Autogenous Hamstring-Bone Graft Preparation for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.
ABSTRACT: Despite the popularity of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction procedures, the ideal graft for reconstruction remains a matter of controversy. The ideal graft for ACL reconstruction should have histologic and biomechanical characteristics similar to those of the native ACL; should be quickly and fully incorporated within the bony tunnels; should maintain its viscoelastic properties for a long time; should have minimal donor-site morbidity; should be of sufficient length and diameter; should have minimal adverse effects on the extensor mechanism; should have no risk of rejection or disease transmission; and should be cost-effective and readily available. Synthetic grafts are not widely accepted because of their dangerous complications. The main sources of grafts for ACL reconstruction are allografts and autografts. Each type of graft has its own relative advantages and disadvantages. Allografts are not available in every country, besides being expensive, and there are many concerns regarding disease transmission. Autografts, particularly bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB), and hamstring tendon grafts have been the standard for ACL reconstruction. The main advantage of autogenous BPTB grafts is the direct bone-to-bone healing in the tunnel, whereas the main disadvantages of such grafts are related to donor-site morbidity, anterior knee pain, and extensor mechanism dysfunction. The popularity of autogenous hamstring tendon grafts for ACL reconstruction is increasing, but there are still concerns regarding the slow soft tissue-to-bone healing, with delayed healing and incorporation of the graft. We describe a technique for ACL reconstruction with autogenous hamstring-bone graft, aiming to produce a type of graft that combines the main advantages of BPTB and hamstring grafts, with avoidance of the main disadvantages of these 2 most commonly used graft types in ACL reconstruction.
Project description:Hamstring autograft is one of the most used grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, although there are several graft preparation techniques. It is extremely difficult to mimic the biomechanical properties of the native ACL; thus, it is important to achieve a proper graft configuration, diameter, and length. To avoid reruptures, an optimal and reproducible hamstring autograft is desired. Hamstring autograft has been traditionally devalued when compared with other options such as bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe in detail a hamstring braid graft configuration that could potentially overcome the past disadvantages of ACL reconstruction.
Project description:Growing participation in youth athletics has resulted in increased numbers of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in skeletally immature patients. Use of autogenous graft material has been associated with improved graft survival. However, pediatric patients sometimes possess hamstring tendons that produce smaller-diameter grafts than those prepared with adult autogenous materials. Smaller-diameter grafts may predispose younger patients to graft failure. We describe a technique that increases the diameter of the ACL construct through the use of an 8-strand autologous hamstring tendon graft. The 8-strand ACL autograft is commonly used in all-inside ACL reconstruction surgery.
Project description:Although anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) autograft has many advantages (e.g., high strength and solid fixation), there are also several complications (e.g., anterior knee pain or kneeling pain) due to harvest-site morbidity associated with the use of this graft type compared with the use of hamstring tendon. Therefore the ultimate goal of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a BPTB graft is to minimize harvest-site morbidity. We have used a technique for harvesting central-third BPTB grafts that involves only a 3-cm-long, longitudinal, curved incision in the medial tibial tuberosity for both graft harvesting and fixation. The purpose of this report is to describe the technique, which can avoid the harvest-site morbidities associated with BPTB autografts during knee arthroscopy. We believe that this less invasive reconstruction may reduce the harvest-site morbidities associated with BPTB grafts because it allows for BPTB graft harvesting without incising the synovial bursa or paratenon and mitigates scarring and adhesion formation.
