Identification of genes and pathways potentially related to PHF20 by gene expression profile analysis of glioblastoma U87 cell line.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive brain tumor associated with a poor prognosis. Plant homeodomain finger protein 20 (PHF20) is highly expressed in primary human gliomas and its expression is associated with tumor grade. However, the molecular mechanism by which PHF20 regulates glioblastoma remains poorly understood. METHODS:Genome wide gene expression analysis was performed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in U87 cells with PHF20 gene knockdown. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses were performed to investigate the functions and pathways of DEGs. Pathway-net and signal-net analyses were conducted to identify the key genes and pathways related to PHF20. RESULTS:Expression of 540 genes, including FEN1 and CCL3, were significantly altered upon PHF20 gene silencing. GO analysis results showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in small molecule metabolic and apoptotic processes. Pathway analysis indicated that DEGs were mainly involved in cancer and metabolic pathways. The MAPK, apoptosis and p53 signaling pathways were identified as the hub pathways in the pathway network, while PLCB1, NRAS and PIK3 s were hub genes in the signaling network. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicated that PHF20 is a pivotal upstream regulator. It affects the occurrence and development of glioma by regulating a series of tumor-related genes, such as FEN1, CCL3, PLCB1, NRAS and PIK3s, and activation of apoptosis signaling pathways. Therefore, PHF20 might be a novel biomarker for early diagnosis, and a potential target for glioblastoma therapies.
Project description:It is well known spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause chronic neuropathic pain (NP); however its underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. This study aimed to disclose differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and activated signaling pathways in association with SCI induced chronic NP, in order to identify its diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Microarray dataset GSE5296 has been downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. Significant analysis of microarray (SAM), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis, and pathway network analysis have been used to compare changes of DEGs and signaling pathways between the SCI and sham-injury group. As a result, DEGs analysis showed there were 592 DEGs with significantly altered expression; among them Ccl3 expression showed the highest upregulation which implicated its association with SCI induced chronic NP. Moreover, KEGG analysis found 209 pathways changed significantly; among them the most significantly activated one is MAPK signaling pathway, which is in line with KEGG analysis results. Our results show Ccl3 is highly associated with SCI induced chronic NP; as the exosomes with Ccl3 can be easily and efficiently detected in peripheral blood, Ccl3 may serve as a potential prognostic target for the diagnosis and treatment of SCI induced chronic NP.
Project description:Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is a very rare malignancy; the pathogenesis of which is still not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to identify hub genes and pathways in ATC by microarray expression profiling. Two independent datasets (GSE27155 and GSE53072) were downloaded from GEO database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ATC tissues and normal thyroid tissues were screened out by the limma package and then enriched by gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway analysis. The hub genes were selected by protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis. A total of 141 common upregulated and 87 common downregulated genes were screened out. These DEGs were significantly enriched in the phagosome and NF-kappa B signaling pathway. Through PPI analysis, TOP2A, TYMS, CCNB1, RACGAP1, FEN1, PRC1, and UBE2C were selected as hub genes, which were highly expressed in ATC tissues. TCGA data suggested that the expression levels of TOP2A, TYMS, FEN1, and PRC1 genes were also upregulated in other histological subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. High expression of TOP2A, TYMS, FEN1, PRC1, or UBE2C gene significantly decreased disease-free survival of patients with other thyroid carcinomas. In conclusion, the present study identified several hub genes and pathways, which will contribute to elucidating the pathogenesis of ATC and providing therapeutic targets for ATC.
