Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Maintains Blood Flow, Mitochondrial Function, and Redox Balance in Old Mice Following Prolonged Limb Ischemia.
ABSTRACT: Aging is a major factor in the decline of limb blood flow with ischemia. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the role of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) with regard to limb perfusion recovery in aging during ischemia. We performed femoral artery ligation in young and old mice with or without treatment with a scavenger of mitochondrial superoxide, MitoTEMPO (180 ?g/kg/day, from pre-operative day 7 to post-operative day (POD) 21) infusion using an implanted mini-pump. The recoveries of cutaneous blood flow in the ischemic hind limb were lower in old mice than in young mice but were improved in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Mitochondrial DNA damage appeared in ischemic aged muscles but was eliminated by MitoTEMPO treatment. For POD 2, MitoTEMPO treatment suppressed the expression of p53 and the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic aged skeletal muscles. For POD 21, MitoTEMPO treatment preserved the expression of PGC-1? in ischemic aged skeletal muscle. The ischemic soleus of old mice showed a lower mitochondrial respiratory control ratio in POD 21 compared to young mice, which was recovered in MitoTEMPO-treated old mice. Scavenging of mitochondrial superoxide attenuated mitochondrial DNA damage and preserved the mitochondrial respiration, in addition to suppression of the expression of p53 and preservation of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) in ischemic skeletal muscles with aging. Resolution of excessive mitochondrial superoxide could be an effective therapy to recover blood flow of skeletal muscle during ischemia in senescence.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have the ability to migrate to injury sites and facilitate tissue repair by promoting angiogenesis. However, the therapeutic effect of ADSCs from patients with diabetes is impaired due to oxidative stress. Given that diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders and mitochondria are a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), it is possible that mitochondrial ROS plays an important role in the induction of diabetic ADSC (dADSC) dysfunction. ADSCs isolated from diabetic mice were treated with mitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial ROS scavenger, or TEMPO, a universal ROS scavenger, for three passages. The results showed that pretreatment with mitoTEMPO increased the proliferation, multidifferentiation potential, and the migration and proangiogenic capacities of dADSCs to levels similar to those of ADSCs from control mice, whereas pretreatment with TEMPO showed only minor effects. Mechanistically, mitoTEMPO pretreatment enhanced the mitochondrial antioxidant capacity of dADSCs, and knockdown of superoxide dismutase reduced the restored mitochondrial antioxidant capacity and attenuated the proangiogenic effects induced by mitoTEMPO pretreatment. In addition, mitoTEMPO pretreatment improved the survival of dADSCs in diabetic mice with critical limb ischemia, showing protective effects similar to those of control ADSCs. Pretreatment of dADSCs with mitoTEMPO decreased limb injury and improved angiogenesis in diabetic mice with critical limb ischemia. These findings suggested that short-term pretreatment of dADSCs with a mitochondrial ROS scavenger restored their normal functions, which may be an effective strategy for improving the therapeutic effects of ADSC-based therapies in patients with diabetes.