Project description:Hamstring tendon autograft remains a popular graft choice for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although there are a variety of autograft and allograft options available for ACL reconstruction, advantages of hamstring tendon autografts include decreased postoperative knee pain and an overall easier surgical recovery compared with bone patellar tendon bone autograft. In addition, 4-stranded (quadruple) hamstring grafts are among the strongest grafts biomechanically (at time equals zero). Although the technique of hamstring autograft harvest is relatively straightforward, it is critical to pay attention to several technical steps to avoid iatrogenic neurovascular damage as well as to avoid premature amputation of the graft while using a tendon stripper. In this Technical Note, we describe a technique of hamstring autograft harvest for ACL reconstruction for a quadruple (4-strand) hamstring graft using the gracilis and semitendinosus tendons.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bone-patellar tendon-bone (bone-tendon-bone) and four-strand hamstring tendon grafts (hamstring) are the most commonly utilized autografts for primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Existing clinical trials, registry studies, and meta-analyses offer conflicting opinions regarding the most favorable graft choice.<h4>Questions/purposes</h4>Which graft type for ACL reconstruction (bone-tendon-bone or hamstring) has a higher risk of (1) graft rupture and/or (2) graft laxity?<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective cohort studies, and high-quality national registry studies to compare the outcomes of primary ACL reconstruction with bone-tendon-bone autograft or hamstring autograft. Studies that compared these graft types were identified through a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library). Two independent reviewers utilized the Jadad scale for RCT study quality and the Modified Coleman Methodology Score for prospective comparative and registry study quality. The included studies were analyzed for the primary outcome measure of graft rupture with or without revision ACL surgery. In surviving grafts, secondary outcomes of graft laxity were quantified by KT1000/2000™ testing, a positive pivot shift test, and a positive Lachman test. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager. A total of 47,613 ACL reconstructions (39,768 bone-tendon-bone and 7845 hamstring) from 14 RCTs, 10 prospective comparative studies, and one high-quality national registry study were included in this meta-analysis. Mean age was 28 years in both groups. Sixty-three percent of patients in the bone-tendon-bone cohort were men versus 57% of patients in the hamstring cohort. Mean followup was 68 ± 55 months.<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred twelve of 7560 (2.80%) bone-tendon-bone grafts ruptured compared with 1123 of 39,510 (2.84%) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.83, 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.96; p = 0.01). The number needed to treat analysis found that 235 patients would need to be treated with a bone-tendon-bone graft over a hamstring tendon graft to prevent one graft rupture. Instrumented laxity analysis showed that 22% (318 of 1433) of patients in the bone-tendon-bone group had laxity compared with 18% (869 of 4783) in the hamstring tendon group (odds ratio = 0.86; p = 0.16). Pivot shift analysis showed a positive pivot shift in 19% (291 of 1508) of the bone-tendon-bone group compared with 17% (844 of 5062) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.89; p = 0.51). Lachman testing showed a positive Lachman in 25% (71 of 280) of patients receiving bone-tendon-bone grafts compared with 25% (73 of 288) in the hamstring group (odds ratio = 0.96; p = 0.84).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this meta-analysis of short- to mid-term followup after primary ACL reconstruction, hamstring autografts failed at a higher rate than bone-tendon-bone autografts. However, failure rates were low in each group, the difference observed was small, and we observed few differences between graft types in terms of laxity. Both graft types remain viable options for primary ACL reconstruction, and the difference in failure rate should be one part of a larger conversation with each individual patient about graft selection that should also include potential differences in donor site morbidity, complication rates, and patient-reported outcome measures. Continued prospective collection of patient data will be important going forward as we attempt to further characterize the potential differences in outcomes attributable to graft selection.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>Level III, therapeutic study.
Project description:The exclusive autograft choice for medial collateral ligament (MCL) reconstruction that has been described until today is the semitendinosus tendon. However, this has some potential disadvantages in a knee with combined MCL-anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, including weakening of the hamstring's anterior restraining action in an already ACL-injured knee and nonanatomic distal MCL graft insertion when leaving the semitendinosus insertion intact at the pes anserinus during reconstruction. Moreover, because some surgeons prefer to use the hamstring for autologous ACL reconstruction, the contralateral uninjured knee hamstring needs to be harvested as a graft source for the MCL reconstruction if autografts and not allografts are the surgeons' preference. We describe a technique for performing combined reconstruction of the MCL and ACL using ipsilateral quadriceps tendon-bone and bone-patellar tendon-bone autografts. This technique of MCL reconstruction spares the hamstring tendons and benefits from the advantage provided by bone-to-bone healing on the femur with distal and proximal MCL tibial fixation that closely reproduces the native MCL tibia insertion.
