Global Transcriptome Profiling of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae under in planta Growth and in vitro Culture Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causative agent of bacterial blight, is a major threat to rice productivity. Here, we performed RNA-Seq based transcriptomic analysis of Xoo transcripts isolated under in planta growth (on both susceptible and resistant hosts) and in vitro culture conditions. Our in planta extraction method resulted in successful enrichment of Xoo cells and provided RNA samples of high quality. A total of 4,619 differentially expressed genes were identified between in planta and in vitro growth conditions. The majority of the differentially expressed genes identified under in planta growth conditions were related to the nutrient transport, protease activity, stress tolerance, and pathogenicity. Among them, over 1,300 differentially expressed genes were determined to be secretory, including 184 putative type III effectors that may be involved in Xoo pathogenicity. Expression pattern of some of these identified genes were further validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, these results provide a transcriptome overview of Xoo under in planta and in vitro growth conditions with a focus on its pathogenic processes, deepening our understanding of the behavior and pathogenicity of Xoo.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Bacterial leaf blight causes significant yield losses in rice crops throughout Asia and Africa. Although both the Asian and African strains of the pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), induce similar symptoms, they are nevertheless genetically different, with the African strains being more closely related to the Asian X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc). RESULTS: Changes in gene expression of the African Xoo strain MAI1 in the susceptible rice cultivar Nipponbare were profiled, using an SSH Xoo DNA microarray. Microarray hybridization was performed comparing bacteria recovered from plant tissues at 1, 3, and 6 days after inoculation (dai) with bacteria grown in vitro. A total of 710 bacterial genes were found to be differentially expressed, with 407 up-regulated and 303 down-regulated. Expression profiling indicated that less than 20% of the 710 bacterial transcripts were induced in the first 24 h after inoculation, whereas 63% were differentially expressed at 6 dai. The 710 differentially expressed genes were one-end sequenced. 535 sequences were obtained from which 147 non-redundant sequences were identified. Differentially expressed genes were related to metabolism, secretion and transport, pathogen adherence to plant tissues, plant cell-wall degradation, IS elements, and virulence. In addition, various other genes encoding proteins with unknown function or showing no similarity to other proteins were also induced. The Xoo MAI1 non-redundant set of sequences was compared against several X. oryzae genomes, revealing a specific group of genes that was present only in MAI1. Numerous IS elements were also found to be differentially expressed. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed 86% of the identified profile on a set of 14 genes selected according to the microarray analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report to compare the expression of Xoo genes in planta across different time points during infection. This work shows that as-yet-unidentified and potentially new virulence factors are appearing in an emerging African pathogen. It also confirms that African Xoo strains do differ from their Asian counterparts, even at the transcriptional level.
Project description:Two-component systems (TCSs) are critical to the pathogenesis of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We mutated 55 of 62 genes annotated as responsive regulators (RRs) of TCSs in the genome of Xoo strain PXO99A and identified 9 genes involved in Xoo virulence. Four (rpfG, hrpG, stoS, and detR) of the 9 genes were previously reported as key regulators of Xoo virulence and the other 5 have not been characterized. Lesion lengths on rice leaves inoculated with the mutants were shorter than those of the wild type and were significantly restored with gene complementation. The population density of the 5 mutants in planta was smaller than that of PXO99A at 14 days after inoculation, but the growth curves of the mutants in rich medium were similar to those of the wild type. These newly reported RR genes will facilitate studies on the function of TCSs and of the integrated regulation of TCSs for Xoo pathogenesis.
Project description:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice bacterial blight disease, which causes a large reduction in rice production. The successful interaction of pathogens and plants requires a particular nutrient environment that allows pathogen growth and the initiation of both pathogen and host responses. Amino acid synthesis is essential for bacterial growth when bacteria encounter amino acid-deficient environments, but the effects of amino acid synthesis on Xoo pathogenicity are unclear. Here, we systemically deleted the essential genes (leuB, leuC, leuD, ilvC, thrC, hisD, trpC, argH, metB, and aspC) involved in the synthesis of different amino acids and analyzed the effects of these mutations on Xoo virulence. Our results showed that leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, threonine, arginine, tryptophan, and cysteine syntheses are essential to Xoo infection. We further studied the role of leucine in the interaction between pathogens and hosts and found that leucine could stimulate some virulence-related responses and regulate Xoo pathogenicity. Our findings highlight that amino acids not only act as nutrients for bacterial growth but also play essential roles in the Xoo and rice interaction.
