Effect of tobacco smoking on frontal cortical thickness development: A longitudinal study in a mixed cohort of ADHD-affected and -unaffected youth.
ABSTRACT: Smoking rates are particularly high during adolescence and young adulthood, when the brain is still undergoing significant developmental changes. Cross-sectional studies have revealed altered brain structure in smokers, such as thinner frontal cortical areas. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of becoming nicotine-dependent, and has also been associated with abnormalities in frontal gray matter structure. The present study examines the relationships between smoking, cortical thickness and ADHD symptoms in a longitudinal design that compares adolescent and young adult smokers (n=44; 35 ADHD-affected) and non-smokers (n=45; 32 ADHD-affected) on frontal cortical thickness. Average frontal cortical thickness was estimated through structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at two time points (mean ages 17.7 and 21.1 years), on average 3.4 years apart. Smokers had a 2.6% thinner frontal cortex than non-smokers and this difference was not explained by ADHD or other confounding factors. The rate of cortical thinning across the 3.4-year MRI measurement interval was similar in the total group of smokers compared to non-smokers. However, speeded thinning did occur in smokers who had started regular smoking more recently, in between the two measurements. These novel regular smokers did not differ significantly from the non-smokers at baseline. This suggests that the thinner frontal cortex was not a predisposing factor but rather a consequence of smoking. Although smokers had more ADHD symptoms overall, smoking did not influence the developmental course of ADHD symptoms.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have delayed cortical maturation, evidenced by regionally specific slower cortical thinning. However, the relationship between cortical maturation and attention capacities in typically developing children is unknown. This study examines cortical thickness correlates of inattention symptoms in a large sample of healthy children. METHOD:Data from 357 healthy subjects (6.0-18.4 years of age) were obtained from the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development. In cross-sectional analysis (first visit, n = 257), Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problems (AP) scores were linearly regressed against cortical thickness, controlling for age, gender, total brain volume, and site. For longitudinal data (up to three visits, n = 357/672 scans), similar analyses were performed using mixed-effects linear regressions. Interactions of AP with age and gender were tested. RESULTS:A cross-sectional "AP by age" interaction was found in bilateral orbito-frontal cortex, right inferior frontal cortex, bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and several additional attention network regions. The interaction was due to negative associations between AP and thickness in younger subjects (6-10 years of age) that gradually disappeared over time secondary to slower cortical thinning. Similar trends were present in longitudinal analyses. CONCLUSIONS:Higher AP scores were associated with thinner cortex at baseline and slower cortical thinning with aging in multiple areas involved in attention processes. Similar patterns have been identified in ADHD, suggesting a dimensional component to the link between attention and cortical maturation. The identified association between cortical maturation and attention in healthy development will help to inform studies of neuroimaging biomarkers of ADHD.
Project description:About 50% of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) patients suffer from comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD). Most previous studies on structural morphology did not differentiate between pure (ADHD-only) and comorbid ADHD (ADHD+ODD/CD). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the structural profile of ADHD-only versus ADHD+ODD/CD spanning the indices subcortical and cortical volume, cortical thickness, and surface area. We predicted a reduced total gray matter, striatal, and cerebellar volume in both patient groups and a reduced amygdalar and hippocampal volume for ADHD+ODD/CD. We also explored alterations in prefrontal volume, thickness, and surface area. We acquired structural images from an adolescent sample ranging from 11 to 17?years, matched with regard to age, pubertal status, and IQ-including 36 boys with ADHD-only, 26 boys with ADHD+ODD/CD, and 30 typically developing (TD) boys. We analyzed structural data with FreeSurfer. We found reductions in total gray matter and total surface area for both patient groups. Boys with ADHD+ODD/CD had a thicker cortex than the other groups in a right rostral middle frontal cluster, which was related to stronger ODD/CD symptoms, even when controlling for ADHD symptoms. No group differences in local cortical volume or surface area emerged. We demonstrate the necessity to carefully differentiate between ADHD and ADHD+ODD/CD. The increased rostral middle frontal thickness might hint at a delayed adolescent cortical thinning in ADHD+ODD/CD. Patients with the double burden ADHD and ODD or CD seem to be even more affected than patients with pure ADHD.
