Potential humoral mediators of remote ischemic preconditioning in patients undergoing surgical coronary revascularization.
ABSTRACT: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) by repeated brief cycles of limb ischemia/reperfusion may reduce myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and improve patients' prognosis after elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)5 activation in left ventricular myocardium is associated with RIPC´s cardioprotection. Cytokines and growth hormones typically activate STATs and could therefore act as humoral transfer factors of RIPC´s cardioprotection. We here determined arterial plasma concentrations of 25 different cytokines, growth hormones, and other factors which have previously been associated with cardioprotection, before (baseline)/after RIPC or placebo (n?=?23/23), respectively, and before/after ischemic cardioplegic arrest in CABG patients. RIPC-induced protection was reflected by a 35% reduction of serum troponin I release. With the exception of interleukin-1?, none of the humoral factors changed in their concentrations after RIPC or placebo, respectively. Interleukin-1?, when normalized to baseline, increased after RIPC (280?±?56%) but not with placebo (97?±?15%). The interleukin-1? concentration remained increased until after ischemic cardioplegic arrest and was also higher than with placebo in absolute concentrations (25?±?6 versus 16?±?3?pg/mL). Only interleukin-1? possibly fulfills the criteria which would be expected from a substance to be released in response to RIPC and to protect the myocardium during ischemic cardioplegic arrest.
Project description:Background Remote ischemic preconditioning ( RIPC ) by repeated brief cycles of limb ischemia/reperfusion attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. We aimed to identify a functional parameter reflecting the RIPC -induced protection in human. Therefore, we measured mitochondrial function in right atrial tissue and contractile function of isolated right atrial trabeculae before and during hypoxia/reoxygenation from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with RIPC or placebo, respectively. Methods and Results One hundred thirty-seven patients under isoflurane anesthesia underwent RIPC (3×5 minutes blood pressure cuff inflation on the left upper arm/5 minutes deflation, n=67) or placebo (cuff uninflated, n=70), and right atrial appendages were harvested before ischemic cardioplegic arrest. Myocardial protection by RIPC was assessed from serum troponin I/T concentrations over 72 hours after surgery. Atrial tissue was obtained for isolation of mitochondria ( RIPC /placebo: n=10/10). Trabeculae were dissected for contractile function measurements at baseline and after hypoxia/reoxygenation (60 min/30 min) and for western blot analysis after hypoxia/reoxygenation ( RIPC /placebo, n=57/60). Associated with cardioprotection by RIPC (26% decrease in the area under the curve of troponin I/T), mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate-stimulated complex I respiration (+10%), adenosine triphosphate production (+46%), and calcium retention capacity (+37%) were greater, whereas reactive oxygen species production (-24%) was less with RIPC than placebo. Contractile function was improved by RIPC (baseline, +7%; reoxygenation, +24%). Expression and phosphorylation of proteins, which have previously been associated with cardioprotection, were not different between RIPC and placebo. Conclusions Cardioprotection by RIPC goes along with improved mitochondrial and contractile function of human right atrial tissue. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 01406678.
Project description:Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) by repeated brief limb ischemia/reperfusion reduces myocardial injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in left ventricular (LV) myocardium at early reperfusion is associated with such protection. Autophagy, i.e., removal of dysfunctional cellular components through lysosomes, has been proposed as one mechanism of cardioprotection. Therefore, we analyzed whether or not the protection by RIPC is associated with activated autophagy.CABG patients were randomized to undergo RIPC (3×5 min blood pressure cuff inflation/5 min deflation) or placebo (cuff deflated) before skin incision (n?=?10/10). Transmural myocardial biopsies were taken from the LV before cardioplegia (baseline) and at early (5-10 min) reperfusion. RIPC-induced protection was reflected by decreased serum troponin I concentration area under the curve (194±17 versus 709±129 ng/ml × 72 h, p?=?0.002). Western blotting for beclin-1-phosphorylation and protein expression of autophagy-related gene 5-12 (ATG5-12) complex, light chain 3 (LC3), parkin, and p62 was performed. STAT3-, STAT5- and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-phosphorylation was used as positive control to confirm signal activation by ischemia/reperfusion.Signals of all analyzed autophagy proteins did not differ between baseline and early reperfusion and not between RIPC and placebo. STAT5-phosphorylation was greater at early reperfusion only with RIPC (2.2-fold, p?=?0.02). STAT3- and ERK1/2-phosphorylation were greater at early reperfusion with placebo and RIPC (?2.7-fold versus baseline, p?0.05).Protection through RIPC in patients undergoing CABG surgery does not appear to be associated with enhanced autophagy in LV myocardium at early reperfusion.