Project description:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is the causal agent of rice blight disease as well as a serious phytopathogen worldwide. It is also one of the model organisms for studying bacteria-plant interactions. Current progress in bacterial signal transduction pathways has identified cyclic di-GMP as a major second messenger molecule in controlling Xanthomonas pathogenicity. However, it still remains largely unclear how c-di-GMP regulates the secretion of bacterial virulence factors in Xoo. In this study, we focused on the important roles played by DgcA (XOO3988), one of our previously identified diguanylate cyclases in Xoo, through further investigating the phenotypes of several dgcA-related mutants, namely, the dgcA-knockout mutant ?dgcA, the dgcA overexpression strain OdgcA, the dgcA complemented strain CdgcA and the wild-type strain. The results showed that dgcA negatively affected virulence, EPS production, bacterial autoaggregation and motility, but positively triggered biofilm formation via modulating the intracellular c-di-GMP levels. RNA-seq data further identified 349 differentially expressed genes controlled by DgcA, providing a foundation for a more solid understanding of the signal transduction pathways in Xoo. Collectively, the present study highlights DgcA as a major regulator of Xoo virulence, and can serve as a potential target for preventing rice blight diseases.
Project description:Plant-pathogen interactions at early stages of infection are important to the fate of interaction. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight, which is a devastating disease in rice. Although in vivo and in vitro systems have been developed to study rice-Xoo interactions, both systems have limitations. The resistance mechanisms in rice can be better studied by the in vivo approach, whereas the in vitro systems are suitable for pathogenicity studies on Xoo. The current in vitro system uses minimal medium to activate the pathogenic signal (expression of pathogenicity-related genes) of Xoo, but lacks rice-derived factors needed for Xoo activation. This fact emphasizes the need of developing a new in vitro system that allow for an easy control of both pathogenic activation and for the experiment itself.We employed an in vitro system that can activate pathogenicity-related genes in Xoo using rice leaf extract (RLX) and combined the in vitro assay with RNA-Seq to analyze the time-resolved genome-wide gene expression of Xoo. RNA-Seq was performed with samples from seven different time points within 1 h post-RLX treatment and the expression of up- or downregulated genes in RNA-Seq was validated by qRT-PCR. Global analysis of gene expression and regulation revealed the most dramatic changes in functional categories of genes related to inorganic ion transport and metabolism, and cell motility. Expression of many pathogenicity-related genes was induced within 15 min upon contact with RLX. hrpG and hrpX expression reached the maximum level within 10 and 15 min, respectively. Chemotaxis and flagella biosynthesis-related genes and cyclic-di-GMP controlling genes were downregulated for 10 min and were then upregulated. Genes related to inorganic ion uptake were upregulated within 5 min. We introduced a non-linear regression fit to generate continuous time-resolved gene expression levels and tested the essentiality of the transcriptionally upregulated genes by a pathogenicity assay of lesion length using single-gene knock-out Xoo strains.The in vitro system combined with RNA-Seq generated a genome-wide time-resolved pathogenic gene expression profile within 1 h of initial rice-Xoo interactions, demonstrating the expression order and interaction dependency of pathogenic genes. This combined system can be used as a novel tool to study the initial interactions between rice and Xoo during bacterial blight progression.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence was determined for the genome of Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae (Xoo) KACC10331, a bacterium that causes bacterial blight in rice (Oryza sativa L.). The genome is comprised of a single, 4 941 439 bp, circular chromosome that is G + C rich (63.7%). The genome includes 4637 open reading frames (ORFs) of which 3340 (72.0%) could be assigned putative function. Orthologs for 80% of the predicted Xoo genes were found in the previously reported X.axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) and X.campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) genomes, but 245 genes apparently specific to Xoo were identified. Xoo genes likely to be associated with pathogenesis include eight with similarity to Xanthomonas avirulence (avr) genes, a set of hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity (hrp) genes, genes for exopolysaccharide production, and genes encoding extracellular plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. The presence of these genes provides insights into the interactions of this pathogen with its gramineous host.
