Genome-wide siRNA screen identifies UNC50 as a regulator of Shiga toxin 2 trafficking.
ABSTRACT: Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (STx1 and STx2) undergo retrograde trafficking to reach the cytosol. Early endosome-to-Golgi transport allows the toxins to evade degradation in lysosomes. Targeting this trafficking step has therapeutic promise, but the mechanism of trafficking for the more potent toxin STx2 is unclear. To identify host factors required for early endosome-to-Golgi trafficking of STx2, we performed a viability-based genome-wide siRNA screen in HeLa cells. 564, 535, and 196 genes were found to be required for toxicity induced by STx1 only, STx2 only, and both toxins, respectively. We focused on validating endosome/Golgi-localized hits specific for STx2 and found that depletion of UNC50 blocked early endosome-to-Golgi trafficking and induced lysosomal degradation of STx2. UNC50 acted by recruiting GBF1, an ADP ribosylation factor-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF), to the Golgi. These results provide new information about STx2 trafficking mechanisms and may advance efforts to generate therapeutically viable toxin-trafficking inhibitors.
Project description:Shiga toxin 1 (STx1) and 2 (STx2), produced by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, cause lethal untreatable disease. The toxins invade cells via retrograde trafficking. Direct early endosome-to-Golgi transport allows the toxins to evade degradative late endosomes. Blocking toxin trafficking, particularly at the early endosome-to-Golgi step, is appealing, but transport mechanisms of the more disease-relevant STx2 are unclear. Using data from a genome-wide siRNA screen, we discovered that disruption of the fusion of late endosomes, but not autophagosomes, with lysosomes blocked the early endosome-to-Golgi transport of STx2. A subsequent screen of clinically approved lysosome-targeting drugs identified tamoxifen (TAM) to be a potent inhibitor of the trafficking and toxicity of STx1 and STx2 in cells. The protective effect was independent of estrogen receptors but dependent on the weak base property of TAM, which allowed TAM to increase endolysosomal pH and alter endosomal dynamics. Importantly, TAM treatment enhanced survival of mice injected with a lethal dose of STx1 or STx2. Thus, it may be possible to repurpose TAM for treating Shiga toxin-producing E. coli infections.
Project description:Shiga toxin (STx) produced by Shigella and closely related Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (STx1 and STx2) synthesized by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are bacterial AB5 toxins. All three toxins target kidney cells and may cause life-threatening renal disease. While Shigella infections can be treated with antibiotics, resistance is increasing. Moreover, antibiotic therapy is contraindicated for STEC, and there are no definitive treatments for STEC-induced disease. To exert cellular toxicity, STx, STx1, and STx2 must undergo retrograde trafficking to reach their cytosolic target, ribosomes. Direct transport from early endosomes to the Golgi apparatus is an essential step that allows the toxins to bypass degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. The essentiality of this transport step also makes it an ideal target for the development of small-molecule inhibitors of toxin trafficking as potential therapeutics. Here, we review the recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the early endosome-to-Golgi transport of STx, STx1, and STx2, as well as the development of small-molecule inhibitors of toxin trafficking that act at the endosome/Golgi interface.
Project description:Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) produce two types of Shiga toxin (STx): STx1 and STx2. The toxin A-subunits block protein synthesis, while the B-subunits mediate retrograde trafficking. STEC infections do not have definitive treatments, and there is growing interest in generating toxin transport inhibitors for therapy. However, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of toxin trafficking is essential for drug development. While STx2 is more toxic in vivo, prior studies focused on STx1 B-subunit (STx1B) trafficking. Here, we show that, compared with STx1B, trafficking of the B-subunit of STx2 (STx2B) to the Golgi occurs with slower kinetics. Despite this difference, similar to STx1B, endosome-to-Golgi transport of STx2B does not involve transit through degradative late endosomes and is dependent on dynamin II, epsinR, retromer and syntaxin5. Importantly, additional experiments show that a surface-exposed loop in STx2B (?4-?5 loop) is required for its endosome-to-Golgi trafficking. We previously demonstrated that residues in the corresponding ?4-?5 loop of STx1B are required for interaction with GPP130, the STx1B-specific endosomal receptor, and for endosome-to-Golgi transport. Overall, STx1B and STx2B share a common pathway and use a similar structural motif to traffic to the Golgi, suggesting that the underlying mechanisms of endosomal sorting may be evolutionarily conserved.
