Focal Dermal Hypoplasia (Goltz Syndrome): A Cross-sectional Study from Eastern India.
ABSTRACT: Focal dermal hypoplasia (Goltz syndrome), is an extremely rare genetic disorder characterized by distinct skin manifestations and a wide range of abnormalities involving the ocular, dental, skeletal, urinary, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. The objective of the present series is to emphasize the different typical as well as unusual features of this rare syndrome.This cross-sectional observational study was performed over a period of 8 years in a tertiary care hospital of Eastern India. Consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome were studied.A total of 8 patients with Goltz syndrome were evaluated. Out of them, one patient was a boy and the rest were girl. The age ranged from 3 days to 9 years. There was no family history. A characteristic Blaschkoid hypo- and hyper-pigmented skin lesions, congenital nodular fat herniation, and skin atrophy were present in all patients. Congenital cutaneous aplasia was present in 50% of the patients. Facial asymmetry and ear deformity (megalopinna and low-set ears) were seen in 37.5% and 12.5% of patients, respectively. Cutaneous telangiectasia was noticed in 37.5% of patients. Freckle- and lentigines-like pigmentation within the hypopigmented macules was found in 25% of patients. Raspberry-like papillomas around mouth were documented in 6 (75%) patients. Dysplastic nail changes with ridging were seen in 7 (87.5%) patients. Genital abnormality in the form of bilateral undescended testes and microphthalmia with aniridia were found in one patient each. Limb defects were present in all patients. Left-sided renal agenesis was found in one patient. The patient also had multiple cortical cysts of the right kidney.Genetic testing could not be performed in the present series.Our case series showed a few unusual or extremely rare manifestations such as undescended testes, dermal sinus, kyphoscoliosis, aniridia, unilateral kidney agenesis, and renal cortical cysts among others.
Project description:Undescended testes are recognised in 1% to 2% of boys during the first year of life, and about 20% of them are impalpable. Ultrasonography (US) may establish the localisation of the testis but the final diagnosis is usually determined laparoscopically.To evaluate long-term results of laparoscopic treatment of boys with impalpable testes and sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound.Between 2011 and 2015, we operated on 545 boys with undescended testes. Sixty-two of them with 65 impalpable testes were treated laparoscopically - the study group. Mean age was 3.5 years. The study group was divided into 5 groups according to type of treatment. The volume and position of the operated gonad were assessed manually and by ultrasound.In group 1 testicular agenesis was observed in 19 patients. In group 2 revision of the inguinal canal revealed testicular agenesis in 7 and atrophy in 4 patients. In group 3 conversion to classic orchiopexy was performed in 10 patients. In group 4 one-stage orchiopexy was performed in 9 patients on 12 testes. In group 5 a two-stage F-S procedure was performed in 13 patients. Ten testes in group 4 had a volume in the normal range (84%) and also 10 testes in group 5 (77%).Laparoscopy in impalpable testes is the procedure of choice and allows definitive management, even when conversion to open procedure is necessary. Sensitivity of preoperative ultrasound is generally about 60% for true intra-abdominal testes, so diagnostic laparoscopy is necessary.
Project description:We present the case of a boy with a clinical diagnosis of Goltz syndrome (focal dermal hypoplasia), a rare genodermatosis characterized by widespread dysplasia of mesodermal and ectodermal tissues. A 9-year-old male patient with Goltz syndrome presented with typical skin lesions along with progressive dimness of vision and mental retardation since birth. It is inherited in an X-linked dominant fashion and is normally lethal in male patients, and so very few male patients, like the index case, have been reported.
Project description:Despite timely and successful surgery, 32% of patients with bilateral and 10% with unilateral cryptorchidism will develop azoospermia. Cryptorchid boys at risk of azoospermia display a typical testicular histology of impaired mini-puberty at the time of the orchidopexy. During mini-puberty increased gonadotropin and testosterone secretion stimulate transformation of gonocytes into Ad spermatogonia. In azoospermia risk group this transformation is to a great extent impaired. This study aimed to analyze data on whole genome expression signatures of undescended testes at risk of developing azoospermia. Overall design: Twenty-three testicular biopsies from 22 boys were analyzed (19 testes from 18 boys with cryptorchidism) and 4 contralateral descended testes from patients with testicular agenesis. Expression profiling identified 483 genes not or under-expressed in the azoospermia risk group compared with the control and LAZR groups. Annotated loci were associated with spermatogenesis. Other significant genes were cellular defense response genes and hormone controlled loci involved in spermatogenesis. Some genes transcribed in normal adult meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells are activated in healthy juvenile Ad spermatogonia. Thus, molecular events initiating the testicular expression program at the onset of puberty and maintaining it during adulthood occur very early in prepubertal testes. This molecular event is to a great extent impaired in HAZR group lacking Ad spermatogonia (stem cells for spermatozoa) indicating impaired mini puberty.
