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Association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and false positives in fetal heart rate monitoring.
ABSTRACT: Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is essential for fetal management during pregnancy and delivery but results in many false-positive diagnoses. Air pollution affects the uterine environment; thus, air pollution may change FHR reactivity. This study assessed the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and FHR monitoring abnormalities using 2005-2010 data from the Japan Perinatal Registry Network database. Participants were 23,782 singleton pregnant women with FHR monitoring, without acidemia or fetal asphyxia. We assessed exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In a multi-trimester model, first-trimester PM exposure was associated with false positives in FHR monitoring (odds ratio [OR] per interquartile range (10.7 ?g/m3) increase?=?1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.37), but not second-trimester exposure (OR?=?1.05; 95% CI: 0.91-1.21) and third-trimester exposure (OR?=?1.06; 95% CI: 0.96-1.17). The association with first-trimester PM exposure persisted after adjustment for exposure to ozone, NO2, and SO2; however, ozone, NO2, and SO2 exposure was not associated with false positives in FHR monitoring. First-trimester PM exposure may alter fetal cardiac response and lead to false positives in FHR monitoring.
Project description:Growing evidences have shown that particulate matter (PM) exposures during pregnancy are associated with impaired fetal development and adverse birth outcomes, possibly as a result of an exaggerated systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Telomere length (TL) is strongly linked to biological age and is impacted by oxidative stress. We hypothesized that PM exposure during different time windows in the first trimester of pregnancy influences both mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn), an established biomarker for oxidative stress, and TL. Maternal blood TL and mtDNAcn were analysed in 199 healthy pregnant women recruited at the 11th week of pregnancy by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We also examined whether maternal mtDNAcn and TL were associated with fetal growth outcomes measured at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy (fetal heart rate, FHR; crown-rump length, CRL; and nuchal translucency, NT) and at delivery (birth weight, length, head circumference). The possible modifying effect of prepregnancy maternal body mass index was evaluated. PM10 exposure during the first pregnancy trimester was associated with an increased maternal mtDNAcn and a reduced TL. As regards ultrasound fetal outcomes, both FHR and CRL were positively associated with PM2.5, whereas the association with FHR was confirmed only when examining PM10 exposure. PM10 was also associated with a reduced birth weight. While no association was found between mtDNAcn and CRL, we found a negative relationship between mtDNAcn and fetal CRL only in overweight women, whereas normal-weight women exhibited a positive, albeit nonsignificant, association. As abnormalities of growth in utero have been associated with postnatal childhood and adulthood onset diseases and as PM is a widespread pollutant relevant to the large majority of the human population and obesity a rising risk factor, our results, if confirmed in a larger population, might represent an important contribution towards the development of more targeted public health strategies.
Project description:Ambient air pollution has been implicated in the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). However, evidence of the association between air pollution and HDP is still limited, and the effects of gaseous air pollutants on HDP and their time windows of exposure have not been well studied.We used the Florida birth registry data to investigate the associations between air pollutants (NO2, SO2, PM(2.5), O3 and CO) and the risks of HDP in 22,041 pregnant women in Jacksonville, Florida, USA from 2004 to 2005. Further, we examined whether air pollution exposure during different time windows defined by trimesters and the entire pregnancy had different effects on HDP.The single-pollutant logistic regression model showed that exposure to four pollutants during the full pregnancy period was significantly associated with prevalence of HDP after adjusting for covariates: NO2 (OR=1.21, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35), PM2.5 (OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.43), SO2 (OR=1.13, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.25) and CO (OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22) per IQR