Therapeutic PCL scaffold for reparation of resected osteosarcoma defect.
ABSTRACT: Osteosarcomas are highly malignant tumors, which develop rapid growth and local infiltration, inducing metastases that spread primarily in the lung. Treatment of these tumors is mainly based on pre- and post-operative chemotherapy and surgery of the primary tumor. Surgical resection though, generates bone defects. Reparation of these weaknesses presents formidable challenges to orthopedic surgery. Medicine regenerative grafts that act as both tumor therapy with constant local drug delivery and tissue regeneration may provide a new prospect to address this need. These implants can provide sustained drug release at the cancer area, decreasing systemic second effects such as inflammation, and a filling of the resected tissues with regenerative biomaterials. In this study microporous poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) scaffolds have been developed for sustained local release of anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone (DXM), used as drug model, in cancer medicine regenerative field. The microporous PCL matrix of the scaffolds supported the attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast-like cells, while the polyelectrolyte multilayers, anchored to the inner pore surfaces, sustained locally DXM release. These microporous scaffolds demonstrate the ability to deliver DXM as a localized tumor therapy and to promote proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells in vitro.
Project description:The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of in vitro alendronate (AD) release behavior through polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on in vivo bone formation using PCL-coated 3D printed interconnected porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds. Higher AD and Ca(2+) ion release was observed at lower pH (5.0) than that at higher pH (7.4). AD and Ca(2+) release, surface morphology, and phase analysis after release indicated a matrix degradation dominated AD release caused by TCP dissolution. PCL coating showed its effectiveness for controlled and sustained AD release. Six different scaffold compositions, namely, (i) TCP (bare TCP), (ii) TCP + AD (AD-coated TCP), (iii) TCP + PCL (PCL-coated TCP), (iv) TCP + PCL + AD, (v) TCP + AD + PCL, and (vi) TCP + AD + PCL + AD were tested in the distal femoral defect of Sprague-Dawley rats for 6 and 10 weeks. An excellent bone formation inside the micro and macro pores of the scaffolds was observed from histomorphology. Histomorphometric analysis revealed maximum new bone formation in TCP + AD + PCL scaffolds after 6 weeks. No adverse effect of PCL on bioactivity of TCP and in vivo bone formation was observed. All scaffolds with AD showed higher bone formation and reduced TRAP (tartrate resistant acid phosphatase) positive cells activity compared to bare TCP and TCP coated with only PCL. Bare TCP scaffolds showed the highest TRAP positive cells activity followed by TCP + PCL scaffolds, whereas TCP + AD scaffolds showed the lowest TRAP activity. A higher TRAP positive cells activity was observed in TCP + AD + PCL compared to TCP + AD scaffolds after 6 weeks. Our results show that in vivo local AD delivery from PCL-coated 3DP TCP scaffolds could further induce increased early bone formation.
Project description:Researchers are investigating the use of biomaterials with aligned guidance cues, like those provided by aligned electrospun fibers, to facilitate axonal growth across critical-length peripheral nerve defects. To enhance the regenerative outcomes further, these aligned fibers can be designed to provide local, sustained release of therapeutics. The drug fingolimod improved peripheral nerve regeneration in preclinical rodent models by stimulating a pro-regenerative Schwann cell phenotype and axonal growth. However, the systemic delivery of fingolimod for nerve repair can lead to adverse effects, so it is necessary to develop a means of providing sustained delivery of fingolimod local to the injury. Here we created aligned fingolimod-releasing electrospun fibers that provide directional guidance cues in combination with the local, sustained release of fingolimod to enhance neurite outgrowth and stimulate a pro-regenerative Schwann cell phenotype. Electrospun fiber scaffolds were created by blending fingolimod into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) at a w/w% (drug/polymer) of 0.0004, 0.02, or 0.04%. We examined the effectiveness of these scaffolds to stimulate neurite extension in vitro by measuring neurite outgrowth from whole and dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Subsequently, we characterized Schwann cell migration and gene expression in vitro. The results show that drug-loaded PLGA fibers released fingolimod for 28 days, which is the longest reported release of fingolimod from electrospun fibers. Furthermore, the 0.02% fingolimod-loaded fibers enhanced neurite outgrowth from whole and dissociated DRG neurons, increased Schwann cell migration, and reduced the Schwann cell expression of promyelinating factors. The in vitro findings show the potential of the aligned fingolimod-releasing electrospun fibers to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration and serve as a basis for future in vivo studies.
