Role of ADAM10 in intestinal crypt homeostasis and tumorigenesis.
ABSTRACT: A disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) are a family of mSultidomain, membrane-anchored proteases that regulate diverse cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis and other cell signaling events. Catalytically-active ADAMs act as ectodomain sheddases that proteolytically cleave type I and type II transmembrane proteins and some GPI-anchored proteins from the cellular surface. ADAMs can also modulate other cellular signaling events through a process known as regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP). Through their proteolytic activity, ADAMs can rapidly modulate key cell signaling pathways in response to changes in the extracellular environment (e.g. inflammation) and play a central role in coordinating intercellular communication. Dysregulation of these processes through aberrant expression, or sustained ADAM activity, is linked to chronic inflammation, inflammation-associated cancer and tumorigenesis. ADAM10 was the first disintegrin-metalloproteinase demonstrated to have proteolytic activity and is the prototypic ADAM associated with RIP activity (e.g. sequential Notch receptor processing). ADAM10 is abundantly expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract and during normal intestinal homeostasis ADAM10 regulates many cellular processes associated with intestinal development, cell fate specification and maintenance of intestinal stem cell/progenitor populations. In addition, several signaling pathways that undergo ectodomain shedding by ADAM10 (e.g. Notch, EGFR/ErbB, IL-6/sIL-6R) help control intestinal injury/regenerative responses and may drive intestinal inflammation and colon cancer initiation and progression. Here, I review some of the proposed functions of ADAM10 associated with intestinal crypt homeostasis and tumorigenesis within the gastrointestinal tract in vivo. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis as a Regulatory Event in Pathophysiology edited by Stefan Rose-John.
Project description:The Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR) is a cell adhesion molecule originally characterized as a virus receptor but subsequently shown to be involved in physiological processes such as neuronal and heart development, epithelial tight junction integrity, and tumour suppression. Proteolysis of cell adhesion molecules and a wide variety of other cell surface proteins serves as a mechanism for protein turnover and, in some cases, cell signaling. Metalloproteases such as A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease (ADAM) family members cleave cell surface receptors to release their substrates' ectodomains, while the presenilin/?-secretase complex mediates regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), releasing intracellular domain fragments from the plasma membrane. In the case of some substrates such as Notch and amyloid precursor protein (APP), the released intracellular domains enter the nucleus to modulate gene expression. We report that CAR ectodomain is constitutively shed from glioma cells and developing neurons, and is also shed when cells are treated with the phorbol ester phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and the calcium ionophore ionomycin. We identified ADAM10 as a sheddase of CAR using assays involving shRNA knockdown and rescue, overexpression of wild-type ADAM10 and inhibition of ADAM10 activity by addition of its prodomain. In vitro peptide cleavage, mass spectrometry and mutagenesis revealed the amino acids M224 to L227 of CAR as the site of ADAM10-mediated ectodomain cleavage. CAR also undergoes RIP by the presenilin/?-secretase complex, and the intracellular domain of CAR enters the nucleus. Ectodomain shedding is a prerequisite for RIP of CAR. Thus, CAR belongs to the increasing list of cell surface molecules that undergo ectodomain shedding and that are substrates for ?-secretase-mediated RIP.
Project description:Ectodomain cleavage by A-disintegrin and -metalloproteases (ADAMs) releases many important biologically active substrates and is therefore tightly controlled. Part of the regulation occurs on the level of the enzymes and affects their cell surface abundance and catalytic activity. ADAM-dependent proteolysis occurs outside the plasma membrane but is mostly controlled by intracellular signals. However, the intracellular domains (ICDs) of ADAM10 and -17 can be removed without consequences for induced cleavage, and so far it is unclear how intracellular signals address cleavage. We therefore explored whether substrates themselves could be chosen for proteolysis via ICD modification. We report here that CD44 (ADAM10 substrate), a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) coreceptor required for cellular migration, and pro-NRG1 (ADAM17 substrate), which releases the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand neuregulin required for axonal outgrowth and myelination, are indeed posttranslationally modified at their ICDs. Tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA)-induced CD44 cleavage requires dephosphorylation of ICD serine 291, while induced neuregulin release depends on the phosphorylation of several NRG1-ICD serines, in part mediated by protein kinase C? (PKC?). Downregulation of PKC? inhibits neuregulin release and reduces ex vivo neurite outgrowth and myelination of trigeminal ganglion explants. Our results suggest that specific selection among numerous substrates of a given ADAM is determined by ICD modification of the substrate.
Project description:The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) are a fascinating family of transmembrane and secreted proteins with important roles in regulating cell phenotype via their effects on cell adhesion, migration, proteolysis and signalling. Though all ADAMs contain metalloproteinase domains, in humans only 13 of the 21 genes in the family encode functional proteases, indicating that at least for the other eight members, protein-protein interactions are critical aspects of their biological functions. The functional ADAM metalloproteinases are involved in "ectodomain shedding" of diverse growth factors, cytokines, receptors and adhesion molecules. The archetypal activity is shown by ADAM-17 (tumour necrosis factor-alpha convertase, TACE), which is the principal protease involved in the activation of pro-TNF-alpha, but whose sheddase functions cover a broad range of cell surface molecules. In particular, ADAM-17 is required for generation of the active forms of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) ligands, and its function is essential for the development of epithelial tissues. Several other ADAMs have important sheddase functions in particular tissue contexts. Another major family member, ADAM-10, is a principal player in signalling via the Notch and Eph/ephrin pathways. For a growing number of substrates, foremost among them being Notch, cleavage by ADAM sheddases is essential for their subsequent "regulated intramembrane proteolysis" (RIP), which generates cleaved intracellular domains that translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene transcription. Several ADAMs play roles in spermatogenesis and sperm function, potentially by effecting maturation of sperm and their adhesion and migration in the uterus. Other non-catalytic ADAMs function in the CNS via effects on guidance mechanisms. The ADAM family are thus fundamental to many control processes in development and homeostasis, and unsurprisingly they are also linked to pathological states when their functions are dysregulated, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, Alzheimer's disease. This review will provide an overview of current knowledge of the human ADAMs, discussing their structure, function, regulation and disease involvement.
