Regulating miRNA-21 Biogenesis By Bifunctional Small Molecules.
ABSTRACT: We report a new strategy to regulate microRNAs (miRNAs) biogenesis by using bifunctional small molecules that consist of a pre-miRNA binding unit connected by a linker to a Dicer inhibiting unit. In this effort, fluorescence polarization-based screening was used to identify neomycin as a pre-miR-21 binding ligand. Although neomycin cannot inhibit miR-21 maturation, linking it to the RNase inhibitor 1 forms the bifunctional conjugate 7A, which inhibits the production of miR-21. We expect that this strategy will be applicable to design other molecules for miRNA regulation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We examined plasma microRNA (miRNA) concentrations from patients with gastric cancers (GCs) to assess their clinical application for diagnosing and monitoring diseases.<h4>Methods</h4>We initially investigated the appropriateness of plasma miRNA assay, and then compared plasma miRNA results with the expressions in cancer tissues from eight GC patients, and also compared plasma miRNAs between pre- and post-operative paired samples from 10 GC patients. Then, plasma miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-106a, miR-106b and let-7a) were analysed in 69 GC patients and 30 healthy volunteers in total.<h4>Results</h4>The initial analysis showed that miRNAs were stable and detectable in all plasma samples, and the plasma miRNA levels reflected the tumour miRNAs in most cases. The levels of these miRNAs were significantly reduced in post-operative samples. In large-scale analysis, the plasma concentrations of miRNAs (miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-106a, miR-106b) were significantly higher in GC patients than controls (P=0.05, 0.006, 0.008 and <0.001 respectively), whereas let-7a was lower in GC patients (P=0.002). The values of the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve were 0.721 for the miR-106b assay and 0.879 for the miR-106a/let-7a ratio assay.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Detection of circulating miRNAs might provide new complementary tumour markers for GC.
Project description:Total bone marrow (BM) from miR-223 knockout (mir-223-/-) and wildtype (miR-223+/+) mice 21 was extracted, prestimulated for 2 days. Then, the BM cells were simultaneously cotransduced with MSCV-Hoxa9-pgk-neomycin and a MSCV-Meis1-IRES-YFP by co-cultivation with irradiated (4,000 cGy) viral producers. HoxA9-Meis1 transduced cells were sorted for YFP expression and continuously selected with neomycin (1.4 mg/ml). Processing of the pre-miRNA through Dicer1 generates a miRNA duplex, consisting of a miRNA and miRNA* strand. Despite the general view that miRNA*s have no functional role, we further investigated miRNA* species in 10 deep sequencing libraries from mouse and human tissue. Comparing miRNA/miRNA* ratios across the miRNA sequence libraries revealed that 50% of the investigated miRNA duplexes exhibit a highly dominant strand. Conversely, 10% of miRNA duplexes show a comparable expression of both strands, while the remaining 40% exhibit variable ratios across the examined libraries as exemplified by miR-223/miR-223* in murine and human cell lines. Functional analyses revealed a regulatory role for miR-223* in myeloid progenitor cells, implying an active role for both arms of the miR-223 duplex. This was further underscored by the demonstration that miR-223 and miR-223* target the IGF1R/PIK3 axis and that high miR-223* levels associate with increased overall survival in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Thus, we found a supporting role for miR-223* in differentiating myeloid cells in normal as well as the leukemic cell state. The fact that the miR-223 duplex acts through both arms extends the complexity of miRNA-directed gene regulation of this myeloid key miRNA. 2 biological replicates
Project description:Herein, we aimed at identifying global transcriptome microRNA (miRNA) changes and miRNA target genes in lung adenocarcinoma. Samples were selected as training (N = 24) and independent validation (N = 34) sets. Tissues were microdissected to obtain >90% tumor or normal lung cells, subjected to miRNA transcriptome sequencing and TaqMan quantitative PCR validation. We further integrated our data with published miRNA and mRNA expression datasets across 1,491 lung adenocarcinoma and 455 normal lung samples. We identified known and novel, significantly over- and under-expressed (p ? 0.01 and FDR?0.1) miRNAs in lung adenocarcinoma compared to normal lung tissue: let-7a, miR-10a, miR-15b, miR-23b, miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-29a, miR-30e, miR-99a, miR-146b, miR-181b, miR-181c, miR-421, miR-181a, miR-574 and miR-1247. Validated miRNAs included let-7a-2, let-7a-3, miR-15b, miR-21, miR-155 and miR-200b; higher levels of miR-21 expression were associated with lower patient survival (p = 0.042). We identified a regulatory network including miR-15b and miR-155, and transcription factors with prognostic value in lung cancer. Our findings may contribute to the development of treatment strategies in lung adenocarcinoma.