Project description:Neovascularization is a physiologic repair process that partly depends on nitric oxide. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) is the major scavenger of superoxide. It is an important regulator of nitric oxide bioavailability and thus protects against vascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that overexpression of EcSOD in skeletal muscle would improve recovery from hind-limb ischemia.Adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors expressing EcSOD or luciferase (control) from the cytomegalovirus promoter were cross-packaged into AAV9 capsids and injected intramuscularly into the hind-limb muscles (1 × 10(11) viral genomes/limb) of 12-week-old mice. Ischemia was induced after intramuscular injections. Laser Doppler was used to measure limb perfusion on days 0, 7, and 14 after injection. Values were expressed as a ratio relative to the nonischemic limb. EcSOD expression was measured by Western blotting. Capillary density was documented by immunohistochemical staining for platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated biotin-deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling and necrosis was visually evaluated daily.EcSOD expression was twofold upregulated in EcSOD treated vs control ischemic muscles at day 14. Capillary density (capillaries/fiber) was 1.9-fold higher in treated (1.65 ± 0.02) vs control muscle (0.78 ± 0.17, P < .05). Recovery of perfusion ratio at day 14 after ischemia was 1.5-fold greater in EcSOD vs control mice (P < .05). The percentage of apoptotic nuclei was 1.3% ± 0.4% in EcSOD-treated mice compared with 4.2% ± 0.2% in controls (P < .001). Limb necrosis was also significantly lower in EcSOD vs control mice.AAV9-mediated overexpression of EcSOD in skeletal muscle significantly improves recovery from hind-limb ischemia in mice, consistent with improved capillary density and perfusion ratios in treated mice.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Senescence is a major factor that increases oxidative stress in mitochondria, which contributes toward the pathogenesis of heart disease. However, the effect of antioxidant therapy on cardiac mitochondria in aged-cardiac performance remains elusive.<h4>Objectives</h4>We postulated that the mitochondrial targeting of superoxide scavenging would have benefits in the aged heart.<h4>Methods and results</h4>Generation of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity increased in the heart of old mice compared with that in young mice. In old mice treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO (180?µg/kg/day, 28 days) co-infusion using a subcutaneously implanted minipump, levels of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity as well as hydrogen peroxide decreased markedly in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the systolic and diastolic function assessed by echocardiography. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated coronary arteries and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation were impaired in old mice compared with that in young mice and were improved by MitoTEMPO treatment. Mitochondria from the old mice myocardium showed lower rates of complex I-dependent and II-dependent respiration compared with that from young mice. Supplementation of MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the respiration rates and efficiency of ATP generation in mitochondria to a level similar to that of young mice.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Resolution of oxidative stress in mitochondria by MitoTEMPO in old mice restored cardiac function and the capacity of coronary vasodilation to the same magnitude observed in young mice. An antioxidant strategy targeting mitochondria could have a therapeutic benefit in heart disease with senescence.
Project description:Compromised muscle mitochondrial metabolism is a hallmark of peripheral arterial disease, especially in patients with the most severe clinical manifestation - critical limb ischemia (CLI). We asked whether inflexibility in metabolism is critical for the development of myopathy in ischemic limb muscles. Using Polg mtDNA mutator (D257A) mice, we reveal remarkable protection from hind limb ischemia (HLI) due to a unique and beneficial adaptive enhancement of glycolytic metabolism and elevated ischemic muscle PFKFB3. Similar to the relationship between mitochondria from CLI and claudicating patient muscles, BALB/c muscle mitochondria are uniquely dysfunctional after HLI onset as compared with the C57BL/6 (BL6) parental strain. AAV-mediated overexpression of PFKFB3 in BALB/c limb muscles improved muscle contractile function and limb blood flow following HLI. Enrichment analysis of RNA sequencing data on muscle from CLI patients revealed a unique deficit in the glucose metabolism Reactome. Muscles from these patients express lower PFKFB3 protein, and their muscle progenitor cells possess decreased glycolytic flux capacity in vitro. Here, we show supplementary glycolytic flux as sufficient to protect against ischemic myopathy in instances where reduced blood flow-related mitochondrial function is compromised preclinically. Additionally, our data reveal reduced glycolytic flux as a common characteristic of the failing CLI patient limb skeletal muscle.
Project description:Although arterial limb tourniquet is one of the first-line treatments to prevent exsanguinating hemorrhage in both civilian pre-hospital and battlefield casualty care, prolonged application of a limb tourniquet can lead to serious ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying pathomechanisms of tourniquet-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury are still poorly understood. Using a murine model of acute limb ischemia-reperfusion, we investigated if acute limb ischemia-reperfusion injury is mediated by superoxide overproduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hind limbs of C57/BL6 mice were subjected to 3h ischemia and 4h reperfusion via placement and release of a rubber tourniquet at the greater trochanter. Approximately 40% of the gastrocnemius muscle suffered infarction in this model. Activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes including complex I, II, III, and IV in the gastrocnemius muscle were decreased in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared to sham. Superoxide production was increased while activity of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, the mitochondria-targeted SOD isoform) was decreased in the ischemia-reperfusion group compared to the sham group. Pretreatment with tempol (a SOD mimetic, 50mg/kg) or co-enzyme Q(10) (50mg/kg) not only decreased the superoxide production, but also reduced the infarct size and normalized mitochondrial dysfunction in the gastrocnemius muscle. Our results suggest that tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle ischemia-reperfusion injuries including infarct size and mitochondrial dysfunction may be mediated via superoxide overproduction and reduced antioxidant activity. In the future, this murine ischemia-reperfusion model can be adapted to mechanistically evaluate anti-ischemic molecules in tourniquet-induced skeletal muscle injury.
