Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound enhances angiogenesis and ameliorates contractile dysfunction of pressure-overloaded heart in mice.
ABSTRACT: Chronic left ventricular (LV) pressure overload causes relative ischemia with resultant LV dysfunction. We have recently demonstrated that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) improves myocardial ischemia in a pig model of chronic myocardial ischemia through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis. In the present study, we thus examined whether LIPUS also ameliorates contractile dysfunction in LV pressure-overloaded hearts.Chronic LV pressure overload was induced with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. LIPUS was applied to the whole heart three times in the first week after TAC and was repeated once a week for 7 weeks thereafter (n = 22). Animals in the control groups received the sham treatment without LIPUS (n = 23). At 8 weeks after TAC, LV fractional shortening was depressed in the TAC-Control group, which was significantly ameliorated in the TAC-LIPUS group (30.4±0.5 vs. 36.2±3.8%, P<0.05). Capillary density was higher and perivascular fibrosis was less in the LV in the TAC-LIPUS group than in the TAC-Control group. Myocardial relative ischemia evaluated with hypoxyprobe was noted in the TAC-Control group, which was significantly attenuated in the TAC-LIPUS group. In the TAC-LIPUS group, as compared with the control group, mRNA expressions of BNP and collagen III were significantly lower (both P<0.05) and protein expressions of VEGF and eNOS were significantly up-regulated associated with Akt activation (all P<0.05). No adverse effect related to the LIPUS therapy was noted.These results indicate that the LIPUS therapy ameliorates contractile dysfunction in chronically pressure-overloaded hearts through enhanced myocardial angiogenesis and attenuated perivascular fibrosis. Thus, the LIPUS therapy may be a promising, non-invasive treatment for cardiac dysfunction due to chronic pressure overload.
Project description:Chronic pressure overload causes myocardial hypertrophy, increased fibrillar collagen content, and abnormal diastolic function. We hypothesized that one determinant of these pressure overload-induced changes is the extracellular processing of newly synthesized procollagen into mature collagen fibrils. We further hypothesized that secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) plays a key role in post-synthetic procollagen processing in normal and pressure-overloaded myocardium.To determine whether pressure overload-induced changes in collagen content and diastolic function are affected by the absence of SPARC, age-matched wild-type (WT) and SPARC-null mice underwent either transverse aortic constriction (TAC) for 4 weeks or served as nonoperated controls. Left ventricular (LV) collagen content was measured histologically by collagen volume fraction, collagen composition was measured by hydroxyproline assay as soluble collagen (1 mol/L NaCl extractable) versus insoluble collagen (mature cross-linked collagen), and collagen morphological structure was examined by scanning electron microscopy. SPARC expression was measured by immunoblot. LV, myocardial, and cardiomyocyte structure and function were assessed by echocardiographic, papillary muscle, and isolated cardiomyocyte studies. In WT mice, TAC increased LV mass, SPARC expression, myocardial diastolic stiffness, fibrillar collagen content, and soluble and insoluble collagen. In SPARC-null mice, TAC increased LV mass to an extent similar to WT mice. In addition, in SPARC-null mice, TAC increased fibrillar collagen content, albeit significantly less than that seen in WT TAC mice. Furthermore, the proportion of LV collagen that was insoluble was less in the SPARC-null TAC mice (86+/-2%) than in WT TAC mice (99+/-2%, P<0.05), and the proportion of collagen that was soluble was greater in the SPARC-null TAC mice (14+/-2%) than in WT TAC mice (1+/-2%, P<0.05) As a result, myocardial diastolic stiffness was lower in SPARC-null TAC mice (0.075+/-0.005) than in WT TAC mice (0.045+/-0.005, P<0.05).The absence of SPARC reduced pressure overload-induced alterations in extracellular matrix fibrillar collagen and diastolic function. These data support the hypothesis that SPARC plays a key role in post-synthetic procollagen processing and the development of mature cross-linked collagen fibrils in normal and pressure-overloaded myocardium.
Project description:Cardiac-directed adenylyl cyclase 6 (AC6) expression attenuates left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction in cardiomyopathy, but its effects in the pressure-overloaded heart are unknown.Mice with cardiac-directed and regulated expression of AC6 underwent transaortic constriction (TAC) to induce LV pressure overload. Ten days prior to TAC, and for the duration of the 4 week study, cardiac myocyte AC6 expression was activated in one group (AC-On) but not the other (AC-Off). Multiple measures of LV systolic and diastolic function were obtained 4 weeks after TAC, and LV samples assessed for alterations in Ca2+ signaling.LV contractility, as reflected in the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (Emax), was increased (p=0.01) by activation of AC6 expression. In addition, diastolic function was improved (p<0.05) and LV dilation was reduced (p<0.05). LV samples from AC-On mice showed reduced protein expression of sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX1) (p<0.05), protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) (p<0.01), and increased phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN) at Ser16 (p<0.05). Finally, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ content was increased in cardiac myocytes isolated from AC-On mice (p<0.05).Activation of cardiac AC6 expression improves function of the pressure-overloaded and failing heart. The predominant mechanism for this favorable adaptation is improved Ca2+ handling, a consequence of increased PLN phosphorylation, reduced NCX1, reduced PP1 expression, and increased SR Ca2+ content.