Project description:In order to increase the bone forming ability of MBG-PCL composite scaffold, microporosity was created in the struts of 3D-printed MBG-PCL scaffolds for the manufacturing of a construct with a multiscale porosity consisting of meso- micro- and macropores. 3D-printing imparted macroporosity while the microporosity was created by porogen removal from the struts, and the MBG particles were responsible for the mesoporosity. The scaffolds were 3D-printed using a mixture of PCL, MBG and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) particles, subsequently leached out. Microporous-PCL (pPCL) as a negative control, microporous MBG-PCL (pMBG-PCL) and non-microporous-MBG-PCL (MBG-PCL) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and micro-computed tomography demonstrated that the PBS removal resulted in the formation of micropores inside the struts with porosity of around 30% for both pPCL and pMBG-PCL, with both constructs displaying an overall porosity of 8090%. In contrast, the MBG-PCL group had a microporosity of 6% and an overall porosity of 70%. Early mineralisation was found in the pMBG-PCL post-leaching out and this resulted in the formation a more homogeneous calcium phosphate layer when using a biomimetic mineralisation assay. Mechanical properties ranged from 5 to 25 MPa for microporous and non-microporous specimens, hence microporosity was the determining factor affecting compressive properties. MC3T3-E1 metabolic activity was increased in the pMBG-PCL along with an increased production of RUNX2. Therefore, the microporosity within a 3D-printed bioceramic composite construct may result in additional physical and biological benefits.
Project description:This article presents data related to the research article entitled "The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering" . We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research.
Project description:Calcium phosphate materials are widely used as bone-like scaffolds or coating for metallic hip and knee implants due to their excellent biocompatibility, compositional similarity to natural bone and controllable bioresorbability. Local delivery of drugs or osteogenic factors from scaffolds and implants are required over a desired period of time for an effectual treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule, enhances osteoblastc activity in addition to its anti-osteoclastic activity. However, due to its poor solubility and high intestinal liver metabolism, it showed limited oral efficacy in various preclinical and clinical studies. To enhance its bioavailability and to provide higher release, we have used poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL), poly ethylene glycol (PEG) and poly lactide co glycolide (PLGA) as the polymeric system to enable continuous release of curcumin from the hydroxyapatite matrix for 22 days. Additionally, curcumin was incorporated in plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated Ti6Al4V substrate to study in vitro cell material interaction using human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells for load bearing implants. MTT cell viability assay and morphological characterization by FESEM showed highest cell viability with samples coated with curcumin-PCL-PEG. Finally, 3D printed interconnected macro porous ?-TCP scaffolds were prepared and curcumin-PCL-PEG was loaded to assess the effects of curcumin on in vivo bone regeneration. The presence of curcumin in TCP results in enhanced bone formation after 6 weeks. Complete mineralized bone formation increased from 29.6 % to 44.9% in curcumin-coated scaffolds compared to pure TCP. Results show that local release of curcumin can be designed for both load bearing or non-load bearing implants with the aid of polymers, which can be considered an excellent candidate for wound healing and tissue regeneration applications in bone tissue engineering.
Project description:Osteoinduction and proliferation of bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds have not been studied throughly and are technically challenging. This study aimed to optimize nanocomposites of 3D PCL scaffolds to provide superior adhesion, proliferation and differentiation environment for BMSCs in this scenario.BMSCs were isolated and cultured in a novel 3D tissue culture poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold coated with poly-lysine, hydroxyapatite (HAp), collagen and HAp/collagen. Cell morphology was observed and BMSC biomarkers for osteogenesis, osteoblast differentiation and activation were analyzed.Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that coating materials were uniformly deposited on the surface of PCL scaffolds and BMSCs grew and aggregated to form clusters during 3D culture. Both mRNA and protein levels of the key players of osteogenesis and osteoblast differentiation and activation, including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphates (ALP), osterix, osteocalcin, and RANKL, were significantly higher in BMSCs seeded in PCL scaffolds coated with HAp or HAp/collagen than those seeded in uncoated PCL scaffolds, whereas the expression levels were not significantly different in collagen or poly-lysine coated PCL scaffolds. In addition, poly-lysine, collagen, HAp/collagen, and HAp coated PCL scaffolds had significantly more viable cells than uncoated PCL scaffolds, especially scaffolds with HAp/collagen and collagen-alone coatings. That BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds had remarkably higher ALP activities than those in collagen-coated alone or uncoated PCL scaffolds indicating higher osteogenic differentiation levels of BMSCs in HAp or HAp/collagen PCL scaffolds. Moreover, morphological changes of BMSCs after four-week of 3D culture confirmed that BMSCs successfully differentiated into osteoblast with spread-out phenotype in HAp/collagen coated PCL scaffolds.This study showed a proof of concept for preparing biomimetic 3D poly (?-caprolactone)/ hydroxyapatite/collagen scaffolds with excellent osteoinduction and proliferation capacity for bone regeneration.