Project description:Although remote ischemic pre-conditioning (RIPC) reduced infarct size in animal experiments and proof-of-concept clinical trials, recent phase III trials failed to confirm cardioprotection during cardiac surgery. Here, we characterized the kinetic properties of humoral factors that are released after RIPC, as well as the signal transduction pathways that were responsible for cardioprotection in an ex vivo model of global ischemia reperfusion injury. Venous blood from 20 healthy volunteers was collected at baseline and 5 min, 30 min, 1 h, 6 h, and daily from 1 to 7 days after RIPC (3 × 5/5 min upper-limb ischemia/reperfusion). Plasma-dialysates (cut-off: 12 to 14 kDa; dilution: 1:20) were infused into Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts subjected to 20/120 min global ischemia/reperfusion. Infarct size and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3, STAT5, extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B were determined. In a subgroup of plasma-dialysates, an inhibitor of STAT3 (Stattic) was used in mouse hearts. Perfusion with baseline-dialysate resulted in an infarct size of 39% of ventricular mass (interquartile range: 36% to 42%). Perfusion with dialysates obtained 5 min to 6 days after RIPC significantly reduced infarct size by ?50% and increased STAT3 phosphorylation beyond that with baseline-dialysate. Inhibition of STAT3 abrogated these effects. These results suggest that RIPC induces the release of cardioprotective, dialyzable factor(s) within 5 min, and that circulate for up to 6 days. STAT3 is activated in murine myocardium by RIPC-induced human humoral factors and is causally involved in cardioprotection.
Project description:Post-translational modification of proteins by O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is cardioprotective but its role in cardioprotection by remote ischaemic preconditioning (rIPC) and the reduced efficacy of rIPC in type 2 diabetes mellitus is unknown. In this study we achieved mechanistic insight into the remote stimulus mediating and the target organ response eliciting the cardioprotective effect by rIPC in non-diabetic and diabetic myocardium and the influence of O-GlcNAcylation.The cardioprotective capacity and the influence on myocardial O-GlcNAc levels of plasma dialysate from eight healthy volunteers and eight type 2 diabetic patients drawn before and after subjection to an rIPC stimulus were tested on human isolated atrial trabeculae subjected to ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Dialysate from healthy volunteers exposed to rIPC improved post-ischaemic haemodynamic recovery (40 ± 6 vs. 16 ± 2%; P < 0.01) and increased myocardial O-GlcNAc levels. Similar observations were made with dialysate from diabetic patients before exposure to rIPC (43 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 2%; P < 0.001) but no additional cardioprotection or further increase in O-GlcNAc levels was achieved by perfusion with dialysate after exposure to rIPC (44 ± 4 and 42 ± 5 vs. 43 ± 3%; P = 0.7). The glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFAT) inhibitor azaserine abolished the cardioprotective effects and the increment in myocardial O-GlcNAc levels afforded by plasma from diabetic patients and healthy volunteers treated with rIPC.rIPC and diabetes mellitus per se influence myocardial O-GlcNAc levels through circulating humoral factors. O-GlcNAc signalling participates in mediating rIPC-induced cardioprotection and maintaining a state of inherent chronic activation of cardioprotection in diabetic myocardium, restricting it from further protection by rIPC.