Project description:Limb ischemia (LI) is a major consequence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) with a high mortality rate. Iron is an essential mineral to maintain physiological function of multiple organs. Intracellular iron transport is regulated by transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1). Although increase in serum ferritin levels has been reported in PAD patients, the mechanism of iron metabolism in LI is still unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate whether TfR1 deletion attenuates LI formation. To generate LI, the left femoral artery of 8-10 week-old C57BL6/J male mice was ligated. Adductor muscles were harvested at 28 days after surgery to investigate iron metabolism. The level of ferritin, intracellular iron storage protein, was higher in ischemic adductor muscles compared to non-ischemic adductor muscles. Level of intracellular iron transport protein, TfR1, was decreased in ischemic adductor muscles. LI was then generated in TfR1 heterozygous deleted mice (TfR1+/-) to examine whether TfR1 contributes to the pathophysiology of LI. Laser Doppler blood flowmetry revealed that blood flow recovery was attenuated in TfR1+/- mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates, along with decreased expression of ferritin and CD31 in ischemic adductor muscles. Since iron is used for energy production in mitochondria, we then assessed mitochondrial complexes in the ischemic adductor muscle. Of interest, expression of mitochondrial complex I, but not complexes II, III, and V in ischemic adductor muscles was significantly reduced in TfR1+/- mice compared to WT mice. Haploinsufficiency of TfR1 attenuated angiogenesis via reduction of mitochondrial complex I in LI in mice.
Project description:Superoxide (O2(-) ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including hypertension; however, commonly used antioxidants have proven ineffective in clinical trials. It is possible that these agents are not adequately delivered to the subcellular sites of superoxide production.Because the mitochondria are important sources of reactive oxygen species, we postulated that mitochondrial targeting of superoxide scavenging would have therapeutic benefit.In this study, we found that the hormone angiotensin (Ang II) increased endothelial mitochondrial superoxide production. Treatment with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitoTEMPO decreased mitochondrial O2(-), inhibited the total cellular O2(-), reduced cellular NADPH oxidase activity, and restored the level of bioavailable NO. These effects were mimicked by overexpressing the mitochondrial MnSOD (SOD2), whereas SOD2 depletion with small interfering RNA increased both basal and Ang II-stimulated cellular O2(-). Treatment of mice in vivo with mitoTEMPO attenuated hypertension when given at the onset of Ang II infusion and decreased blood pressure by 30 mm Hg following establishment of both Ang II-induced and DOCA salt hypertension, whereas a similar dose of nontargeted TEMPOL was not effective. In vivo, mitoTEMPO decreased vascular O2(-), increased vascular NO production and improved endothelial-dependent relaxation. Interestingly, transgenic mice overexpressing mitochondrial SOD2 demonstrated attenuated Ang II-induced hypertension and vascular oxidative stress similar to mice treated with mitoTEMPO.These studies show that mitochondrial O2(-) is important for the development of hypertension and that antioxidant strategies specifically targeting this organelle could have therapeutic benefit in this and possibly other diseases.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is heterogeneous and multifactorial neurological disorder; and the risk factors of AD still remain elusive. Recent studies have highlighted the role of vascular factors in promoting the progression of AD and have suggested that ischemic events increase the incidence of AD. However, the detailed mechanisms linking ischemic insult to the progression of AD is still largely undetermined. In this study, we have established a transient cerebral ischemia model on young 5xFAD mice and their non-transgenic (nonTg) littermates by the transient occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries. We have found that transient cerebral ischemia significantly exacerbates brain mitochondrial dysfunction including mitochondrial respiration deficits, oxidative stress as well as suppressed levels of mitochondrial fusion proteins including optic atrophy 1 (OPA1) and mitofusin 2 (MFN2) in young 5xFAD mice resulting in aggravated spatial learning and memory. Intriguingly, transient cerebral ischemia did not induce elevation in the levels of cortical or mitochondrial Amyloid beta (A?)1-40 or 1-42 levels in 5xFAD mice. In addition, the glucose- and oxygen-deprivation-induced apoptotic neuronal death in A?