Endophytic Bacteria Improve Plant Growth, Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and Induce Suppression of Root Rot Caused by Fusarium solani under Salt Stress.
ABSTRACT: Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated. Four bacterial isolates, namely Bacillus cereus NUU1, Achromobacter xylosoxidans NUU2, Bacillus thuringiensis NUU3, and Bacillus subtilis NUU4 colonizing root tissue demonstrated plant beneficial traits and/or antagonistic activity against F. solani and thus were characterized in more detail. The strain B. subtilis NUU4 proved significant plant growth promotion capabilities, improved symbiotic performance of host plant with rhizobia, and promoted yield under saline soil as compared to untreated control plants under field conditions. A combined inoculation of chickpea with M. ciceri IC53 and B. subtilis NUU4 decreased H2O2 concentrations and increased proline contents compared to the un-inoculated plants indicating an alleviation of adverse effects of salt stress. Furthermore, the bacterial isolate was capable to reduce the infection rate of root rot in chickpea caused by F. solani. This is the first report of F. solani causing root rot of chickpea in a salinated soil of Uzbekistan. Our findings demonstrated that the endophytic B. subtilis strain NUU4 provides high potentials as a stimulator for plant growth and as biological control agent of chickpea root rot under saline soil conditions. These multiple relationships could provide promising practical approaches to increase the productivity of legumes under salt stress.
Project description:Dry root rot (DRR) caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Butler, is an emerging disease in chickpea. The disease is often mistaken with other root rots like Fusarium wilt, collar rot and black root rot in chickpea. Therefore, its timely and specific detection is important. Current detection protocols are either based on mycological methods or on protocols involving DNA amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we report the rapid and specific detection of R. bataticola using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting fungal specific 5.8S rDNA sequence for visual detection of R. bataticola. The reaction was optimized at 63?°C for 75?min using minimum 10?fg of DNA. After adding SYBR Green I in LAMP products, the amplification was found to be highly specific in all the 94 isolates of R. bataticola collected from diverse geographical regions as well as DRR infected plants and sick soil. No reaction was found in other pathogenic fungi infecting chickpea (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Fusarium solani) and pigeonpea (Fusarium udum and Phytophthora cajani). The standardised LAMP assay with its simplicity, rapidity and specificity is very useful for the visual detection of this emerging disease in chickpea.
Project description:Many actinobacteria live in close association with eukaryotes such as fungi, insects, animals and plants. Plant-associated actinobacteria display (endo)symbiotic, saprophytic or pathogenic life styles, and can make up a substantial part of the endophytic community. Here, we characterised endophytic actinobacteria isolated from root tissue of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) plants grown in soil from a natural ecosystem. Many of these actinobacteria belong to the family of Streptomycetaceae with Streptomyces olivochromogenes and Streptomyces clavifer as well represented species. When seeds of Arabidopsis were inoculated with spores of Streptomyces strain coa1, which shows high similarity to S. olivochromogenes, roots were colonised intercellularly and, unexpectedly, also intracellularly. Subsequent exposure of endophytic isolates to plant hormones typically found in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis led to altered antibiotic production against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Taken together, our work reveals remarkable colonization patterns of endophytic streptomycetes with specific traits that may allow a competitive advantage inside root tissue.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rhizobacteria play an important role in plant defense and could be promising sources of biocontrol agents. This study aimed to screen antagonistic bacteria and develop a biocontrol system for root rot complex of Panax notoginseng. METHODS:Pure-culture methods were used to isolate bacteria from the rhizosphere soil of notoginseng plants. The identification of isolates was based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences. RESULTS:A total of 279 bacteria were obtained from rhizosphere soils of healthy and root-rot notoginseng plants, and uncultivated soil. Among all the isolates, 88 showed antagonistic activity to at least one of three phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Phoma herbarum mainly causing root rot disease of P. notoginseng. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, the antagonistic bacteria were characterized into four clusters, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetesi. The genus Bacillus was the most frequently isolated, and Bacillus siamensis (Hs02), Bacillus atrophaeus (Hs09) showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogens. The distribution pattern differed in soil types, genera Achromobacter, Acidovorax, Brevibacterium, Brevundimonas, Flavimonas, and Streptomyces were only found in rhizosphere of healthy plants, while Delftia, Leclercia, Brevibacillus, Microbacterium, Pantoea, Rhizobium, and Stenotrophomonas only exist in soil of diseased plant, and Acinetobacter only exist in uncultivated soil. CONCLUSION:The results suggest that diverse bacteria exist in the P. notoginseng rhizosphere soil, with differences in community in the same field, and antagonistic isolates may be good potential biological control agent for the notoginseng root-rot diseases caused by F. oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Panax herbarum.