Project description:Preclinical and proof-of-concept studies suggest a cardioprotective effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC). However, two major clinical trials (ERICCA and RIPHeart) failed to show cardioprotection by RIPC. Aging and gender might be confounding factors of RIPC affecting the inter-organ signalling. Theoretically, confounding factors might prevent the protective potency of RIPC by interfering with cardiac signalling pathways, i.e. at the heart, and/or by affecting the release of humoral factor(s) from the remote organ, e.g. from the upper limb. This study investigated the effect of age and sex on the release of cardioprotective humoral factor(s) after RIPC in humans.Blood samples were taken from young and aged, male and female volunteers before (control) and after RIPC (RIPC). To investigate the protective potency of the different plasma groups obtained from the human volunteers, isolated perfused hearts of young rats were used as bioassay. For this, hearts were perfused with the volunteer plasma (0.5% of coronary flow) before hearts underwent global ischemia and reperfusion. In addition, to characterize the protective potency of humoral factor(s) after RIPC to initiate protection not only in young but also aged hearts, plasma from young male volunteers were transferred to isolated hearts of aged rats. At the end of the experimental protocol, infarct sizes were determined by TTC-staining (expressed as % of left ventricle).RIPC plasma of young male volunteers reduced infarct size in young rat hearts from 47?±?5 to 31?±?10% (p?=?0.02). In contrast, RIPC plasma of aged male volunteers had no protective effect. Infarct size after application of control plasma of young female volunteers was 33?±?10%, and female RIPC plasma did not lead to an infarct size reduction. RIPC plasma of old female initiated no cardioprotection. RIPC plasma of young male volunteers reduced infarct size in isolated hearts from aged rats (41?±?5% vs. 51?±?5%; p?<?0.001).The release of humoral factor(s) into the blood after RIPC in humans is affected by both age and sex. In addition, these blood borne factor(s) are capable to initiate cardioprotection within the aged heart.
Project description:Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) by repeated brief cycles of limb ischemia/reperfusion reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. In left ventricular (LV) biopsies from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), only the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 was associated with RIPC's cardioprotection. We have now used an unbiased, non-hypothesis-driven proteomics and phosphoproteomics approach to analyze LV biopsies from patients undergoing CABG and from pigs undergoing coronary occlusion/reperfusion without (sham) and with RIPC. False discovery rate-based statistics identified a higher prostaglandin reductase 2 expression at early reperfusion with RIPC than with sham in patients. In pigs, the phosphorylation of 116 proteins was different between baseline and early reperfusion with RIPC and/or with sham. The identified proteins were not identical for patients and pigs, but in-silico pathway analysis of proteins with ?2-fold higher expression/phosphorylation at early reperfusion with RIPC in comparison to sham revealed a relation to mitochondria and cytoskeleton in both species. Apart from limitations of the proteomics analysis per se, the small cohorts, the sampling/sample processing and the number of uncharacterized/unverifiable porcine proteins may have contributed to this largely unsatisfactory result.
Project description:Despite major advances in early revascularization techniques, cardiovascular diseases are still the leading cause of death worldwide, and myocardial infarctions contribute heavily to this. Over the past decades, it has become apparent that reperfusion of blood to a previously ischemic area of the heart causes damage in and of itself, and that this ischemia reperfusion induced injury can be reduced by up to 50% by mechanical manipulation of the blood flow to the heart. The recent discovery of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) provides a non-invasive approach of inducing this cardioprotection at a distance. Finding its endogenous mediators and their operative mode is an important step toward increasing the ischemic tolerance. The release of humoral factor(s) upon RIPC was recently demonstrated and several candidate proteins were published as possible mediators of the cardioprotection. Before clinical applicability, these potential biomarkers and their efficiency must be validated, a task made challenging by the large heterogeneity in reported data and results. Here, in an attempt to reproduce and provide more experimental data on these mediators, we conducted an unbiased in-depth analysis of the human plasma proteome before and after RIPC. From the 68 protein markers reported in the literature, only 28 could be mapped to manually reviewed (Swiss-Prot) protein sequences. 23 of them were monitored in our untargeted experiment. However, their significant regulation could not be reproducibly estimated. In fact, among the 394 plasma proteins we accurately quantified, no significant regulation could be confidently and reproducibly assessed. This indicates that it is difficult to both monitor and reproduce published data from experiments exploring for RIPC induced plasma proteomic regulations, and suggests that further work should be directed towards small humoral factors. To simplify this task, we made our proteomic dataset available via ProteomeXchange, where scientists can mine for novel potential targets.