Project description:Aims: Cardiomyocyte-specific nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) overexpression reduces left ventricular (LV) remodelling after myocardial infarction in mice, but its effect on sustained LV pressure-overload remains incompletely understood. We investigated LV structural and functional adaptation to elevated afterload in mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted NOS3 overexpression (NOS3TG) and wild type littermates (WT). Methods and Results: Hemodynamic indices, cardiac hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis were measured 10 weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 10 weeks TAC, NOS3TG had better preserved systolic function (maximum rates of pressure development normalized to maximal pressure 77±6 versus 65±2 ms-1, P=0.05), reduced heart weight-body weight ratio (HW/BW, 5.0±0.3 versus 5.8±0.1, P<0.05), and cardiomyocyte width than WT (14.9±0.4 vs 16.7±0.2 ?m, P<0.05). After 10 weeks TAC, a 44k cDNA chip-based microarray analysis was validated using real time PCR and revealed significantly altered expression pattern of genes involved in cellular growth, matrix remodelling, and inflammation between genotypes. Conclusions: Cardiomyocyte-restricted NOS3 overexpression attenuates TAC-induced hypertrophy via autocrine inhibition of cardiomyocyte cell growth, but does not mitigate myocardial fibrosis. The subsequent diastolic dysfunction suggests that inhibition of matrix producing cells during hypertrophic stress is necessary to prevent functional and structural deterioration of the pressure-overloaded heart. Left ventricular mRNA expression profiles were compared between alpha-myosin heavy chain driven nitric oxide synthase 3 (alpha-MHC-NOS3) transgenic and wild type (WT) littermate mice at baseline and 10 weeks after transversal aortic constrcition-induced pressure-overload. Biological repeats: n=4, two males and two females, for each group and condition. Transgenic mice were backcrossed for seven generations (F7) to a C57Bl/6 N background and age and weight matched animals were used for microarray experiments.
Project description:An involement of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been established in cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction; however, its role in chronic pressure overload is unclear. We sought to evaluate the role of TLR2 in cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction in sustained pressure overload. We induced pressure overload via transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in TLR2-/- and wild type (WT) mice, and followed temporal changes over 8 weeks. Despite similar increases in heart weight, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and diastolic function (mitral E/A ratio) were preserved in TLR2-/- mice but impaired in WT mice following TAC. TAC produced less LV fibrosis in TLR2-/- mice associated with lower mRNA levels of collagen genes (Col1a1 and Col3a1) and lower protein level of TGFbeta1, compared to WT mice. Following TAC, the influx of macrophages and CD3 T cells into LV was similar between TLR2-/- and WT mice, whereas levels of cyto/chemokines were lower in the heart and plasma in TLR2-/- mice. TLR2-/- bone marrow-derived cells protected against LVEF decline and fibrosis following TAC. Our findings show that leukocytic TLR2 deficiency protects against LV dysfunction and fibrosis probably via a reduction in inflammatory signaling in sustained pressure overload.
Project description:Congestive heart failure is associated with increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the levels of these cytokines correlate with heart failure severity and prognosis. Chronic interleukin 6 (IL-6) stimulation leads to left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction, and deletion of IL-6 reduces LV hypertrophy after angiotensin II infusion. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that IL-6 deletion has favorable effects on pressure-overloaded hearts. We performed transverse aortic constriction on IL-6-deleted (IL6KO) mice and C57BL/6J mice (CON) to induce pressure overload. Pressure overload was associated with similar LV hypertrophy, dilation, and dysfunction in CON and IL6KO mice. Re-activation of the fetal gene program was also similar in pressure-overloaded CON and IL6KO mice. There were no differences between CON and IL6KO mice in LV fibrosis or expression of extracellular matrix proteins after pressure overload. In addition, no group differences in apoptosis or autophagy were seen. These data indicate that IL-6 deletion does not block LV remodeling and dysfunction induced by pressure overload. Attenuated content of IL-11 appears to be a compensatory mechanism for IL-6 deletion in pressure-overloaded hearts. We infer from these data that limiting availability of IL-6 alone is not sufficient to attenuate LV remodeling and dysfunction in failing hearts.