Project description:Shiga toxicosis is caused by retrograde trafficking of one of three types of Shiga toxin (STx), STx, STx1, or STx2. Trafficking depends on the toxin B subunits, which for STx and STx1 are identical and bind GPP130, a manganese (Mn)-sensitive intracellular trafficking receptor. Elevated Mn down-regulates GPP130, rendering STx/STx1 harmless. Its effectiveness against STx2, however, which is a serious concern in the developed world, is not known. Here we show that Mn-induced GPP130 down-regulation fails to block STx2 trafficking. To shed light on this result, we tested the purified B subunit of STx2 for binding to GPP130 and found that it failed to interact. We then mapped residues at the interface of the GPP130-STx/STx1 complex. In GPP130, binding mapped to a seven-residue stretch in its lumenal stem domain next to the transmembrane domain. This stretch was required for STx/STx1 transport. In STx/STx1, binding mapped to a histidine-asparagine pair on a surface-exposed loop of the toxin B subunit. Significantly, these residues are not conserved in STx2, explaining the lack of effectiveness of Mn against STx2. Together our results imply that STx2 uses an evolutionarily distinct trafficking mechanism and that Mn as a potential therapy should be focused on STx/STx1 outbreaks, which account for the vast majority of cases worldwide.
Project description:Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major cause of severe food-borne disease worldwide, and two Shiga toxins, Stx1 and Stx2, are primarily responsible for the serious disease consequence, hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Here we report identification of a panel of heavy-chain-only antibody (Ab) V(H) (VHH) domains that neutralize Stx1 and/or Stx2 in cell-based assays. VHH heterodimer toxin-neutralizing agents containing two linked Stx1-neutralizing VHHs or two Stx2-neutralizing VHHs were generally much more potent at Stx neutralization than a pool of the two-component monomers tested in cell-based assays and in vivo mouse models. We recently reported that clearance of toxins can be promoted by coadministering a VHH-based toxin-neutralizing agent with an antitag monoclonal antibody (MAb), called the "effector Ab," that indirectly decorates each toxin molecule with four Ab molecules. Decoration occurs because the Ab binds to a common epitopic tag present at two sites on each of the two VHH heterodimer molecules that bind to each toxin molecule. Here we show that coadministration of effector Ab substantially improved the efficacy of Stx toxin-neutralizing agents to prevent death or kidney damage in mice following challenge with Stx1 or Stx2. A single toxin-neutralizing agent consisting of a double-tagged VHH heterotrimer--one Stx1-specific VHH, one Stx2-specific VHH, and one Stx1/Stx2 cross-specific VHH--was effective in preventing all symptoms of intoxication from Stx1 and Stx2 when coadministered with effector Ab. Overall, the availability of simple, defined, recombinant proteins that provide cost-effective protection against HUS opens up new therapeutic approaches to managing disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Shiga toxins 1 and 2 (Stx1 and Stx2) are bacteriophage-encoded proteins that have been associated with hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome and other severe disease conditions. Stx1 and Stx2 are genetically and immunologically distinct but share the same compound toxin structure, method of entry and enzymatic function. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analysis was performed using Stx1 and Stx2 amino acid and nucleotide sequences from 41 strains of Escherichia coli, along with known stx sequences available from GenBank. The analysis confirmed the Stx1 and Stx2 divergence, and showed that there is generally more sequence variation among stx2 genes than stx1. The phylograms showed generally flat topologies among our strains' stx1 and stx2 genes. In the stx2 gene, 39.5% of the amino acid sites display very low nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratios. CONCLUSION: The stx1 and stx2 genes used in this phylogenetic study show sequence conservation with no significant divergence with respect to place or time. These data could indicate that Shiga toxins are experiencing purifying selection.
Project description:When Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains emerged as agents of human disease, two types of toxin were identified: Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) (almost identical to Shiga toxin produced by Shigella dysenteriae type 1) and the immunologically distinct type 2 (Stx2). Subsequently, numerous STEC strains have been characterized that express toxins with variations in amino acid sequence, some of which confer unique biological properties. These variants were grouped within the Stx1 or Stx2 type and often assigned names to indicate that they were not identical in sequence or phenotype to the main Stx1 or Stx2 type. A lack of specificity or consistency in toxin nomenclature has led to much confusion in the characterization of STEC strains. Because serious outcomes of infection have been attributed to certain Stx subtypes and less so with others, we sought to better define the toxin subtypes within the main Stx1 and Stx2 types. We compared the levels of relatedness of 285 valid sequence variants of Stx1 and Stx2 and identified common sequences characteristic of each of three Stx/Stx1 and seven Stx2 subtypes. A novel, simple PCR subtyping method was developed, independently tested on a battery of 48 prototypic STEC strains, and improved at six clinical and research centers to test the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the PCR. Using a consistent schema for nomenclature of the Stx toxins and stx genes by phylogenetic sequence-based relatedness of the holotoxin proteins, we developed a typing approach that should obviate the need to bioassay each newly described toxin and that predicts important biological characteristics.
