Metal-free direct alkylation of unfunctionalized allylic/benzylic sp3 C-H bonds via photoredox induced radical cation deprotonation.
ABSTRACT: Despite notable recent efforts, a catalytic and convenient strategy for the direct alkylation of unactivated allylic or benzylic sp3 C-H bonds remains a formidable challenge facing the synthesis community. We herein report an unprecedented allylic/benzylic alkylation using only an organo-photoredox catalyst, which enables coupling of a broad scope of alkenes/arenes and electron-deficient alkenes in an atom- and redox-economic manner. A photoredox induced alkene/arene radical cation deprotonation is proposed to smoothly generate the key allylic and benzylic radical intermediates. It represents the first C-C bond formation via radical cation deprotonation under visible light conditions. The resulting products can be easily scaled up and directly converted to ?,?-unsaturated or ?,?-diaryl-acids, -esters, -amides, -pyrazoles, -isoxazoles, as well as lactones, which enables this mild and selective sp3 C-H alkylation to rapidly access complex bioactive molecules.
Project description:A new catalytic method for the direct alkylation of allylic C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-H bonds from unactivated alkenes <i>via</i> synergistic organo- and photoredox catalysis is described. The transformation achieves an efficient, redox-neutral synthesis of homoallylamines with broad functional group tolerance, under very mild reaction conditions. Mechanistic investigations indicate that the reaction proceeds through the <i>N</i>-centered radical intermediate which is generated by the allylic radical addition to the imine.
Project description:Literature methods to access gem-difluoroalkenes are largely limited to harsh, organometallic-based methods, and known photoredox-mediated processes are not amenable to aryl radical addition to trifluoromethyl alkenes. A metal-free, functional group-tolerant method for the preparation of benzylic gem-difluoroalkenes is described. Halogen atom abstraction from (hetero)aryl halides generates aryl radicals that undergo a defluorinative arylation of ?-trifluoromethyl alkenes, tolerating electronically disparate aryl radicals and ?-trifluoromethyl alkenes.
Project description:Thiophenol was discovered to form an EDA complex with iodobenzene through halogen bonding interactions upon treatment with KOH. A direct photochemical thiolation of C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-H bond-containing etheric, allylic, and benzylic substrates with thiophenol was developed. The reaction proceeded on the basis of the <i>in situ</i> generation of a thiyl radical and aryl radical through single electron transfer between the photoexcited thiophenolate anion and aryl iodide EDA complex. Then a C(sp<sup>3</sup>) centred-radical was formed by aryl radical-mediated hydrogen atom transfer and the thiolation products were delivered <i>via</i> a radical-radical cross-coupling with the thiyl radical.
Project description:Oxidative amination of alkenes <i>via</i> amidyl radical addition is potentially an efficient method to generate allylic amines, which are versatile synthetic intermediates to bioactive compounds and organic materials. Here by combining photochemical generation of amidyl radicals with Cu-mediated β-H elimination of alkyl radicals, we have developed an intermolecular oxidative amination of unactivated alkenes. The reaction relies on tandem photoredox and copper catalysis, and works for both terminal and internal alkenes. The radical nature of the reaction and the mild conditions lead to high functional group tolerance.
Project description:Asymmetric C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-H functionalization is a persistent challenge in organic synthesis. Here, we report an asymmetric benzylic C-H acylation of alkylarenes employing carboxylic acids as acyl surrogates for the synthesis of α-aryl ketones via nickel and photoredox dual catalysis. This mild yet straightforward protocol transforms a diverse array of feedstock carboxylic acids and simple alkyl benzenes into highly valuable α-aryl ketones with high enantioselectivities. The utility of this method is showcased in the gram-scale synthesis and late-stage modification of medicinally relevant molecules. Mechanistic studies suggest a photocatalytically generated bromine radical can perform benzylic C-H cleavage to activate alkylarenes as nucleophilic coupling partners which can then engage in a nickel-catalyzed asymmetric acyl cross-coupling reaction. This bromine-radical-mediated C-H activation strategy can be also applied to the enantioselective coupling of alkylarenes with chloroformate for the synthesis of chiral α-aryl esters.
Project description:Transition-metal-free radical ?-perfluoroalkylation with the accompanying vicinal ?-alkenylation of unactivated alkenes is presented. These radical cascades proceed by means of 1,4- or 1,5-alkenyl migration by electron catalysis on readily accessed allylic alcohols. The reactions comprise a regioselective perfluoroalkyl radical addition with subsequent alkenyl migration and concomitant deprotonation to generate a ketyl radical anion that sustains the chain as a single-electron-transfer reducing reagent.
Project description:The efficiency and selectivity of hydrogen atom transfer from organic molecules are often difficult to control in the presence of multiple potential hydrogen atom donors and acceptors. Here, we describe the mechanistic evaluation of a mode of catalytic activation that accomplishes the highly selective photoredox ?-alkylation/lactonization of alcohols with methyl acrylate via a hydrogen atom transfer mechanism. Our studies indicate a particular role of tetra-n-butylammonium phosphate in enhancing the selectivity for ? C-H bonds in alcohols in the presence of allylic, benzylic, ?-C=O, and ?-ether C-H bonds.
Project description:Anilines are some of the most used class of substrates for application in photoinduced electron transfer. N,N-Dialkyl-derivatives enable radical generation α to the N-atom by oxidation followed by deprotonation. This approach is however elusive to monosubstituted anilines owing to fast back-electron transfer (BET). Here we demonstrate that BET can be minimised by using photoredox catalysis in the presence of an exogenous alkylamine. This approach synergistically aids aniline SET oxidation and then accelerates the following deprotonation. In this way, the generation of α-anilinoalkyl radicals is now possible and these species can be used in a general sense to achieve divergent sp<sup>3</sup> C-H functionalization.
Project description:Visible light photoredox catalysis enables direct ?- C(sp3)-H alkylation of saturated aliphatic carbonyl compounds. Electron-deficient alkenes are used as the coupling partners in this reaction. Distinguished site selectivity is controlled by the predominant 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer of an amidyl radical generated in situ.
Project description:We report a unified photoredox-catalysis strategy for both hydroxylation and amidation of tertiary and benzylic C-H bonds. Use of hydroxyl perfluorobenziodoxole (PFBl-OH) oxidant is critical for efficient tertiary C-H functionalization, likely due to the enhanced electrophilicity of the benziodoxole radical. Benzylic methylene C-H bonds can be hydroxylated or amidated using unmodified hydroxyl benziodoxole oxidant Bl-OH under similar conditions. An ionic mechanism involving nucleophilic trapping of a carbocation intermediate by H<sub>2</sub>O or CH<sub>3</sub>CN cosolvent is presented.