-treated neurons was significantly mitigated by mitochondria-targeted antioxidant mitotempo which suppresses mitochondrial superoxide levels. Therefore, the simplest interpretation of our results is that young 5xFAD mice with pre-existing AD-like mitochondrial dysfunction are more susceptible to the effects of transient cerebral ischemia; and ischemic events may exacerbate dementia and worsen the outcome of AD patients by exacerbating mitochondrial dysfunction.
Project description:Sepsis elicits skeletal muscle weakness and fiber atrophy. The accumulation of injured mitochondria and depressed mitochondrial functions are considered as important triggers of sepsis-induced muscle atrophy. It is unclear whether mitochondrial dysfunctions in septic muscles are due to the inadequate activation of quality control processes. We hypothesized that overexpressing Parkin, a protein responsible for the recycling of dysfunctional mitochondria by the autophagy pathway (mitophagy), would confer protection against sepsis-induced muscle atrophy by improving mitochondrial quality and content. Parkin was overexpressed for four weeks in the limb muscles of four-week old mice using intramuscular injections of adeno-associated viruses (AAVs). The cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) procedure was used to induce sepsis. Sham operated animals were used as controls. All animals were studied for 48 h post CLP. Sepsis resulted in major body weight loss and myofiber atrophy. Parkin overexpression prevented myofiber atrophy in CLP mice. Quantitative two-dimensional transmission electron microscopy revealed that sepsis is associated with the accumulation of enlarged and complex mitochondria, an effect which was attenuated by Parkin overexpression. Parkin overexpression also prevented a sepsis-induced decrease in the content of mitochondrial subunits of NADH dehydrogenase and cytochrome C oxidase. We conclude that Parkin overexpression prevents sepsis-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, likely by improving mitochondrial quality and contents.
Project description:Epithelial permeability is often increased in inflammatory bowel diseases. We hypothesized that perturbed mitochondrial function would cause barrier dysfunction and hence epithelial mitochondria could be targeted to treat intestinal inflammation. Mitochondrial dysfunction was induced in human colon-derived epithelial cell lines or colonic biopsy specimens using dinitrophenol, and barrier function was assessed by transepithelial flux of Escherichia coli with or without mitochondria-targeted antioxidant (MTA) cotreatment. The impact of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants on gut permeability and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice was tested. Mitochondrial superoxide evoked by dinitrophenol elicited significant internalization and translocation of E. coli across epithelia and control colonic biopsy specimens, which was more striking in Crohn's disease biopsy specimens; the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, MitoTEMPO, inhibited these barrier defects. Increased gut permeability and reduced epithelial mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel expression were observed 3 days after DSS. These changes and the severity of DSS-colitis were reduced by MitoTEMPO treatment. In vitro DSS-stimulated IL-8 production by epithelia was reduced by MitoTEMPO. Metabolic stress evokes significant penetration of commensal bacteria across the epithelium, which is mediated by mitochondria-derived superoxide acting as a signaling, not a cytotoxic, molecule. MitoTEMPO inhibited this barrier dysfunction and suppressed colitis in DSS-colitis, likely via enhancing barrier function and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine production. These novel findings support consideration of MTAs in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and the management of inflammatory bowel diseases.