline utilisation. For volatile compounds, S. cerevisiae produced the highest amounts of esters, while T. delbrueckii produced more higher alcohols, isoamyl acetate and terpenes. On the other hand, AF caused significant degradation of betacyanin pigments and total phenolic compounds. Nevertheless, better retention of antioxidant activity and colour stability was found in L. thermotolerans and T. delbrueckii fermented wines than that of S. cerevisiae. This study suggested that it is feasible to use pure non-Saccharomyces yeast to produce red dragon fruit wine for commercialization.
Project description:The cultivar of Narince is a native white grape variety of Vitis vinifera, grown in Tokat city, the Mid-Black Sea Region of Anatolia. In this study, the effects of pure and mixed autochthonous Torulaspora delbrueckii-214 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae-1088 cultures on the fermentation behavior and aroma compounds of Narince wines were investigated. Volatile compounds formed in wines were extracted using a liquid?liquid extraction method and determined by GC-MS-FID. Narince grape must was fermented in duplicate, under the following three conditions. Two pure cultures of T. delbrueckii-214 and S. cerevisiae-1088 and a mixture of T. delbrueckii-214 and S. cerevisiae-1088 (1:1). The presence of the non-Saccharomyces T. delbrueckii-214 yeast slowed down the fermentation and produced a lower level of ethanol and a higher levels of glycerol and volatile acid. Only the pure culture of T. delbrueckii-214 was unable to finish fermentation. On the other hand, mixed culture fermentation improved the aroma intensity and complexity of wine due to increased levels of higher alcohols and esters. According to sensory analysis, wine fermented with mixed culture was the most preferred wine followed by wine inoculated with pure S. cerevisiae-1088. This study confirms the role of T. delbrueckii in wine aroma and the potential of non-Saccharomyces use in winemaking.
Project description:Yeasts are the key microorganisms that transform grape juice into wine, and nitrogen is an essential nutrient able to affect yeast cell growth, fermentation kinetics and wine quality. In this work, we focused on the intra- and extracellular metabolomic changes of three aromatic amino acids (tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine) during alcoholic fermentation of two grape musts by two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the sequential inoculation of Torulaspora delbrueckii with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An UPLC-MS/MS method was used to monitor 33 metabolites, and 26 of them were detected in the extracellular samples and 8 were detected in the intracellular ones. The results indicate that the most intensive metabolomic changes occurred during the logarithm cellular growth phase and that pure S. cerevisiae fermentations produced higher amounts of N-acetyl derivatives of tryptophan and tyrosine and the off-odour molecule 2-aminoacetophenone. The sequentially inoculated fermentations showed a slower evolution and a higher production of metabolites linked to the well-known plant hormone indole acetic acid (auxin). Finally, the production of sulfonated tryptophol during must fermentation was confirmed, which also may explain the bitter taste of wines produced by Torulaspora delbrueckii co-fermentations, while sulfonated indole carboxylic acid was detected for the first time in such an experimental design.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae killer strains secrete a protein toxin active on nonkiller strains of the same (or other) yeast species. Different killer toxins, K1, K2, K28, and Klus, have been described. Each toxin is encoded by a medium-size (1.5- to 2.3-kb) M double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) located in the cytoplasm. M dsRNAs require L-A helper virus for maintenance. L-A belongs to the Totiviridae family, and its dsRNA genome of 4.6 kb codes for the major capsid protein Gag and a minor Gag-Pol protein, which form the virions that separately encapsidate L-A or the M satellites. Different L-A variants exist in nature; on average, 24% of their nucleotides are different. Previously, we reported that L-A-lus was specifically associated with Mlus, suggesting coevolution, and proposed a role of the toxin-encoding M dsRNAs in the appearance of new L-A variants. Here we confirm this by analyzing the helper virus in K2 killer wine strains, which we named L-A-2. L-A-2 is required for M2 maintenance, and neither L-A nor L-A-lus shows helper activity for M2 in the same genetic background. This requirement is overcome when coat proteins are provided in large amounts by a vector or in ski mutants. The genome of another totivirus, L-BC, frequently accompanying L-A in the same cells shows a lower degree of variation than does L-A (about 10% of nucleotides are different). Although L-BC has no helper activity for M dsRNAs, distinct L-BC variants are associated with a particular killer strain. The so-called L-BC-lus (in Klus strains) and L-BC-2 (in K2 strains) are analyzed. IMPORTANCE:Killer strains of S. cerevisiae secrete protein toxins that kill nonkiller yeasts. The "killer phenomenon" depends on two dsRNA viruses: L-A and M. M encodes the toxin, and L-A, the helper virus, provides the capsids for both viruses. Different killer toxins exist: K1, K2, K28, and Klus, encoded on different M viruses. Our data indicate that each M dsRNA depends on a specific helper virus; these helper viruses have nucleotide sequences that may be as much as 26% different, suggesting coevolution. In wine environments, K2 and Klus strains frequently coexist. We have previously characterized the association of Mlus and L-A-lus. Here we sequence and characterize L-A-2, the helper virus of M2, establishing the helper virus requirements of M2, which had not been completely elucidated. We also report the existence of two specific L-BC totiviruses in Klus and K2 strains with about 10% of their nucleotides different, suggesting different evolutionary histories from those of L-A viruses.
Project description:Here, we report the first sequenced genome of an indigenous Australian wine isolate of Torulaspora delbrueckii using the Oxford Nanopore MinION and Illumina HiSeq sequencing platforms. The genome size is 9.4 Mb and contains 4,831 genes.
Project description:Non-Saccharomyces yeasts have long been considered spoilage microorganisms. Currently, oenological interest in those species is increasing, mostly due to their positive contribution to wine quality. In this work, the fermentative capacity and nitrogen consumption of several non-Saccharomyces wine yeast (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans, Starmerella bacillaris, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) were analyzed. For this purpose, synthetic must with three different nitrogen compositions was used: a mixture of amino acids and ammonium, only organic or inorganic nitrogen. The fermentation kinetics, nitrogen consumption, and yeast growth were measured over time. Our results showed that the good fermentative strains, T. delbrueckii and L. thermotolerans, had high similarities with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in terms of growth, fermentation profile, and nitrogen assimilation preferences, although L. thermotolerans presented an impaired behavior when only amino acids or ammonia were used, being strain-specific. M. pulcherrima was the non-Saccharomyces strain least affected by the nitrogen composition of the medium. The other two poor fermentative strains, H. uvarum and S. bacillaris, behaved similarly regarding amino acid uptake, which occurred earlier than that of the good fermentative species in the absence of ammonia. The results obtained in single non-Saccharomyces fermentations highlighted the importance of controlling nitrogen requirements of the wine yeasts, mainly in sequential fermentations, in order to manage a proper nitrogen supplementation, when needed.