Project description:Studies of head size and brain volume in autism spectrum disorders have suggested that early cortical overgrowth may be followed by prematurely arrested growth. However, the few investigations quantifying cortical thickness have yielded inconsistent results, probably due to variable ages and/or small sample sizes. We assessed differences in cortical thickness between high-functioning adolescent and young adult males with autism spectrum disorders (n = 41) and matched typically developing males (n = 40). We hypothesized thinner cortex, particularly in frontal, parietal and temporal regions, for individuals with autism spectrum disorders in comparison with typically developing controls. Furthermore, we expected to find an age × diagnosis interaction: with increasing age, more pronounced cortical thinning would be observed in autism spectrum disorders than typically developing participants. T(1)-weighted magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from high-functioning males with autism spectrum disorders and from typically developing males matched group-wise on age (range 12-24 years), intelligence quotient (? 85) and handedness. Both gyral-level and vertex-based analyses revealed significantly thinner cortex in the autism spectrum disorders group that was located predominantly in left temporal and parietal regions (i.e. the superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal, postcentral/superior parietal and supramarginal gyri). These findings remained largely unchanged after controlling for intelligence quotient and after accounting for psychotropic medication usage and comorbid psychopathology. Furthermore, a significant age × diagnosis interaction was found in the left fusiform/inferior temporal cortex: participants with autism spectrum disorders had thinner cortex in this region with increasing age to a greater degree than did typically developing participants. Follow-up within group comparisons revealed significant age-related thinning in the autism spectrum disorders group but not in the typically developing group. Both thinner temporal and parietal cortices during adolescence and young adulthood and discrepantly accelerated age-related cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders suggest that a second period of abnormal cortical growth (i.e. greater thinning) may be characteristic of these disorders.
Project description:Irritability is an important dimension of psychopathology that spans multiple clinical diagnostic categories, yet its relationship to patterns of brain development remains sparsely explored. Here, we examined how transdiagnostic symptoms of irritability relate to the development of structural brain networks. All participants (n?=?137, 83 females) completed structural brain imaging with 3 Tesla MRI at two timepoints (mean age at follow-up: 21.1 years, mean inter-scan interval: 5.2 years). Irritability at follow-up was assessed using the Affective Reactivity Index, and cortical thickness was quantified using Advanced Normalization Tools software. Structural covariance networks were delineated using non-negative matrix factorization, a multivariate analysis technique. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with irritability at follow-up were evaluated using generalized additive models with penalized splines. The False Discovery Rate (q?<?0.05) was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Cross-sectional analysis of follow-up data revealed that 11 of the 24 covariance networks were associated with irritability, with higher levels of irritability being associated with thinner cortex. Longitudinal analyses further revealed that accelerated cortical thinning within nine networks was related to irritability at follow-up. Effects were particularly prominent in brain regions implicated in emotion regulation, including the orbitofrontal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal cortex. Collectively, these findings suggest that irritability is associated with widespread reductions in cortical thickness and accelerated cortical thinning, particularly within the frontal and temporal cortex. Aberrant structural maturation of regions important for emotional regulation may in part underlie symptoms of irritability.