increase. Similar effects were observed when first trimester exposure to NO2, SO2 and CO, and second trimester exposures to PM2.5 were examined. Consistent results were confirmed in multiple-pollutant models.This study suggests that exposure to high levels of air pollution during early pregnancy and the full gestational period was associated with increased prevalence of HDP in Florida, USA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies of effects of air pollution on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have not been consistent, and there has been little investigation of effects of exposure preceding pregnancy. In previous studies, the temporal relationship between exposure and GDM onset has been difficult to establish. METHODS:Data were obtained for 239,574 pregnancies between 1999 and 2009 in a population-based health care system with comprehensive electronic medical records. Concentrations of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) ?2.5??m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and ?10??m (PM10), and ozone (O3) during preconception and the first trimester of pregnancy at the residential birth address were estimated from regulatory air monitoring stations. Odds ratios (ORs) of GDM diagnosed in the second and third trimesters in association with pollutant exposure were estimated using generalized estimating equation models adjusted for birth year, medical center service areas, maternal age, race/ethnicity, education, census-tract household income, and parity. RESULTS:In single-pollutant models, preconception NO2 was associated with increased risk of GDM (OR?=?1.10 per 10.4?ppb, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07, 1.13). First trimester NO2 was weakly associated with GDM, and this was not statistically significant (OR?=?1.02 per 10.4?ppb, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.05). Preconception NO2 associations were robust in multi-pollutant models adjusted for first trimester NO2 with another co-pollutant from both exposure windows. In single-pollutant models, preconception PM2.5 and PM10 associations were associated with increased risk of GDM (OR?=?1.04 per 6.5??g/m3, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06; OR?=?1.03 per 16.1??g/m3, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.06, respectively), but these effect estimates were not robust to adjustment for other pollutants. In single-pollutant models, preconception and first trimester O3 were associated with reduced risk of GDM (OR?=?0.94 per 15.7?ppb, 95% CI: 0.92, 0.95; OR?=?0.95 per 15.7?ppb, 95% CI: 0.94, 0.97), associations that were robust to adjustment for co-pollutants. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal exposure to NO2 during the preconception trimester may increase risk of GDM.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. METHODS:Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ? 2.5?m (PM2.5) and PM2.5 constituents, PM ? 10?m (PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1-24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Preconception maternal exposure to NOX (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. CONCLUSION:Maternal exposures to NOx and SO2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation.
Project description:Maternal asthma and air pollutants have been independently associated with preeclampsia but rarely studied together. Our objective was to comprehensively evaluate preeclampsia risk based on the interaction of maternal asthma and air pollutants. Preeclampsia and asthma diagnoses, demographic and clinical data came from electronic medical records for 210,508 singleton deliveries. Modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models estimated preconception, first and second trimester and whole pregnancy exposure to: particulate matter (PM)<2.5 and <10µm, ozone, nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO); PM2.5 constituents; volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Asthma-pollutant interaction adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for preeclampsia were calculated by interquartile range for criteria pollutants and high exposure (?75th percentile) for PAHs and VOCs. Asthmatics had higher risk associated with first trimester NOx and SO2 and whole pregnancy elemental carbon (EC) exposure than non-asthmatics, but only EC significantly increased risk (RR=1.11, CI:1.03-1.21). Asthmatics also had a 10% increased risk associated with second trimester CO. Significant interactions were observed for nearly all VOCs and asthmatics had higher risk during all time windows for benzene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, o-xylene, p-xylene and toluene while most PAHs did not increase risk.