Project description:Shiga toxin (Stx) is one of the most potent bacterial toxins known. Stx is found in Shigella dysenteriae 1 and in some serogroups of Escherichia coli (called Stx1 in E. coli). In addition to or instead of Stx1, some E. coli strains produce a second type of Stx, Stx2, that has the same mode of action as Stx/Stx1 but is antigenically distinct. Because subtypes of each toxin have been identified, the prototype toxin for each group is now designated Stx1a or Stx2a. The Stxs consist of two major subunits, an A subunit that joins noncovalently to a pentamer of five identical B subunits. The A subunit of the toxin injures the eukaryotic ribosome and halts protein synthesis in target cells. The function of the B pentamer is to bind to the cellular receptor, globotriaosylceramide, Gb3, found primarily on endothelial cells. The Stxs traffic in a retrograde manner within the cell, such that the A subunit of the toxin reaches the cytosol only after the toxin moves from the endosome to the Golgi and then to the endoplasmic reticulum. In humans infected with Stx-producing E. coli, the most serious manifestation of the disease, hemolytic-uremic syndrome, is more often associated with strains that produce Stx2a rather than Stx1a, and that relative toxicity is replicated in mice and baboons. Stx1a and Stx2a also exhibit differences in cytotoxicity to various cell types, bind dissimilarly to receptor analogs or mimics, induce differential chemokine responses, and have several distinctive structural characteristics.
Project description:Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC) is one of the leading causes of food-poisoning around the world. Some STEC strains produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) or variants of either toxin, which are critical for the development of hemorrhagic colitis (HC) or hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Currently, there are no therapeutic treatments for HC or HUS. E. coli O157:H7 strains carrying Stx2 are more virulent and are more frequently associated with HUS, which is the most common cause of renal failure in children in the US. The basis for the increased potency of Stx2 is not fully understood. Shiga toxins belong to the AB5 family of protein toxins with an A subunit, which depurinates a universally conserved adenine residue in the ?-sarcin/ricin loop (SRL) of the 28S rRNA and five copies of the B subunit responsible for binding to cellular receptors. Recent studies showed differences in the structure, receptor binding, dependence on ribosomal proteins and pathogenicity of Stx1 and Stx2 and supported a role for the B subunit in differential toxicity. However, the current data do not rule out a potential role for the A1 subunits in the differential toxicity of Stx1 and Stx2. This review highlights the recent progress in understanding the differences in the A1 subunits of Stx1 and Stx2 and their role in defining toxicity.
Project description:Immunologically distinct forms of Shiga toxin (Stx1 and Stx2) display different potencies and disease outcomes, likely due to differences in host cell binding. The glycolipid globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) has been reported to be the receptor for both toxins. While there is considerable data to suggest that Gb3 can bind Stx1, binding of Stx2 to Gb3 is variable.We used isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to examine binding of Stx1 and Stx2 to various glycans, glycosphingolipids, and glycosphingolipid mixtures in the presence or absence of membrane components, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol. We have also assessed the ability of glycolipids mixtures to neutralize Stx-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis in Vero kidney cells.By ITC, Stx1 bound both Pk (the trisaccharide on Gb3) and P (the tetrasaccharide on globotetraosylceramide, Gb4), while Stx2 did not bind to either glycan. Binding to neutral glycolipids individually and in combination was assessed by ELISA. Stx1 bound to glycolipids Gb3 and Gb4, and Gb3 mixed with other neural glycolipids, while Stx2 only bound to Gb3 mixtures. In the presence of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, both Stx1 and Stx2 bound well to Gb3 or Gb4 alone or mixed with other neutral glycolipids. Pre-incubation with Gb3 in the presence of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol neutralized Stx1, but not Stx2 toxicity to Vero cells.Stx1 binds primarily to the glycan, but Stx2 binding is influenced by residues in the ceramide portion of Gb3 and the lipid environment. Nanomolar affinities were obtained for both toxins to immobilized glycolipids mixtures, while the effective dose for 50% inhibition (ED(50)) of protein synthesis was about 10(-11) M. The failure of preincubation with Gb3 to protect cells from Stx2 suggests that in addition to glycolipid expression, other cellular components contribute to toxin potency.