Project description:Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare entity of internal male pseudohermaphroditism. Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE) is the condition in which one testis moves to the other side and both testes pass the same inguinal canal. The combination of PMDS with TTE is rarer. Here, we present a case a phenotype male with left inguinal hernia and right undescended testis. On exploration of left inguinal region, uterus like tissue with its tubal structures were found. Both testes were in same side, one in left inguinal region and the other in the left scrotum.
Project description:Despite timely and successful surgery, 32% of patients with bilateral and 10% with unilateral cryptorchidism will develop azoospermia. Cryptorchid boys at risk of azoospermia display a typical testicular histology of impaired mini-puberty at the time of the orchidopexy. During mini-puberty increased gonadotropin and testosterone secretion stimulate transformation of gonocytes into Ad spermatogonia. In azoospermia risk group this transformation is to a great extent impaired. This study aimed to analyze data on whole genome expression signatures of undescended testes at risk of developing azoospermia. Twenty-three testicular biopsies from 22 boys were analyzed (19 testes from 18 boys with cryptorchidism) and 4 contralateral descended testes from patients with testicular agenesis. Expression profiling identified 483 genes not or under-expressed in the azoospermia risk group compared with the control and LAZR groups. Annotated loci were associated with spermatogenesis. Other significant genes were cellular defense response genes and hormone controlled loci involved in spermatogenesis. Some genes transcribed in normal adult meiotic and post-meiotic germ cells are activated in healthy juvenile Ad spermatogonia. Thus, molecular events initiating the testicular expression program at the onset of puberty and maintaining it during adulthood occur very early in prepubertal testes. This molecular event is to a great extent impaired in HAZR group lacking Ad spermatogonia (stem cells for spermatozoa) indicating impaired mini puberty.
Project description:RATIONALE:Trio family-based whole exome sequencing (WES) is a powerful tool in the diagnosis of rare neurodevelopmental diseases, even in patients with the unclear diagnosis. There have been previous reports of variants in the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis class T (PIGT) gene associated with multiple congenital anomalies, with a total of 14 affected individuals across 8 families. PATIENT CONCERNS:An 18-month-old boy of Greek ancestry presented with global developmental delay, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, hypotonia, renal cysts, esotropia, bilateral undescended testes, bilateral vesicoureteric reflux, marked cardiac dextroposition, bilateral talipes equinovarus, and dysmorphic features. DIAGNOSIS:WES revealed 2 compound heterozygous variants in the PIGT gene, c.[494-2A>G]; [547A>C]/p.[Asp122Glyfs*35]; [Thr183Pro]. The splicing mutation was demonstrated to lead to the skipping of exon 4. INTERVENTIONS:Seizures, infections, and other main symptoms were treated. OUTCOMES:The patient died at 2 years of age before the molecular diagnosis was achieved. Genetic counseling has been offered to the family. LESSONS:Most of the clinical features of the patient are in agreement with the previously described PIGT cases corroborating the usefulness of WES as a diagnostic tool.
Project description:Multiple congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) is a rare mosaic RASopathy, caused by postzygotic activating mutations in NRAS. Growth and hormonal disturbances are described in germline RASopathies, but growth and hormone status have not previously been investigated in individuals with CMN.To explore premature thelarche, undescended testes, and a clinically abnormal fat distribution with CMN through prospective endocrinological assessment of a cohort of subjects with CMN, and a retrospective review of longitudinal growth of a larger group of patients with CMN from outpatient clinics (which included all subjects in the endocrinological assessment group).Longitudinal growth in a cohort of 202 patients with single or multiple CMN was compared with the U.K. National Child Measurement Programme 2010. Forty-seven children had hormonal profiling including measurement of circulating luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin; 10 had oral glucose tolerance testing 25 had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for body composition.Body mass index increased markedly with age (coefficient 0·119, SE 0·016 standard deviation scores per year), at twice the rate of the U.K. population, due to increased adiposity. Three per cent of girls had premature thelarche variant and 6% of boys had persistent undescended testes. Both fat and muscle mass were reduced in areas underlying large naevi, resulting in limb asymmetry and abnormal truncal fat distribution. Anterior pituitary hormone profiling revealed subtle and variable abnormalities. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed moderate-severe insulin insensitivity in five of 10, and impaired glucose tolerance in one.Interpersonal variation may reflect the mosaic nature of this disease and patients should be considered individually. Postnatal weight gain is potentially related to the underlying genetic defect; however, environmental reasons cannot be excluded. Naevus-related reduction of fat and muscle mass suggests local hormonal or metabolic effects on development or growth of adjacent tissues, or mosaic involvement of these tissues at the genetic level. Premature thelarche and undescended testes should be looked for, and investigated, as for any child.