Project description:The effects of biochar on plant growth vary depending on the applied biochar type, study site environmental conditions, microbial species, and plant-microbial interactions. The objectives of the present study were therefore to assess 1) the response of growth parameters of lupin and root disease incidence to the application of three biochar types in a loamy sandy soil, and 2) the role of endophytic bacteria in biological control of root rot disease incidence in lupin after the amendment of soil with different biochar types. As biochar types we tested (i) hydrochar (HTC) from maize silage, (ii) pyrolysis char from maize (MBC), and (iii) pyrolysis char from wood (WBC) at three different concentrations (1%, 2%, and 3% of char as soil amendments). There were no significant effects in lupin shoot and root growth in soils amended with WBC at any of the concentrations. MBC did not affect plant growth except for root dry weight at 2% MBC. HTC char at 2% concentration, significantly increased the root dry weight of lupin by 54-75%, and shoot dry weight by 21-25%. Lupin plants grown in soil amended with 2% and 3% WBC and MBC chars showed 40-50% and 10-20% disease symptoms, respectively. Plants grown in soil without biochar and with HTC char were healthy, and no disease incidence occurred. Pseudomonas putida L2 and Stenotrophomonas pavanii L8 isolates demonstrated a disease reduction compared to un-inoculated plants under MBC and WBC amended soil that was infested with Fusarium solani.
Project description:Bacterial endophytes are well known inhabitants of living plant system and perform important assignments in maintaining plant growth and health. Currently, limited reports are available on the endophytes of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) reflecting antagonistic and plant growth promoting (PGP) attributes. Therefore, the major objectives of current investigation were to identify antagonistic strains of endophytic Bacillus from pearl millet and further illustrate their PGP capabilities. In this study, 19 endophytic Bacillus strains (EPP5, EPP21, EPP30, EPP32, EPP35, EPP42, EPP49, EPP55, EPP62, EPP65, EPP70, EPP71, EPP74, EPP78, EPP83, EPP86, EPP93, EPP100, and EPP102) displaying antagonistic activity towards Rhizoctonia solani (RS), Sclerotium rolfsii (SR), and Fusarium solani (FS) were isolated from different sections (root, leaf, stem, and root) of pearl millet. Phenotypic (shape, colony, gram staining reaction, endospore formation, and motility) and biochemical features (catalase, oxidase, citrate, gelatinase, urease, Voges Proskauer's, methyl red, indole, and nitrate reduction), along with the similarly comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequence with type strains identified eight antagonistic endophyhtes as B. amyloliquefaciens (EPP35, EPP 42, EPP62, and EPP 102), Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis (EPP65), and Bacillus cereus (EPP5, EPP71, and EPP74). The production of indole acetic acid and siderophores was varied among the isolated endophytes. Besides displaying enzymatic activities, these isolates varied in solubilizing capabilities of phosphate, potassium, and zinc. The presence of three antimicrobial peptide genes (ituD, bmyC, and srfA) also confirmed their antifungal nature. Further, single treatment of three promising strains (EPP5, EPP62, and EPP65) offered protection ranging from 35.68 to 45.74% under greenhouse conditions. However, microbial consortium (EPP5+ EPP62 + EPP65) provided the highest protection (71.96%) against root rot and wilt infection with significant increase in plant biomass. Overall, the current study indicated that pearl millet plant harbors various species of endophytic Bacillus that possess excellent biocontrol and growth promotion activities.
Project description:Thirty endophytic bacteria were isolated from various plant species growing near Saint-Petersburg, Russia. Based on a screening for various traits, including plant-beneficial properties and DNA fragment patterns, potential siblings were removed. The remaining isolates were taxonomically identified using 16S rDNA sequences and potential human and plant pathogens were removed. The remaining strains were tested for their ability to promote radish root growth and to protect tomato plants against tomato foot and root rot. One strain, Bacillus subtilis HC8, isolated from the giant hogweed Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden, significantly promoted plant growth and protected tomato against tomato foot and root rot. Metabolites possibly responsible for these plant-beneficial properties were identified as the hormone gibberellin and (lipo)peptide antibiotics respectively. The antibiotic properties of strain HC8 are similar to those of the commercially available plant-beneficial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42. However, thin layer chromatography profiles of the two strains differ. It is speculated that endophytes such as B. subtilis HC8 contribute to the fast growth of giant hogweed.