Project description:The outbreak of coronavirus named COVID-19, initially identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019, has spread rapidly at the global scale. Most countries have rapidly stopped almost all activities including industry, services and transportation of goods and people, thus decreasing air pollution in an unprecedented way, and providing a unique opportunity to study air pollutants. While satellite data have provided visual evidence for the global reduction in air pollution such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) worldwide, precise and quantitative information is missing at the local scale. Here we studied changes in particulate matter (PM2.5, PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), NO2, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) at 10 urban sites in Hangzhou, a city of 7.03 million inhabitants, and at 1 rural site, before city lockdown, January 1-23, during city lockdown, January 24-February 15, and during resumption, February 16-28, in 2020. Results show that city lockdown induced a sharp decrease in PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2 concentrations at both urban and rural sites. The NO2 decrease is explained by reduction in traffic emissions in the urban areas, and by lower regional transport in rural areas during lockdown, as expected. SO2 concentrations decreased from 6.3 to 5.3 ?g m-3 in the city, but increased surprisingly from 4.7 to 5.8 ?g m-3 at the rural site: this increase is attributed both to higher coal consumption for heating and emissions from traditional fireworks of the Spring Eve and Lantern Festivals during lockdown. Unexpectedly, O3 concentrations increased by 145% from 24.6 to 60.6 ?g m-3 in the urban area, and from 42.0 to 62.9 ?g m-3 in the rural area during the lockdown. This finding is explained by the weakening of chemical titration of O3 by NO due to reductions of NOx fresh emissions during the non-photochemical reaction period from 20:00 PM to 9:00 AM (local time). During the lockdown, compared to the same period in 2019, the daily average concentrations in the city decreased by 42.7% for PM2.5, 47.9% for PM10, 28.6% for SO2, 22.3% for CO and 58.4% for NO2, which is obviously explained by the absence of city activities. Overall, we observed not only the expected reduction in some atmospheric pollutants (PM, SO2, CO, NO2), but also unexpected increases in SO2 in the rural areas and of ozone (O3) in both urban and rural areas, the latter being paradoxically due to the reduction in nitrogen oxide levels. In other words, the city lockdown has improved air quality by reducing PM2.5, PM10, CO, and NO2, but has also decreased air quality by augmenting O3 and SO2.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Relatively few studies have been conducted of the association between air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits, and most of these have been based on a small number of visits, for a limited number of health conditions and pollutants, and only daily measures of exposure and response. METHODS: A time-series analysis was conducted on nearly 400,000 ED visits to 14 hospitals in seven Canadian cities during the 1990 s and early 2000s. Associations were examined between carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM 10 and PM2.5), and visits for angina/myocardial infarction, heart failure, dysrhythmia/conduction disturbance, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and respiratory infections. Daily and 3-hourly visit counts were modeled as quasi-Poisson and analyses controlled for effects of temporal cycles, weather, day of week and holidays. RESULTS: 24-hour average concentrations of CO and NO2 lag 0 days exhibited the most consistent associations with cardiac conditions (2.1% (95% CI, 0.0-4.2%) and 2.6% (95% CI, 0.2-5.0%) increase in visits for myocardial infarction/angina per 0.7 ppm CO and 18.4 ppb NO2 respectively; 3.8% (95% CI, 0.7-6.9%) and 4.7% (95% CI, 1.2-8.4%) increase in visits for heart failure). Ozone (lag 2 days) was most consistently associated with respiratory visits (3.2% (95% CI, 0.3-6.2%), and 3.7% (95% CI, -0.5-7.9%) increases in asthma and COPD visits respectively per 18.4 ppb). Associations tended to be of greater magnitude during the warm season (April - September). In particular, the associations of PM 10 and PM2.5 with asthma visits were respectively nearly three- and over fourfold larger vs. all year analyses (14.4% increase in visits, 95% CI, 0.2-30.7, per 20.6 microg/m3 PM 10 and 7.6% increase in visits, 95% CI, 5.1-10.1, per 8.2 microg/m3 PM2.5). No consistent associations were observed between three hour average pollutant concentrations and same-day three hour averages of ED visits. CONCLUSION: In this large multicenter analysis, daily average concentrations of CO and NO2 exhibited the most consistent associations with ED visits for cardiac conditions, while ozone exhibited the most consistent associations with visits for respiratory conditions. PM 10 and PM2.5 were strongly associated with asthma visits during the warm season.