Project description:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) are bacterial pathogens of the worldwide staple and grass model, rice. Xoo and Xoc are closely related but Xoo invades rice vascular tissue to cause bacterial leaf blight, a serious disease of rice in many parts of the world, and Xoc colonizes the mesophyll parenchyma to cause bacterial leaf streak, a disease of emerging importance. Both pathogens depend on hrp genes for type III secretion to infect their host. We constructed a 50-70 mer oligonucleotide microarray based on available genome data for Xoo and Xoc and compared gene expression in Xoo strains PXO99A and Xoc strain BLS256 grown in the rich medium PSB vs. XOM2, a minimal medium previously reported to induce hrp genes in Xoo strain T7174.Three biological replicates of the microarray experiment to compare global gene expression in representative strains of Xoo and Xoc grown in PSB vs. XOM2 were carried out. The non-specific error rate and the correlation coefficients across biological replicates and among duplicate spots revealed that the microarray data were robust. 247 genes of Xoo and 39 genes of Xoc were differentially expressed in the two media with a false discovery rate of 5% and with a minimum fold-change of 1.75. Semi-quantitative-RT-PCR assays confirmed differential expression of each of 16 genes each for Xoo and Xoc selected for validation. The differentially expressed genes represent 17 functional categories.We describe here the construction and validation of a two-genome microarray for the two pathovars of X. oryzae. Microarray analysis revealed that using representative strains, a greater number of Xoo genes than Xoc genes are differentially expressed in XOM2 relative to PSB, and that these include hrp genes and other genes important in interactions with rice. An exception was the rax genes, which are required for production of the host resistance elicitor AvrXa21, and which were expressed constitutively in both pathovars.
Project description:Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent secretion system, employed by most gram-negative bacteria for translocating effector proteins to target cells. The present study was conducted to investigate T6SS in Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes bacterial blight in rice, and to unveil its functions. Two T6SS clusters were found in the genome of Xoo PXO99A. The deletion mutants, ?hcp1, ?hcp2, and ?hcp12, targeting the hcp gene in each cluster, and a double-deletion mutant targeting both genes were constructed and tested for growth rate, pathogenicity to rice, and inter-bacterial competition ability. The results indicated that hcp in T6SS-2, but not T6SS-1, was involved in bacterial virulence to rice plants. However, neither T6SS-1 nor T6SS-2 had any effect on the ability to compete with Escherichia coli or other bacterial cells. In conclusion, T6SS gene clusters in Xoo have been characterized, and its role in virulence to rice was confirmed.
Project description:It has been known that most regulation of pathogenicity factor (rpf) genes in xanthomonads regulates virulence in response to the diffusible signal factor, DSF. Although many rpf genes have been functionally characterized, the function of rpfE is still unknown. We cloned the rpfE gene from a Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) Korean race KACC10859 and generated mutant strains to elucidate the role of RpfE with respect to the rpf system. Through experiments using the rpfE-deficient mutant strain, we found that mutation in rpfE gene in Xoo reduced virulence, swarm motility, and production of virulence factors such as cellulase and extracellular polysaccharide. Disease progress by the rpfE-deficient mutant strain was significantly slowed compared to disease progress by the wild type and the number of the rpfE-deficient mutant strain was lower than that of the wild type in the early phase of infection in the inoculated rice leaf. The rpfE mutant strain was unable to utilize sucrose or xylose as carbon sources efficiently in culture. The mutation in rpfE, however, did not affect DSF synthesis. Our results suggest that the rpfE gene regulates the virulence of Xoo under different nutrient conditions without change of DSF production.
Project description:Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes rice bacterial blight (BB), one of the most widespread and destructive diseases in rice-growing regions worldwide. Melatonin enhances pathogen resistance by inducing plant innate immunity, but the direct effect of melatonin on plant pathogenic bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the direct effects of melatonin on Xoo. Exogenous melatonin at 200 ?g/mL significantly inhibited the proliferation of Xoo and reduced the mRNA expression of five genes involved in cell division. This concentration of melatonin also inhibited the motility and biofilm formation of Xoo. Notably, melatonin was observed to alter the length of Xoo cells. To provide deeper insights into the mechanisms underlying this antibacterial activity, we examined global gene expression changes in Xoo strain PXO99 in response to the application of 200 ?g/mL melatonin using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). A wide range of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to catalytic activity and metal-binding activity were downregulated in Xoo cells in response to the melatonin treatment. In addition, DEGs responsible for carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were also downregulated. These results suggest that the inhibitory mechanism of melatonin on Xoo proliferation may involve the regulation of cell division in combination with a reduction in the concentration or activity of enzymes involved in metabolism.