Project description:The following protocol is of use to evaluate impaired cardiac function or myocardial stunning following moderate ischemic insults. The technique is useful for modeling ischemic injury associated with numerous clinically relevant phenomenon including cardiac surgery with cardioplegic arrest and cardiopulmonary bypass, off-pump CABG, transplant, angina, brief ischemia, etc. The protocol presents a general method to model hypothermic hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion in rodent hearts focusing on measurement of myocardial contractile function. In brief, a mouse heart is perfused in langendorff mode, instrumented with an intraventricular balloon, and baseline cardiac functional parameters are recorded. Following stabilization, the heart is then subject to brief infusion of a cardioprotective hypothermic cardioplegia solution to initiate diastolic arrest. Cardioplegia is delivered intermittently over 2 hr. The heart is then reperfused and warmed to normothermic temperatures and recovery of myocardial function is monitored. Use of this protocol results in reliable depressed cardiac contractile function free from gross myocardial tissue damage in rodents.
Project description:: Autophagy is a cellular process by which mammalian cells degrade and assist in recycling damaged organelles and proteins. This study aimed to ascertain the role of autophagy in remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC)-induced cardioprotection. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to RIPC at the hindlimb followed by a 30-min transient blockade of the left coronary artery to simulate ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Hindlimb muscle and the heart were excised 24 h post reperfusion. RIPC prior to I/R upregulated autophagy in the rat heart at 24 h post reperfusion. In vitro, autophagy inhibition or stimulation prior to RIPC, respectively, either ameliorated or stimulated the cardioprotective effect, measured as improved cell viability to mimic the preconditioning effect. Recombinant interleukin-6 (IL-6) treatment prior to I/R increased in vitro autophagy in a dose-dependent manner, activating the Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway without affecting the other kinase pathways, such as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and glycogen synthase kinase 3 Beta (GSK-3?) pathways. Prior to I/R, in vitro inhibition of the JAK-STAT pathway reduced autophagy upregulation despite recombinant IL-6 pre-treatment. Autophagy is an essential component of RIPC-induced cardioprotection that may upregulate autophagy through an IL-6/JAK-STAT-dependent mechanism, thus identifying a potentially new therapeutic option for the treatment of ischemic heart disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has emerged as an attractive strategy in clinical settings. Despite convincing evidence of the critical role played by circulating humoral mediators, their actual identities remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify RIPC-induced humoral mediators using a proteomic approach.<h4>Methods</h4>and Results Rats were exposed to 10-min limb ischemia followed by 5- (RIPC 5') or 10-min (RIPC 10') reperfusion prior to blood sampling. The control group only underwent blood sampling. Plasma samples were analyzed using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization - time of flight - mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Three protein peaks were selected for their significant increase in RIPC 10'. They were identified and confirmed as apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I). Additional rats were exposed to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and assigned to one of the following groups RIPC+myocardial infarction (MI) (10-min limb ischemia followed by 10-min reperfusion initiated 20 minutes prior to myocardial I/R), ApoA-I+MI (10 mg/kg ApoA-I injection 10 minutes before myocardial I/R), and MI (no further intervention). In comparison with untreated MI rats, RIPC reduced infarct size (52.2±3.7% in RIPC+MI vs. 64.9±2.6% in MI; p<0.05). Similarly, ApoA-I injection decreased infarct size (50.9±3.8%; p<0.05 vs. MI).<h4>Conclusions</h4>RIPC was associated with a plasmatic increase in ApoA-I. Furthermore, ApoA-I injection before myocardial I/R recapitulated the cardioprotection offered by RIPC in rats. This data suggests that ApoA-I may be a protective blood-borne factor involved in the RIPC mechanism.