Project description:Previous studies have explored the association between air pollution levels and adverse birth outcomes such as lower birth weight. Existing literature suggests an association, although results across studies are not consistent. Additional research is needed to confirm the effect, investigate the exposure window of importance, and distinguish which pollutants cause harm. We assessed the association between ambient pollutant concentrations and term birth weight for 1,548,904 births in TX from 1998 to 2004. Assignment of prenatal exposure to air pollutants was based on maternal county of residence at the time of delivery. Pollutants examined included particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3). We applied a linear model with birth weight as a continuous variable. The model was adjusted for known risk factors and region. We assessed pollutant effects by trimester to identify biological exposure window of concern, and explored interaction due to race/ethnicity. An interquartile increase in ambient pollutant concentrations of SO2 and O3 was associated with a 4.99-g (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87-8.11) and 2. 72-g (95% CI, 1.11-4.33) decrease in birth weight, respectively. Lower birth weight was associated with exposure to O3 in the first and second trimester; whereas results were not significant for other pollutants by trimester A positive association was exhibited for PM2.5 in the first trimester. Effects estimates for PM10 and PM2.5 were inconsistent across race/ethnic groups. Current ambient air pollution levels may be increasing the risk of lower birth weight for some pollutants. These risks may be increased for certain racial/ethnic groups. Additional research including consideration of improved methodology is needed to investigate these findings. Future studies should examine the influence of residual confounding.
Project description:Global multiconstituent concentration and emission fields obtained from the assimilation of the satellite retrievals of ozone, CO, NO2, HNO3, and SO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2, Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere, Microwave Limb Sounder, and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)/OMI are used to understand the processes controlling air pollution during the Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign. Estimated emissions in South Korea were 0.42 Tg N for NO x and 1.1 Tg CO for CO, which were 40% and 83% higher, respectively, than the a priori bottom-up inventories, and increased mean ozone concentration by up to 7.5 ± 1.6 ppbv. The observed boundary layer ozone exceeded 90 ppbv over Seoul under stagnant phases, whereas it was approximately 60 ppbv during dynamical conditions given equivalent emissions. Chemical reanalysis showed that mean ozone concentration was persistently higher over Seoul (75.10 ± 7.6 ppbv) than the broader KORUS-AQ domain (70.5 ± 9.2 ppbv) at 700 hPa. Large bias reductions (>75%) in the free tropospheric OH show that multiple-species assimilation is critical for balanced tropospheric chemistry analysis and emissions. The assimilation performance was dependent on the particular phase. While the evaluation of data assimilation fields shows an improved agreement with aircraft measurements in ozone (to less than 5 ppbv biases), CO, NO2, SO2, PAN, and OH profiles, lower tropospheric ozone analysis error was largest at stagnant conditions, whereas the model errors were mostly removed by data assimilation under dynamic weather conditions. Assimilation of new AIRS/OMI ozone profiles allowed for additional error reductions, especially under dynamic weather conditions. Our results show the important balance of dynamics and emissions both on pollution and the chemical assimilation system performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Air pollution exposure during pregnancy might have trimester-specific effects on fetal growth. OBJECTIVE: We prospectively evaluated the associations of maternal air pollution exposure with fetal growth characteristics and adverse birth outcomes in 7,772 subjects in the Netherlands. METHODS: Particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 ?m (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels were estimated using dispersion modeling at the home address. Fetal head circumference, length, and weight were estimated in each trimester by ultrasound. Information on birth outcomes was obtained from medical records. RESULTS: In cross-sectional analyses, NO2 levels were inversely associated with fetal femur length in the second and third trimester, and PM10 and NO2 levels both were associated with smaller fetal head circumference in the third trimester [-0.18 mm, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.24, -0.12 mm; and -0.12 mm, 95% CI: -0.17, -0.06 mm per 1-?g/m3 increase in PM10 and NO2, respectively]. Average PM10 and NO2 levels during pregnancy were not associated with head circumference and length at birth or neonatally, but were inversely associated with birth weight (-3.6 g, 95% CI: -6.7, -0.4 g; and -3.4 g, 95% CI: -6.2, -0.6 g, respectively). Longitudinal analyses showed similar patterns for head circumference and weight, but no associations with length. The third and fourth quartiles of PM10 exposure were associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.89; and OR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.79, relative to the first quartile]. The third quartile of PM10 exposure, but not the fourth, was associated with small size for gestational age at birth (SGA) (OR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.90). No consistent associations were observed for NO2 levels and adverse birth outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that maternal air pollution exposure is inversely associated with fetal growth during the second and third trimester and with weight at birth. PM10 exposure was positively associated with preterm birth and SGA.