Project description:The positive regulatory machinery in the microRNA (miRNA) processing pathway is relatively well characterized, but negative regulation of the pathway is largely unknown. Here we show that a complex of nuclear factor 90 (NF90) and NF45 proteins functions as a negative regulator in miRNA biogenesis. Primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) processing into precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA) was inhibited by overexpression of the NF90 and NF45 proteins, and considerable amounts of pri-miRNAs accumulated in cells coexpressing NF90 and NF45. Treatment of cells overexpressing NF90 and NF45 with an RNA polymerase II inhibitor, alpha-amanitin, did not reduce the amounts of pri-miRNAs, suggesting that the accumulation of pri-miRNAs is not due to transcriptional activation. In addition, the NF90 and NF45 complex was not found to interact with the Microprocessor complex, which is a processing factor of pri-miRNAs, but was found to bind endogenous pri-miRNAs. NF90-NF45 exhibited higher binding activity for pri-let-7a than pri-miR-21. Of note, depletion of NF90 caused a reduction of pri-let-7a and an increase of mature let-7a miRNA, which has a potent antiproliferative activity, and caused growth suppression of transformed cells. These findings suggest that the association of the NF90-NF45 complex with pri-miRNAs impairs access of the Microprocessor complex to the pri-miRNAs, resulting in a reduction of mature miRNA production.
Project description:Thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) is a secreted protein with a variety of biological functions, including a potent anti-angiogenic activity and activation of latent transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?). In many human cancers it is expressed at low levels, although mutations in the THBS1 gene have been rarely reported. Instead, the loss of THBS1 expression has been proposed to be due to transcriptional and post-transcriptional deregulations. In a systematic screen of predicted microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in the THBS1 3' untranslated region (UTR) we employed chemically synthesized pre-miRNAs-a new class of pre-miRNA mimics-to show that several miRNAs (let-7a, miR-18a, miR-29b, miR-194, and miR-221) can modulate THBS1 expression at the post-transcriptional level. Sequence-specific downregulation of THBS1 by let-7a, miR-18a or by a small interfering RNA induced TGF-?1 and SMAD4 transcript levels. Ectopic expression of latent TGF-?1 reduced THBS1 protein expression and was associated with increased expression of let-7a, let-7-b, and miR-18a in cells. These data suggest an inverse correlation of THBS1 and latent TGF-?1 expression levels possibly involving miRNAs.
Project description:Development of precision therapeutics is of immense interest, particularly as applied to the treatment of cancer. By analyzing the preferred cellular RNA targets of small molecules, we discovered that 5"-azido neomycin B binds the Drosha processing site in the microRNA (miR)-525 precursor. MiR-525 confers invasive properties to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Although HCC is one of the most common cancers, treatment options are limited, making the disease often fatal. Herein, we find that addition of 5"-azido neomycin B and its FDA-approved precursor, neomycin B, to an HCC cell line selectively inhibits production of the mature miRNA, boosts a downstream protein, and inhibits invasion. Interestingly, neomycin B is a second-line agent for hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and bacterial infections due to cirrhosis. Our results provocatively suggest that neomycin B, or second-generation derivatives, may be dual functioning molecules to treat both HE and HCC. Collectively, these studies show that rational design approaches can be tailored to disease-associated RNAs to afford potential lead therapeutics.