Project description:Endogenous adenosine can protect the overloaded heart against the development of hypertrophy and heart failure, but the contribution of A(1) receptors (A(1)R) and A(3) receptors (A(3)R) is not known.To test the hypothesis that A(1)R and A(3)R can protect the heart against systolic overload, we exposed A(3)R gene-deficient (A(3)R knockout [KO]) mice and A(1)R KO mice to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Contrary to our hypothesis, A(3)R KO attenuated 5-week TAC-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (ratio of ventricular mass/body weight increased to 7.6+/-0.3 mg/g in wild-type mice compared with 6.3+/-0.4 mg/g in KO mice), fibrosis, and dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction decreased to 43+/-2.5% and 55+/-4.2% in wild-type and KO mice, respectively). A(3)R KO also attenuated the TAC-induced increases of myocardial atrial natriuretic peptide and the oxidative stress markers 3'-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal. In contrast, A(1)R KO increased TAC-induced mortality but did not alter ventricular hypertrophy or dysfunction compared with wild-type mice. In mice in which extracellular adenosine production was impaired by CD73 KO, TAC caused greater hypertrophy and dysfunction and increased myocardial 3'-nitrotyrosine. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes induced to hypertrophy with phenylephrine, the adenosine analogue 2-chloroadenosine reduced cell area, protein synthesis, atrial natriuretic peptide, and 3'-nitrotyrosine. Antagonism of A(3)R significantly potentiated the antihypertrophic effects of 2-chloroadenosine.Adenosine exerts protective effects on the overloaded heart, but the A(3)R acts counter to the protective effect of adenosine. The data suggest that selective attenuation of A(3)R activity might be a novel approach to treat pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction.
Project description:RATIONALE:The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. OBJECTIVE:To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. METHODS AND RESULTS:Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (IL-6(-/-)) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6(-/-) mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6(-/-) hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from wild-type and IL-6(-/-) mice exposed to prohypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together, these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. CONCLUSIONS:Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The intracellular second messenger cGMP protects the heart under pathological conditions. We examined expression of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that hydrolyzes cGMP, in human and mouse hearts subjected to sustained left ventricular (LV) pressure overload. We also determined the role of cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 expression in adverse LV remodeling in mice after transverse aortic constriction (TAC). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing valve replacement, we detected greater myocardial PDE5 expression than in control hearts. We observed robust expression in scattered cardiac myocytes of those AS patients with higher LV filling pressures and BNP serum levels. Following TAC, we detected similar, focal PDE5 expression in cardiac myocytes of C57BL/6NTac mice exhibiting the most pronounced LV remodeling. To examine the effect of cell-specific PDE5 expression, we subjected transgenic mice with cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 overexpression (PDE5-TG) to TAC. LV hypertrophy and fibrosis were similar as in WT, but PDE5-TG had increased cardiac dimensions, and decreased dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin with prolonged tau (P<0.05 for all). Greater cardiac dysfunction in PDE5-TG was associated with reduced myocardial cGMP and SERCA2 levels, and higher passive force in cardiac myocytes in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Myocardial PDE5 expression is increased in the hearts of humans and mice with chronic pressure overload. Increased cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 expression is a molecular hallmark in hypertrophic hearts with contractile failure, and represents an important therapeutic target.
Project description:Microvascular dysfunction in the heart and its association with periarteriolar fibrosis may contribute to the diastolic dysfunction seen in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) prevents global myocardial fibrosis in a pressure overloaded left ventricle by acting via its receptor, ST2 (encoded by the gene, Il1rl1); however, whether this cytokine can also modulate periarteriolar fibrosis remains unclear. We utilized two approaches to explore the role of IL-33/ST2 in periarteriolar fibrosis. First, we studied young and old wild type mice to test the hypothesis that IL-33 and ST2 expression change with age. Second, we produced pressure overload in mice deficient in IL-33 or ST2 by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). With age, IL-33 expression increased and ST2 expression decreased. These alterations accompanied increased periarteriolar fibrosis in aged mice. Mice deficient in ST2 but not IL-33 had a significant increase in periarteriolar fibrosis following TAC compared to wild type mice. Thus, loss of ST2 signaling rather than changes in IL-33 expression may contribute to periarteriolar fibrosis during aging or pressure overload, but manipulating this pathway alone may not prevent or reverse fibrosis.
Project description:A molecular and bioinformatic pipeline permitting comprehensive analysis and quantification of myocardial miRNA and mRNA expression with next-generation sequencing was developed and the impact of enhanced PI3Kalpha signaling on the myocardial transcriptome signature of pressure overload-induced pathological hypertrophy was explored. miRNA and mRNA-Seq were carried out in four groups of mouse LV samples: WT sham, WT+TAC, caPI3Kalpha sham, caPI3Kalpha+TAC