Project description:Insulinoma is a rare type tumor and its genetic features remain largely unknown. This study aimed to search for potential key genes and relevant enriched pathways of insulinoma.The gene expression data from GSE73338 were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between insulinoma tissues and normal pancreas tissues, followed by pathway enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network construction, and module analysis. The expressions of candidate key genes were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in insulinoma tissues.A total of 1632 DEGs were obtained, including 1117 upregulated genes and 514 downregulated genes. Pathway enrichment results showed that upregulated DEGs were significantly implicated in insulin secretion, and downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in pancreatic secretion. PPI network analysis revealed 7 hub genes with degrees more than 10, including GCG (glucagon), GCGR (glucagon receptor), PLCB1 (phospholipase C, beta 1), CASR (calcium sensing receptor), F2R (coagulation factor II thrombin receptor), GRM1 (glutamate metabotropic receptor 1), and GRM5 (glutamate metabotropic receptor 5). DEGs involved in the significant modules were enriched in calcium signaling pathway, protein ubiquitination, and platelet degranulation. Quantitative RT-PCR data confirmed that the expression trends of these hub genes were similar to the results of bioinformatic analysis.The present study demonstrated that candidate DEGs and enriched pathways were the potential critical molecule events involved in the development of insulinoma, and these findings were useful for better understanding of insulinoma genesis.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common tumor of the central nervous system with poor prognosis. PHF20 was highly expressed in primary human glioma specimens. However, the molecular mechanism of by which PHF20 regulated glioblastoma remains poorly understood. In the study, we investigate the gene expression profile of that regulated by PHF20 in U87 cells. Overall design: The U87 cell lines were infected with shPHF20 while shCON was used as control. And the assays were performed in triplicate. Total RNA in the samples was isolated for double-strand cDNA synthesis, IVT and aRNA fragmentation. Then, it was processed for hybridization with The PrimeView™ Human Gene Expression Array (Affymetrix). The raw data were normalized, and then differentially expressed genes were screened. Finally, gene ontology analysis, KEGG pathway analysis and network analysis were performed to find the hub genes and pathways that regulated by PHF20.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify the common molecular mechanisms of multiple glioma subtypes, including astrocytoma, glioblastoma and oligodendroglioma, in addition to the specific mechanisms of different types. The gene expression profile set GSE4290 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) from three types of glioma, relative to non-tumor tissue, were calculated by the t-test method with a linear regression model. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of the DEGs was performed. GeneVenn online analysis software was used for the comparison of the DEGs between subtypes. A total of 795 DEGs, including 619 up and 176 downregulated DEGs were screened from the astrocytoma expression profiles; these were enriched in the KEGG pathways of 'neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction' (upregulated) and 'Wnt signaling pathway' (downregulated). Protein-protein interaction networks for astrocytoma, glioblastoma and oligodendroglioma were constructed with 1,617, 7,027 and 1,172 pairs, respectively. A total of 595 common DEGs were obtained between the three subtypes, which were enriched in pathways associated with neural signaling. Glioblastoma is a subtype of astrocytoma; there were 195 DEGs common between these subtypes that were not also associated with oligodendroglioma. DEGs unique to astrocytoma, glioblastoma and oligodendroglioma were associated with the development of the nervous system, the cell cycle and cell matrix components, respectively. The screened DEG p53 gene is likely to be critical for glioma development, including via the Wnt and p53 signaling pathways. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 genes were also likely to be important in the mechanism of glioma development, and were associated with the cell cycle and p53 signaling pathways. Immune system-associated and cell matrix component pathways may be unique signaling pathways associated with astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma, respectively.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common yet deadly form of malignant cancer. However, the specific mechanisms involved in HCC diagnosis have not yet fully elucidated. Herein, we screened four publically available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) expression profiles (GSE14520, GSE29721, GSE45267 and GSE60502), and used them to identify 409 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 142 and 267 up- and down-regulated genes, respectively. The DAVID database was used to look for functionally enriched pathways among DEGs, and the STRING database and Cytoscape platform were used to generate a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network for these DEGs. The cytoHubba plug-in was utilized to detect 185 hub genes, and three key clustering modules were constructed with the MCODE plug-in. Gene functional enrichment analyses of these three key clustering modules were further performed, and nine core genes including BIRC5, DLGAP5, DTL, FEN1, KIAA0101, KIF4A, MCM2, MKI67, and RFC4, were identified in the most critical cluster. Subsequently, the hierarchical clustering and expression of core genes in TCGA liver cancer tissues were analyzed using the UCSC Cancer Genomics Browser, and whether elevated core gene expression was linked to a poor prognosis in HCC patients was assessed using the GEPIA database. The PPI of the nine core genes revealed an interaction between FEN1, MCM2, RFC4, and BIRC5. Furthermore, the expression of FEN1 was positively correlated with that of three other core genes in TCGA liver cancer tissues. FEN1 expression in HCC and other tumor types was assessed with the FIREBROWSE and ONCOMINE databases, and results were verified in HCC samples and hepatoma cells. FEN1 levels were also positively correlated with tumor size, distant metastasis and vascular invasion. In conclusion, we identified nine core genes associated with HCC development, offering novel insight into HCC progression. In particular, the aberrantly elevated FEN1 may represent a potential biomarker for HCC diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:Osteoporosis is a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to identify key genes in osteoporosis.Microarray data sets GSE56815 and GSE56814, comprising 67 osteoporosis blood samples and 62 control blood samples, were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in osteoporosis using Limma package (3.2.1) and Meta-MA packages. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses were performed to identify biological functions. Furthermore, the transcriptional regulatory network was established between the top 20 DEGs and transcriptional factors using the UCSC ENCODE Genome Browser. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was applied to investigate the diagnostic value of several DEGs.A total of 1320 DEGs were obtained, of which 855 were up-regulated and 465 were down-regulated. These differentially expressed genes were enriched in Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, mainly associated with gene expression and osteoclast differentiation. In the transcriptional regulatory network, there were 6038 interactions pairs involving 88 transcriptional factors. In addition, the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction result validated the expression of several genes (VPS35, FCGR2A, TBCA, HIRA, TYROBP, and JUND). Finally, ROC analyses showed that VPS35, HIRA, PHF20 and NFKB2 had a significant diagnostic value for osteoporosis.Genes such as VPS35, FCGR2A, TBCA, HIRA, TYROBP, JUND, PHF20, NFKB2, RPL35A and BICD2 may be considered to be potential pathogenic genes of osteoporosis and may be useful for further study of the mechanisms underlying osteoporosis.Cite this article: B. Xia, Y. Li, J. Zhou, B. Tian, L. Feng. Identification of potential pathogenic genes associated with osteoporosis. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:640-648. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.612.BJR-2017-0102.R1.