Project description:Plant pathogens infecting marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) plants reduce growth of the crop by affecting the roots, crown, and foliage. In addition, fungi (molds) that colonize the inflorescences (buds) during development or after harvest, and which colonize internal tissues as endophytes, can reduce product quality. The pathogens and molds that affect C. sativa grown hydroponically indoors (in environmentally controlled growth rooms and greenhouses) and field-grown plants were studied over multiple years of sampling. A PCR-based assay using primers for the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA confirmed identity of the cultures. Root-infecting pathogens included Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium brachygibbosum, Pythium dissotocum, Pythium myriotylum, and Pythium aphanidermatum, which caused root browning, discoloration of the crown and pith tissues, stunting and yellowing of plants, and in some instances, plant death. On the foliage, powdery mildew, caused by Golovinomyces cichoracearum, was the major pathogen observed. On inflorescences, Penicillium bud rot (caused by Penicillium olsonii and Penicillium copticola), Botrytis bud rot (Botrytis cinerea), and Fusarium bud rot (F. solani, F. oxysporum) were present to varying extents. Endophytic fungi present in crown, stem, and petiole tissues included soil-colonizing and cellulolytic fungi, such as species of Chaetomium, Trametes, Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Fusarium. Analysis of air samples in indoor growing environments revealed that species of Penicillium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Beauveria, and Trichoderma were present. The latter two species were the result of the application of biocontrol products for control of insects and diseases, respectively. Fungal communities present in unpasteurized coconut (coco) fiber growing medium are potential sources of mold contamination on cannabis plants. Swabs taken from greenhouse-grown and indoor buds pre- and post-harvest revealed the presence of Cladosporium and up to five species of Penicillium, as well as low levels of Alternaria species. Mechanical trimming of buds caused an increase in the frequency of Penicillium species, presumably by providing entry points through wounds or spreading endophytes from pith tissues. Aerial distribution of pathogen inoculum and mold spores and dissemination through vegetative propagation are important methods of spread, and entry through wound sites on roots, stems, and bud tissues facilitates pathogen establishment on cannabis plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fungal endophytes are highly diverse ubiquitous asymptomatic microorganisms, some of which appear to be symbiotic. Depending on abiotic conditions and genotype of the plant, the diversity of endophytes may confer fitness benefits to plant communities. METHODS:We studied a crop wild relative (CWR) of strawberry, along environmental gradients with a view to understand the cultivable root-derived endophytic fungi that can be evaluated for promoting growth and tolerating stress in selected plant groups. The main objectives were to understand whether: (a) suboptimal soil types are drivers for fungal distribution and diversity; (b) high pH and poor nutrient availability lead to fungal-plant associations that help deliver fitness benefits; and (c) novel fungi can be identified for their use in improving plant growth, and alleviate stress in diverse crops. RESULTS:The study revealed that habitats with high pH and low nutrient availability have higher fungal diversity, with more rare fungi isolated from locations with chalky soil. Plants from location G were the healthiest even though soil from this location was the poorest in nutrients. Study of environmental gradients, especially extreme habitat types, may help understand the root zone fungal diversity of different functional classes. Two small in vitro pilot studies conducted with two isolates showed that endophytic fungi from suboptimal habitats can promote plant growth and fitness benefits in selected plant groups. DISCUSSION:Targeting native plants and crop wild relatives for research offers opportunities to unearth diverse functional groups of root-derived endophytic fungi that are beneficial for crops.
Project description:Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria were isolated from different varieties of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) from South India. Totally 50 strains representing, 30 PGPR and 20 endophytic bacteria were identified based on biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric, by dual culture and liquid culture assays. Results revealed that only five isolates of PGPR and four endophytic bacteria showed more than 70% suppression of test pathogens in both assays. The SEM studies of interaction zone showed significant ultrastructural changes of the hyphae like shriveling, breakage and desication of the pathogens by PGPR B. cereus (RBac-DOB-S24) and endophyte P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19). Selected isolates showed multiple Plant growth promoting traits. The rhizome bacterization followed by soil application of B. cereus (RBacDOB-S24) showed lowest Percent Disease Incidence (PDI) of rhizome rot and leaf blight, 16.4% and 15.5% respectively. Similarly, P. aeruginosa (BacDOB-E19) recorded PDI of rhizome rot (17.5%) and leaf blight (17.7%). The treatment of these promising isolates exhibited significant increase in plant height and fresh rhizome yield/plant in comparison with untreated control under greenhouse condition. Thereby, these isolates can be exploited as a potential biocontrol agent for suppressing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric.
Project description:Endophytic bacterial communities play a key role in promoting plant growth and combating plant diseases. However, little is known about their population dynamics in plant tissues and bulk soil, especially in transgenic crops. This study investigated the colonization of transgenic maize harboring the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cry1Ah gene by Bacillus subtilis strain B916-gfp present in plant tissues and soil. Bt and nontransgenic maize were inoculated with B916-gfp by seed soaking, or root irrigation under both laboratory greenhouse and field conditions. During the growing season, B916-gfp colonized transgenic as well as nontransgenic plants by both inoculation methods. No differences were observed in B916-gfp population size between transgenic and nontransgenic plants, except at one or two time points in the roots and stems that did not persist over the examination period. Furthermore, planting transgenic maize did not affect the number of B916-gfp in bulk soil in either laboratory or field trials. These results indicate that transgenic modification of maize with the cry1Ah gene has no influence on colonization by the endophytic bacteria B916-gfp present in the plant and in bulk soil.