Enantioselective catalytic ?-amination through proton-coupled electron transfer followed by stereocontrolled radical-radical coupling.
ABSTRACT: A new mechanistic approach for the catalytic, enantioselective conjugate addition of nitrogen-based nucleophiles to acceptor-substituted alkenes is reported, which is based on a visible light induced and phosphate base promoted transfer of a single electron from a nitrogen nucleophile to a catalyst-bound acceptor-substituted alkene, followed by a stereocontrolled C-N bond formation through stereocontrolled radical-radical coupling. Specifically, N-aryl carbamates are added to the ?-position of ?,?-unsaturated 2-acyl imidazoles using a visible light activated photoredox mediator in combination with a chiral-at-rhodium Lewis acid catalyst and a weak phosphate base, affording new C-N bonds in a highly enantioselective fashion with enantioselectivities reaching up to 99% ee and >99?:?1 dr for a menthol-derived carbamate. As an application, the straightforward synthesis of a chiral ?-amino acid ester derivative is demonstrated.
Project description:The photochemical activity of electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes provides a way to generate radicals under mild conditions. This strategy has found application in chemical synthesis and recently in enantioselective catalysis. Reported methods classically relied on the formation of intermolecular EDA complexes, generated upon aggregation of two suitable reagents. Herein, we further expand the synthetic utility of this strategy demonstrating that an intramolecular EDA complex can trigger a photochemical catalytic enantioselective radical process. This approach enables radical conjugate additions to ?-substituted cyclic enones to form quaternary carbon stereocenters with high stereocontrol using visible light irradiation. Crucial for success is the use of an amine catalyst, adorned with a carbazole moiety, which generates, upon condensation with enones, chiral iminium ions that show a broad absorption band in the visible region. This optical property originates from an intramolecular charge transfer ?-? interaction between the electron-rich carbazole nucleus and the electron-deficient iminium double bond.
Project description:We report a visible-light-mediated organocatalytic strategy for the enantioselective acyl radical conjugate addition to enals, leading to valuable 1,4-dicarbonyl compounds. The process capitalizes upon the excited-state reactivity of 4-acyl-1,4-dihydropyridines that, upon visible-light absorption, can trigger the generation of acyl radicals. By means of a chiral amine catalyst, iminium ion activation of enals ensures a stereoselective radical trap. We also demonstrate how the combination of this acylation process with a second catalyst-controlled bond-forming event allows to selectively access the full matrix of all possible stereoisomers of the resulting 2,3-substituted 1,4-dicarbonyl products.
Project description:A new class of bis-cyclometalated rhodium(III) catalysts containing two inert cyclometalated 6-tert-butyl-2-phenyl-2H-indazole ligands and two labile acetonitriles is introduced. Single enantiomers (>99?%?ee) were obtained through a chiral-auxiliary-mediated approach using a monofluorinated salicyloxazoline. The new chiral-at-metal complex is capable of catalyzing the visible-light-induced enantioselective ?-cyanoalkylation of 2-acyl imidazoles in which it serves a dual function as the chiral Lewis acid catalyst for the asymmetric radical chemistry and at the same time as the photoredox catalyst for the visible-light-induced redox chemistry (up to 80?% yield, 4:1?d.r., and 95?%?ee, 12?examples).
Project description:The enantioselective photoredox reaction of ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and tertiary/secondary ?-silylamines was enabled by a readily available single NiII-DBFOX catalyst (DBFOX = 4,6-bis((R)-4-phenyl-4,5-dihydrooxazol-2-yl)dibenzo[b,d]furan) under visible light conditions. The non-precious chiral catalyst is involved in the photochemical process to initiate single electron transfer and at the same time provides a well-organized chiral environment for the subsequent radical transformations. Good to excellent enantioselectivities (80-99% ee) were obtained for the formation of chiral ?-amino carboxylic acid derivatives and ?-lactams.