Project description:Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumor for which no cure is available. To identify new therapeutic targets, we performed a mutation analysis of kinase genes in glioblastoma.Database mining and a literature search identified 76 kinases that have been found to be mutated at least twice in multiple cancer types before. Among those we selected 34 kinase genes for mutation analysis. We also included IDH1, IDH2, PTEN, TP53 and NRAS, genes that are known to be mutated at considerable frequencies in glioblastoma. In total, 174 exons of 39 genes in 113 glioblastoma samples from 109 patients and 16 high-grade glioma (HGG) cell lines were sequenced.Our mutation analysis led to the identification of 148 non-synonymous somatic mutations, of which 25 have not been reported before in glioblastoma. Somatic mutations were found in TP53, PTEN, IDH1, PIK3CA, EGFR, BRAF, EPHA3, NRAS, TGFBR2, FLT3 and RPS6KC1. Mapping the mutated genes into known signaling pathways revealed that the large majority of them plays a central role in the PI3K-AKT pathway.The knowledge that at least 50% of glioblastoma tumors display mutational activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway should offer new opportunities for the rational development of therapeutic approaches for glioblastomas. However, due to the development of resistance mechanisms, kinase inhibition studies targeting the PI3K-AKT pathway for relapsing glioblastoma have mostly failed thus far. Other therapies should be investigated, targeting early events in gliomagenesis that involve both kinases and non-kinases.
Project description:Four phospholipase C ? (PLCB) isoforms, PLCB1, PLCB2, PLCB3 and PLCB4, have been previously investigated regarding their roles in the metabolism of inositol lipids and cancer. The present study aimed to explore the association between PLCB1?4 and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Data from 212 patients with hepatitis B virus?associated HCC were used to analyze the diagnostic and prognostic significance of PLCB genes in. A nomogram predicted the survival probability. Gene set enrichment analysis explored gene ontology terms and the metabolic pathways associated with PLCB genes. Validation of the prognostic values of PLCB genes was performed using the Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis website. PLCB1 and PLCB2 were revealed to have diagnostic value for HCC (0.869 and 0.836 area under the curve, respectively; both P?0.05). The combination analysis of these genes had an advantage over each alone (0.905 PLCB1 and PLCB2, and 0.877 PLCB1 and PLCB3 area under the curve; P?0.05). PLCB1 was associated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence?free survival (RFS; adjusted P=0.002 and P=0.001, respectively). A nomogram predicted survival probability of patients with HCC at 1, 3? and 5?years. Gene set enrichment analysis indicated that PLCB1 and PLCB2 are involved in the cell cycle, cell division and the PPAR signaling pathway, among other functions. Validation using GEPIA revealed that PLCB1 and PLCB2 were associated with OS and PLCB1 and PLCB4 were associated with RFS. PLCB1 and PLCB2 exhibited diagnostic value for HCC and their combination had an advantage over each individually. PLCB1 has OS and RFS prognostic value for patients with HCC.
Project description:As the molecular mechanisms of Brucella ovis pathogenicity are not completely clear, we have applied a transcriptome approach to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RAW264.7 macrophage infected with B. ovis. The DEGs related to immune pathway were identified by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the transcriptome sequencing data. In total, we identified 337 up-regulated and 264 down-regulated DEGs in B. ovis-infected group versus mock group. Top 20 pathways were enriched by KEGG analysis and 20 GO by functional enrichment analysis in DEGs involved in the molecular function, cellular component, and biological process and so on, which revealed multiple immunological pathways in RAW264.7 macrophage cells in response to B. ovis infection, including inflammatory response, immune system process, immune response, cytokine activity, chemotaxis, chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, chemokine activity, and CCR chemokine receptor binding. qRT-PCR results showed Ccl2 (ENSMUST00000000193), Ccl2 (ENSMUST00000124479), Ccl3 (ENSMUST00000001008), Hmox1 (ENSMUST00000005548), Hmox1 (ENSMUST00000159631), Cxcl2 (ENSMUST00000075433), Cxcl2 (ENSMUST00000200681), Cxcl2 (ENSMUST00000200919), and Cxcl2 (ENSMUST00000202317). Our findings firstly elucidate the pathways involved in B. ovis-induced host immune response, which may lay the foundation for revealing the bacteria-host interaction and demonstrating the pathogenic mechanism of B. ovis.