Project description:Conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction cannot improve the rotational stability of the knee. Traditional double-bundle ACL reconstruction requires is demanding, complex, time- and implant consuming, and associated with a high incidence of complications. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps tendon autograft through 3 independent tunnels provides some advantage, but the antegrade graft passage, tibial tunnel confluence, and graft site morbidity represent disadvantages. This Technical Note describes a modification of double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the hamstring tendon autograft through a single branched tibial tunnel and a single femoral tunnel using 2 interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The gracilis tendon autograft is passed through tibial tunnel stem to the posterolateral tibial tunnel branch to the posterolateral position in the femoral tunnel. The semitendinosus tendon autograft is passed through the tibial tunnel stem to the anteromedial tibial tunnel branch to the anteromedial position in the femoral tunnel. Both grafts are fixed by 2 interference screws: 1 at the femoral tunnel and 1 at the tibial tunnel stem with the knee at 20° flexion.
Project description:The hamstring autograft is one of the most popular grafts for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Although many techniques for arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using hamstring autografts have been invented, hamstring harvest techniques have not been focused. Hamstrings are harvested using an open technique that requires a 2- to 5-cm skin incision. In this Technical Note, we describe an endoscopic harvest technique of autogenous gracilis and semitendinosus tendon. This technique needs only a 1- to 1.5-cm skin incision and provides surgeons a sufficient view to safely harvest the hamstrings.
Project description:An untreated posterolateral corner (PLC) injury in patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be a leading cause of ACL reconstruction failure. Combined ACL and PLC reconstruction is discussed in few studies in the literature. Femoral tunnel intersection in combined reconstruction has been reported to be high. Short grafts may render combined reconstruction undoable. This Technical Note describes a technique that allows a combined ACL and PLC reconstruction. The ACL graft is a 4-stranded hamstring tendon graft from 1 limb. The PLC graft is a doubled semitendinosus tendon graft from the contralateral side. One femoral tunnel is used connecting the femoral attachment of the PLC on the lateral wall of the lateral femoral condyle to the anatomic femoral ACL footprint on the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The PLC graft is suspended on the ACL graft to be anchored on the cortex of the lateral femoral condyle with added fixation by an interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The PLC graft limbs are used for open reconstruction of the fibular collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament. This Technical Note describes a technique of combined ACL and PLC reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts through a single femoral tunnel using graft-to-graft suspension and fixation.
Project description:Many surgeons use quadriceps tendon (QT) graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) revision surgery; however, despite excellent clinical results, the QT has not achieved universal acceptance for primary ACL reconstruction. One of the reasons for this may be that the QT is technically demanding to harvest and the scar from open harvesting techniques is less cosmetically favorable than that from hamstring tendon techniques. Recent evidence has suggested that broad flat QT grafts may more closely mimic native ACL "ribbon-like" morphology than hamstring tendon grafts. Furthermore, rectangular bone tunnels may more accurately re-create native ACL attachments, allowing grafts to simulate native ACL rotation during knee flexion and potentially improving biomechanics. Rectangular tunnels have further advantages in revision cases, in which-in comparison with round tunnels-they have reduced overlap with pre-existing transtibial tunnels, increasing the chance of bypassing primary tunnels during revision surgery. Finally, instrumentation for minimally invasive QT harvesting has reduced technical difficulty and improved cosmetic results. Hence, technical and cosmetic concerns are no longer barriers to QT use. These anatomic and biomechanical advantages and technical developments make the QT an increasingly attractive option for both primary and revision ACL reconstruction.