Project description:Volumetric studies have reported relatively decreased cortical thickness and gray matter volumes in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) whose childhood status was retrospectively recalled. We present, to our knowledge, the first prospective study combining cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry in adults diagnosed as having ADHD in childhood.To test whether adults with combined-type childhood ADHD exhibit cortical thinning and decreased gray matter in regions hypothesized to be related to ADHD and to test whether anatomic differences are associated with a current ADHD diagnosis, including persistent vs remitting ADHD.Cross-sectional analysis embedded in a 33-year prospective follow-up at a mean age of 41.2 years.Research outpatient center.We recruited probands with ADHD from a cohort of 207 white boys aged 6 to 12 years. Male comparison participants (n = 178) were free of ADHD in childhood. We obtained magnetic resonance images in 59 probands and 80 comparison participants (28.5% and 44.9% of the original samples, respectively).Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry and vertexwise cortical thickness analyses.The cortex was significantly thinner in ADHD probands than in comparison participants in the dorsal attentional network and limbic areas (false discovery rate < 0.05, corrected). In addition, gray matter was significantly decreased in probands in the right caudate, right thalamus, and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres. Probands with persistent ADHD (n = 17) did not differ significantly from those with remitting ADHD (n = 26) (false discovery rate < 0.05). At uncorrected P < .05, individuals with remitting ADHD had thicker cortex relative to those with persistent ADHD in the medial occipital cortex, insula, parahippocampus, and prefrontal regions.Anatomic gray matter reductions are observable in adults with childhood ADHD, regardless of the current diagnosis. The most affected regions underpin top-down control of attention and regulation of emotion and motivation. Exploratory analyses suggest that diagnostic remission may result from compensatory maturation of prefrontal, cerebellar, and thalamic circuitry.
Project description:An overlap of clinical symptoms between major depressive disorder (MDD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggests that the two disorders exhibit similar brain mechanisms. However, few studies have directly compared the brain structures of the two disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the gray matter volume (GMV) and cortical thickness alterations between non-comorbid medication-naive MDD patients and SAD patients.High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired from 37 non-comorbid MDD patients, 24 non-comorbid SAD patients and 41 healthy controls (HCs). Voxel-based morphometry analysis of the GMV (corrected with a false discovery rate of p<0.001) and vertex-based analysis of cortical thickness (corrected with a clusterwise probability of p<0.001) were performed, and group differences were compared by ANOVA followed by post hoc tests.Relative to the HCs, both the MDD patients and SAD patients showed the following results: GMV reductions in the bilateral orbital frontal cortex (OFC), putamen, and thalamus; cortical thickening in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, posterior dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insular cortex, left temporal pole, and right superior parietal cortex; and cortical thinning in the left lateral OFC and bilateral rostral middle frontal cortex. In addition, MDD patients specifically showed a greater thickness in the left fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex and a thinner thickness in the bilateral lingual and left cuneus. SAD patients specifically showed a thinner cortical thickness in the right precentral cortex.Our results indicate that MDD and SAD share common patterns of gray matter abnormalities in the orbitofrontal-striatal-thalamic circuit, salience network and dorsal attention network. These consistent structural differences in the two patient groups may contribute to the broad spectrum of emotional, cognitive and behavioral disturbances observed in MDD patients and SAD patients. In addition, we found disorder-specific involvement of the visual processing regions in MDD and the precentral cortex in SAD. These findings provide new evidence regarding the shared and specific neuropathological mechanisms that underlie MDD and SAD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbidity of childhood epilepsy, but the neuroanatomical correlates of ADHD in epilepsy have yet to be comprehensively characterized.<h4>Methods</h4>Children with new and recent-onset epilepsy with (n?=?18) and without (n?=?36) ADHD, and healthy controls (n?=?46) underwent high resolution MRI. Measures of cortical morphology (thickness, area, volume, curvature) and subcortical and cerebellar volumes were compared between the groups using the program FreeSurfer 5.1.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to the control group, children with epilepsy and ADHD exhibited diffuse bilateral thinning in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes, with volume reductions in the brainstem and subcortical structures (bilateral caudate, left thalamus, right hippocampus). There were very few group differences across measures of cortical volume, area or curvature.