Project description:Since the first work by Laurencin and colleagues on the development of polymeric electrospinning for biomedical purposes, the use of electrospinning technology has found broad applications in such areas of tissue regeneration and drug delivery. More recently, coaxial electrospinning has emerged as an important technique to develop scaffolds for regenerative engineering incorporated with drug(s). However, the addition of a softer core layer leads to a reduction in mechanical properties. Here, novel robust tripolymeric triaxially electrospun fibrous scaffolds were developed with a polycaprolactone (PCL) (core layer), a 50:50 poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (sheath layer) and a gelatin (intermediate layer) with a dual drug delivery capability was developed through modified electrospinning. A sharp increase in elastic modulus after the incorporation of PCL in the core of the triaxial fibers in comparison with uniaxial PLGA (50:50) and coaxial PLGA (50:50) (sheath)-gelatin (core) fibers was observed. Thermal analysis of the fibrous scaffolds revealed an interaction between the core-intermediate and sheath-intermediate layers of the triaxial fibers contributing to the higher tensile modulus. A simultaneous dual release of model small molecule Rhodamine B (RhB) and model protein Fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) conjugate incorporated in the sheath and intermediate layers of triaxial fibers was achieved. The tripolymeric, triaxial electrospun systems were seen to be ideal for the support of mesenchymal stem cell growth, as shrinkage of fibers normally found with conventional electrospun systems was minimized. These tripolymeric triaxial electrospun fibers that are biomechanically competent, biocompatible, and capable of dual drug release are designed for regenerative engineering and drug delivery applications.
Project description:Scaffold-based delivery of bioactive molecules capable of directing stem cell differentiation is critical to the development of point-of-care cell therapy for orthopedic repair. Dexamethasone-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HA-DXM) was synthesized and combined with hydrolytically degradable, photo-cross-linkable PEG-bis(2-acryloyloxy propanoate) (PEG-bis-AP) to form semi-IPNs. Dexamethasone (DX) release was limited in physiological buffer and substantially increased in the presence of encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) or exogenous hyaluronidase, confirming that release occurred primarily by a cell-mediated enzymatic mechanism. hMSCs encapsulated in PEG-bis-AP/HA-DXM semi-IPNs increased osteoblast-specific gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and matrix mineralization, attaining levels that were not significantly different from positive controls consisting of hMSCs in PEG-bis-AP/native HA cultured with DX supplementation in the culture medium. These studies demonstrate that PEG-bis-AP/HA-DXM semi-IPNs can provide cell-mediated release of bioactive free DX that induces hMSC osteogenic differentiation. This approach offers an efficient system for local delivery of osteogenic molecules empowering point of care applications.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to achieve a sustained release of hydrophilic l-ascorbic acid 2-phosphate magnesium (ASP) from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds, so as to promote the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells for bone tissue engineering (TE). ASP was loaded and electrospun together with PCL via three electrospinning techniques, i.e., coaxial, emulsion, and blend electrospinning. For blend electrospinning, binary solvent systems of dichloromethane-methanol (DCM-MeOH) and dichloromethane-dimethylformamide (DCM-DMF) were used to achieve the desired ASP release through the effect of solvent polarity and volatility. The scaffold prepared via a blend electrospinning technique with a binary solvent system of DCM-MeOH at a 7:3 ratio demonstrated a desirable, sustained ASP release profile for as long as two weeks, with minimal burst release. However, an undesirable burst release (~100%) was observed within the first 24 h for scaffolds prepared by coaxial electrospinning. Scaffolds prepared by emulsion electrospinning displayed poorer mechanical properties. Sustained releasing blend electrospun scaffold could be a good potential candidate as an ASP-eluting scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
Project description:It is a great challenge to prepare "functional artificial bone" for the repair of large segmental defect, especially in weight-bearing bones. In this study, bioactive HA/PCL composite scaffolds that possess anatomical structure as autogenous bone were fabricated by CT-guided fused deposition modeling technique. The scaffolds can provide mechanical support and possess osteoconduction property. Then the VEGF-165/BMP-2 loaded hydrogel was filled into biomimetic artificial bone spatially to introduce osteoinduction and angioinduction ability via sustained release of these cytokines. It has been revealed that the cytokine-loaded hydrogel possessed good biodegradability and could release the VEGF-165/BMP-2 sustainedly and steadily. The synergistic effect of these two cytokines showed significant stimulation on the osteogenic gene expresssion of osteoblast in vitro and ectopic ossification in vivo. The scaffolds were then implanted into the rabbit tibial defect sites (1.2 cm) for bone regeneration for 12 weeks, indicating the best repair of defect in vivo, which was superior to the pure hydrogel/scaffolds or one-cytokine loaded hydrogel/scaffolds and close to autogenous bone graft. The strategy to construct an "anatomy-structure-function" trinity system as functional artificial bone shows great potential in replacing autogenous bone graft and applying in large bone defect repair clinically in future.