Project description:Asymmetric H-bonding catalysis as a viable strategy for enantioselective radical coupling of ketones is demonstrated. With a visible-light-mediated dual catalytic system involving a dicyanopyrazine-derived chromophore (DPZ) photosensitizer and a chiral phosphoric acid (CPA), N-aryl glycines with a variety of 1,2-diketones and isatins underwent a redox-neutral radical coupling process and furnished two series of valuable chiral 1,2-amino tertiary alcohols in high yields with good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee). In this catalysis platform, the formation of neutral radical intermediates between ketyl and H-bonding catalyst CPA is responsible for presenting stereocontrolling factors. Its success in this work should provide inspiration for expansion to other readily accessible ketones to react with various radical species, thus leading to a productive approach to access chiral tertiary alcohol derivatives.
Project description:We report an unusual reaction design in which a chiral bis-cyclometalated rhodium(iii) complex enables the stereocontrolled chemistry of photo-generated carbon-centered radicals and at the same time catalyzes an enantioselective sulfonyl radical addition to an alkene. Specifically, employing inexpensive and readily available Hantzsch esters as the photoredox mediator, Rh-coordinated prochiral radicals generated by a selective photoinduced single electron reduction are trapped by allyl sulfones in a highly stereocontrolled fashion, providing radical allylation products with up to 97% ee. The hereby formed fragmented sulfonyl radicals are utilized <i>via</i> an enantioselective radical addition to form chiral sulfones, which minimizes waste generation.
Project description:Direct methods for stereoselective functionalization of sp3-hybridized carbon-hydrogen [C(sp3)-H] bonds in complex organic molecules could facilitate much more efficient preparation of therapeutics and agrochemicals. Here, we report a copper-catalyzed radical relay pathway for enantioselective conversion of benzylic C-H bonds into benzylic nitriles. Hydrogen-atom abstraction affords an achiral benzylic radical that undergoes asymmetric C(sp3)-CN bond formation upon reaction with a chiral copper catalyst. The reactions proceed efficiently at room temperature with the benzylic substrate as limiting reagent, exhibit broad substrate scope with high enantioselectivity (typically 90 to 99% enantiomeric excess), and afford products that are key precursors to important bioactive molecules. Mechanistic studies provide evidence for diffusible organic radicals and highlight the difference between these reactions and C-H oxidations mediated by enzymes and other catalysts that operate via radical rebound pathways.
Project description:A new C-C bond formation strategy based on enantioselective radical alkylation of C(sp3)-H bonds via Co(ii)-based metalloradical catalysis has been demonstrated for stereoselective synthesis of chiral indolines. The Co(ii)-based system enables activation of aryldiazomethanes as radical precursors at room temperature for enantioselective intramolecular radical alkylation of broad types of C-H bonds, constructing 2-substituted indolines in high yields with excellent enantioselectivities. In addition to chemoselectivity and regioselectivity, this Co(ii)-catalyzed alkylation features tolerance to functional groups and compatibility with heteroaryl substrates. Detailed mechanistic studies provide insight into the underlying stepwise radical pathway.
Project description:Ring-opening reaction via selective cleavage of C-C bond is known as a powerful strategy for construction of complex molecules. Complementary to the ionic process focusing on mostly small ring systems, radical-mediated C-C bond cleavage offers a solution for further diverse enantioselective functionalization benefited from its mild conditions, whereas such asymmetric transformations are still limited to three-membered rings so far. Herein, we describe radical-mediated ring-opening and enantioselective cyanation of four- and five-membered cycloketone oxime esters to access chiral 1,5- and 1,6-dinitriles. Employment of dual photoredox/copper catalysis is essential for the asymmetric ring-opening cyanation of cyclopentanone oxime esters. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions giving chiral dinitriles in high yields and enantioselectivity with low catalyst loading and broad substrate scope. The products dinitriles can be converted to valuable optically active diamides and diamines. Mechanistic studies indicate that the benzylic radical generated via C-C single bond cleavage is involved in the catalytic cycle.
Project description:Chiral cation-radical salts hold significant promise as charge-transfer materials, chiroptical switches, and electron-transfer catalysts for enantioselective synthesis. Herein we demonstrate that the readily-available chiral 9,10-diphenyleanthracene derivative (i.e.SANT) forms a robust cation radical, whose structure was elucidated by X-ray crystallography and DFT calculations. While SANT was observed to racemize on a timescale (t1/2) of 1.1 hours, a computational conformational search and kinetic analysis of the racemization pathway led us to identify a simple methyl substituted SANT derivative, which does not racemize (racemization t1/2 1013-1017 years).