Project description:Male pseudohermaphroditism is a sex differentiation disorder in which the gonads are testes and the genital ducts are incompletely masculinized. An 8 years old dog with normal male karyotype was referred for examination of external genitalia abnormalities. Adjacent to the vulva subcutaneous undescended testes were observed. The histology of the gonads revealed a Leydig and Sertoli cell neoplasia. The contemporaneous presence of testicular tissue, vulva, male karyotype were compatible with a male pseudohermaphrodite (MPH) condition.
Project description:To report the clinical and genetic study of patients with autosomal dominant aniridia.We studied ten patients with aniridia from three families of Egyptian origin. All patients underwent full ophthalmologic, general and neurological examination, and blood drawing. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed in the index case of each family. Genomic DNA was prepared from venous leukocytes, and direct sequencing of all the exons and intron-exon junctions of the Paired Box gene 6 (PAX6) was performed after PCR amplification. Phenotype description, including ophthalmic and cerebral anomalies, mutation detection in PAX6 and phenotype-genotype correlation was acquired.Common features observed in the three families included absence of iris tissue, corneal pannus with different degrees of severity, and foveal hypoplasia with severely reduced visual acuity. In Families 2 and 3, additional findings, such as lens dislocation, lens opacities or polar cataract, and glaucoma, were observed. We identified two novel (c.170-174delTGGGC [p.L57fs17] and c.475delC [p.R159fs47]) and one known (c.718C>T [p.R240X]) PAX6 mutations in the affected members of the three families. Systemic and neurological examination was normal in all ten affected patients. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed absence of the pineal gland in all three index patients. Severe hypoplasia of the brain anterior commissure was associated with the p.L57fs17 mutation, absence of the posterior commissure with p.R159fs47, and optic chiasma atrophy and almost complete agenesis of the corpus callosum with p.R240X.We identified two novel PAX6 mutations in families with severe aniridia. In addition to common phenotype of aniridia and despite normal neurological examination, absence of the pineal gland and interhemispheric brain anomalies were observed in all three index patients. The heterogeneity of PAX6 mutations and brain anomalies are highlighted. This report emphasizes the association between aniridia and brain anomalies with or without functional impact, such as neurodevelopment delay or auditory dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Oculocerebrocutaneous syndrome (OCCS) is characterised by orbital cysts and anophthalmia or microphthalmia, focal aplastic or hypoplastic skin defects, skin appendages, and brain malformations. The eye and skin abnormalities are well described but the neuropathological features less so. To date, 28 patients with an unequivocal diagnosis of OCCS have been reported, with a preponderance of males. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the brain imaging studies, clinical records, photographs, and pathological material of two new and nine previously reported cases of OCCS. RESULTS: There was a consistent pattern of malformations in eight of the 11 cases, consisting of frontal predominant polymicrogyria and periventricular nodular heterotopia, enlarged lateral ventricles or hydrocephalus, agenesis of the corpus callosum sometimes associated with interhemispheric cysts, and a novel mid-hindbrain malformation. The latter consisted of a giant and dysplastic tectum, absent cerebellar vermis, small cerebellar hemispheres in most cases, and a large posterior fossa fluid collection. CONCLUSIONS: The mid-hindbrain malformation appears pathognomonic for OCCS. The eye and skin features of OCCS show considerable overlap with several other syndromes, such as encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis, oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum, and focal dermal hypoplasia, none of which has a comparable pattern of brain malformations. In particular the unique mid-hindbrain malformation also distinguishes OCCS from related syndromes with comparable forebrain anomalies. The pattern of malformation described thus helps in differentiating OCCS from other entities. The mid-hindbrain malformation points to a defect of the mid-hindbrain organiser as the underlying pathogenic mechanism.