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Children with epilepsy and comorbid ADHD exhibited a pattern of bilateral and widespread decreased cortical thickness as well as decreased volume of subcortical structures and brainstem. These anatomic abnormalities were evident early in the course of epilepsy suggesting the presence of antecedent neurodevelopmental changes, the course of which remains to be determined.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Neuroimaging studies show structural alterations of various brain regions in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although nonreplications are frequent. The authors sought to identify cortical characteristics related to ADHD using large-scale studies. METHODS:Cortical thickness and surface area (based on the Desikan-Killiany atlas) were compared between case subjects with ADHD (N=2,246) and control subjects (N=1,934) for children, adolescents, and adults separately in ENIGMA-ADHD, a consortium of 36 centers. To assess familial effects on cortical measures, case subjects, unaffected siblings, and control subjects in the NeuroIMAGE study (N=506) were compared. Associations of the attention scale from the Child Behavior Checklist with cortical measures were determined in a pediatric population sample (Generation-R, N=2,707). RESULTS:In the ENIGMA-ADHD sample, lower surface area values were found in children with ADHD, mainly in frontal, cingulate, and temporal regions; the largest significant effect was for total surface area (Cohen's d=-0.21). Fusiform gyrus and temporal pole cortical thickness was also lower in children with ADHD. Neither surface area nor thickness differences were found in the adolescent or adult groups. Familial effects were seen for surface area in several regions. In an overlapping set of regions, surface area, but not thickness, was associated with attention problems in the Generation-R sample. CONCLUSIONS:Subtle differences in cortical surface area are widespread in children but not adolescents and adults with ADHD, confirming involvement of the frontal cortex and highlighting regions deserving further attention. Notably, the alterations behave like endophenotypes in families and are linked to ADHD symptoms in the population, extending evidence that ADHD behaves as a continuous trait in the population. Future longitudinal studies should clarify individual lifespan trajectories that lead to nonsignificant findings in adolescent and adult groups despite the presence of an ADHD diagnosis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) is an uncommon neurodegenerative disorder primarily characterized by word-finding difficulties and sentence repetition impairment. Prominent cortical atrophy around left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is a classical imaging feature of LPA. This study investigated cortical thinning pattern in clinically diagnosed LPA patients using non-demented subjects as a control group. We also aimed to explore whether there was prominent thinning of other cortical area additional to the well-recognized left TPJ.<h4>Methods</h4>Thicknesses of all cortical regions were measured from brain magnetic resonance images using an automated command on Freesurfer software. Cortical thickness of the LPA and control groups were compared by two methods: 1) using a general linear model (GLM) in SPSS software; and 2) using a vertex-by-vertex GLM, performed with Freesurfer's QDEC interface.<h4>Results</h4>Besides the well-recognized left TPJ, cortical regions that were significantly thinner in the LPA group by both comparison methods included left caudal middle frontal gyrus (CMFG) (p?=?0.006 by SPSS, p?=?0.0003 by QDEC), left rostral middle frontal gyrus (p?=?0.001 by SPSS, p?=?0.0001 by QDEC), left parahippocampal gyrus (p?=?0.008 by SPSS, p?=?0.005 by QDEC) and right CMFG (p?=?0.005 by SPSS, p?=?0.0001 by QDEC).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results demonstrated that thinning of middle frontal gyri may be an additional feature in clinically diagnosed LPA patients. Involvement of left parahippocampal gyrus may reflect the underlying neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease in majority of the LPA patients.
Project description:Cortical dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) may be caused by disruption to ascending systems or by intrinsic cortical neuropathology. We introduce and conduct a joint analysis of metabolism and atrophy capable of identifying whether metabolic disruption occurs in mild PD without cortical atrophy, to determine the extent and spatial pattern of cortical involvement in mild PD. The design was observational, studying 23 cognitively normal participants with mild PD (mean Hoehn & Yahr stage 2) and 21 healthy controls. Cortical thickness (obtained from analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] with FreeSurfer) and cerebral perfusion measures (obtained from arterial spin labeling [ASL]) analyzed independently and then together in a joint multiple factorial analysis to identify spatial patterns of perfusion and cortical thickness. We identify a pattern of changes in perfusion and cortical thickness characterized by symmetric parietal cortical thinning and reduced precuneus perfusion, with relative preservation of thickness and perfusion in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), right prefrontal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. The expression of this pattern is correlated with motor system symptoms and speed of processing. A spatial pattern of joint parietal cortical thinning and disproportionate reduction in perfusion occurs in our nondemented PD sample. We found no PD-related components of reduced perfusion without cortical thinning. This suggests that PD affects the cortex itself, even when symptoms are relatively mild.