Project description:Minimally-invasive tools to assess tumour presence and burden may improve clinical management. FDG-PET (metabolic) imaging is the current gold standard for interim response assessment in patients with classical Hodgkin Lymphoma (cHL), but this technique cannot be repeated frequently. Here we show that microRNAs (miRNA) associated with tumour-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the circulation of cHL patients may improve response assessment. Small RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR reveal that the relative abundance of cHL-expressed miRNAs, miR-127-3p, miR-155-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-24-3p and let-7a-5p is up to hundred-fold increased in plasma EVs of cHL patients pre-treatment when compared to complete metabolic responders (CMR). Notably, in partial responders (PR) or treatment-refractory cases (<i>n </i>= 10) the EV-miRNA levels remain elevated. In comparison, tumour specific copy number variations (CNV) were detected in cell-free DNA of 8 out of 10 newly diagnosed cHL patients but not in patients with PR. Combining EV-miR-127-3p and/or EV-let-7a-5p levels, with serum TARC (a validated protein cHL biomarker), increases the accuracy for predicting PET-status (<i>n </i>= 129) to an area under the curve of 0.93 (CI: 0.87-0.99), 93.5% sensitivity, 83.8/85.0% specificity and a negative predictive value of 96%. Thus the level of tumour-associated miRNAs in plasma EVs is predictive of metabolic tumour activity in cHL patients. Our findings suggest that plasma EV-miRNA are useful for detection of small residual lesions and may be applied as serial response prediction tool.
Project description:Bone marrow microenvironment in MM contains a unique miR signature, which is partially present and detectable in the peripheral blood. A subset of miRs (let-7i, miR-106b, miR-15a, and miR16) shows aberrant expression in the precursor lesion of MGUS, while aberrant expression of other miRs (let-7a, miR-15a/b, miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-21, miR-223, and miR-361) is associated with cell proliferation and disease progression. miRNA profiling was performed using Agilent miRNA array platforms with RNAs isolated from the bone marrow supernatant of multiple myeloma.
Project description:The serum or plasma microRNA (miRNA) molecules have been suggested as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, in various pathological conditions. However, these molecules are also found in different serum fractions, such as exosomes and Argonaute (Ago) protein complexes. Ago1 is the predominant Ago protein expressed in heart tissue. The objective of the study was to examine the hypothesis that Ago1-associated miRNAs may be more relevant to cardiac disease and heart failure compared with the serum. In total, 84 miRNA molecules were screened for their expression in the whole serum, exosomes and Ago1, and Ago2 complexes. Ago1-bound miR-222-3p, miR-497-5p and miR-21-5p were significantly higher, and let-7a-5p was significantly lower in HF patients compared with healthy controls, whereas no such difference was observed for those markers in the serum samples among the groups. A combination of these 4 miRNAs into an Ago1-HF score provided a ROC curve with an AUC of 1, demonstrating clear discrimination between heart failure patients and healthy individuals. Ago1 fraction might be a better and more specific platform for identifying HF-related miRNAs compared with the whole serum.
Project description:Non-infectious inflammatory (NII) central nervous system (CNS) conditions are primarily diagnosed by the demonstration of inflammatory changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, less-invasive methods and peripheral biomarkers are desired. Changes in circulating microRNA (miRNA), which are short non-coding regulatory RNAs, may serve as biomarkers of disease. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate selected miRNAs in serum and CSF, hypothesizing that the levels of specific miRNAs in serum correlate with their presence in CSF, and that changes in serum miRNAs levels may reflect CNS disease. We profiled serum and CSF samples using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) searching for selected and previously profiled miRNAs in serum (let-7a, let-7c, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-21, miR-23a, miR-24, miR-26a, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-181c and miR-221-3p) and in CSF (let-7c, miR-16, miR-21, miR-24, miR-146a, miR-155, miR-181c and miR-221-3p) from 13 dogs with NII CNS disease and six control dogs. We demonstrated the presence of several miRNAs in CSF (let-7c and miR-21 dominating) and serum (miR-23a and miR-21 dominating). However, we generally failed to reproduce consistent results in CSF samples due to several reasons: unacceptable PCR efficiency, a wide variation between cDNA replicates and/or no-amplification in qPCR suggesting very low levels of the investigated miRNAs in canine CSF. Serum samples performed better, and 10 miRNAs qPCR assays were qualified for analysis. We were nevertheless unable to detect a difference in the expression of miRNA levels between cases and controls. Moreover, we could not confirm the results of recent miRNA investigations of canine CNS diseases. We believe that these disagreements highlight the significant effect of methodological/analytical variation, rather than the incapacity of circulating miRNAs as biomarkers of CNS disease. A secondary aim was therefore to communicate methodological challenges in our study and to suggest recommendations for circulating miRNA profiling, including pre-, post- and analytical methods based on our experience, in order to reach reproducible and comparable results in veterinary miRNA research.