Project description:Cleavage of membrane-anchored proteins by ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) endopeptidases plays a key role in a wide variety of biological signal transduction and protein turnover processes. Among ADAM family members, ADAM10 stands out as particularly important because it is both responsible for regulated proteolysis of Notch receptors and catalyzes the non-amyloidogenic ?-secretase cleavage of the Alzheimer's precursor protein (APP). We present here the X-ray crystal structure of the ADAM10 ectodomain, which, together with biochemical and cellular studies, reveals how access to the enzyme active site is regulated. The enzyme adopts an unanticipated architecture in which the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain partially occludes the enzyme active site, preventing unfettered substrate access. Binding of a modulatory antibody to the cysteine-rich domain liberates the catalytic domain from autoinhibition, enhancing enzymatic activity toward a peptide substrate. Together, these studies reveal a mechanism for regulation of ADAM activity and offer a roadmap for its modulation.
Project description:ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases) are a family of multidomain transmembrane glycoproteins with diverse roles in physiology and diseases, with several members being drug targets for cancer and inflammation therapies. The spatial organization of the ADAM extracellular segment and its influence on the function of ADAMs have been unclear. Although most members of the ADAM family are active zinc metalloproteinases, 8 of 21 ADAMs lack functional metalloproteinase domains and are implicated in protein-protein interactions instead of membrane protein ectodomain shedding. One of such non-proteinase ADAMs, ADAM22, acts as a receptor on the surface of the postsynaptic neuron to regulate synaptic signal transmission. The crystal structure of the full ectodomain of mature human ADAM22 shows that it is a compact four-leaf clover with the metalloproteinase-like domain held in the concave face of a rigid module formed by the disintegrin, cysteine-rich, and epidermal growth factor-like domains. The loss of metalloproteinase activity is ensured by the absence of critical catalytic residues, the filling of the substrate groove, and the steric hindrance by the cysteine-rich domain. The structure, combined with calorimetric experiments, suggests distinct roles of three putative calcium ions bound to ADAM22, with one in the metalloproteinase-like domain being regulatory and two in the disintegrin domain being structural. The metalloproteinase-like domain contacts the rest of ADAM22 with discontinuous, hydrophilic, and poorly complemented interactions, suggesting the possibility of modular movement of ADAM22 and other ADAMs. The ADAM22 structure provides a framework for understanding how different ADAMs exert their adhesive function and shedding activities.
Project description:The ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteases) are transmembrane multidomain proteins implicated in multiple biological processes including proteolysis, cell adhesion, cell fusion, cell proliferation and cell migration. Of these varied activities, the best studied is their role in proteolysis. However, of the 22 ADAMs believed to be functional in humans, only approximately a half possess matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-like protease activity. In contrast to MMPs which are mostly implicated in the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, the main ADAM substrates are the ectodomains of type I and type II transmembrane proteins. These include growth factor/cytokine precursors, growth factor/cytokine receptors and adhesion proteins. Recently, several different ADAMs, especially ADAM17, have been shown to play a role in the development and progression of multiple cancer types. Consistent with this role in cancer, targeting ADAM17 with either low molecular weight inhibitors or monoclonal antibodies was shown to have anti-cancer activity in multiple preclinical systems. Although early phase clinical trials have shown no serious side effects with a dual ADAM10/17 low molecular weight inhibitor, the consequences of long-term treatment with these agents is unknown. Furthermore, efficacy in clinical trials remains to be shown.
Project description:The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly coordinated process underlying both development and disease. Premigratory neural crest cells undergo EMT, migrate away from the neural tube, and differentiate into diverse cell types during vertebrate embryogenesis. Adherens junction disassembly within premigratory neural crest cells is one component of EMT and, in chick cranial neural crest cells, involves cadherin-6B (Cad6B) down-regulation. Whereas Cad6B transcription is repressed by Snail2, the rapid loss of Cad6B protein during EMT is suggestive of posttranslational mechanisms that promote Cad6B turnover. For the first time in vivo, we demonstrate Cad6B proteolysis during neural crest cell EMT, which generates a Cad6B N-terminal fragment (NTF) and two C-terminal fragments (CTF1/2). Coexpression of relevant proteases with Cad6B in vitro shows that a disintegrin and metalloproteinases (ADAMs) ADAM10 and ADAM19, together with ?-secretase, cleave Cad6B to produce the NTF and CTFs previously observed in vivo. Of importance, both ADAMs and ?-secretase are expressed in the appropriate spatiotemporal pattern in vivo to proteolytically process Cad6B. Overexpression or depletion of either ADAM within premigratory neural crest cells prematurely reduces or maintains Cad6B, respectively. Collectively these results suggest a dual mechanism for Cad6B proteolysis involving two ADAMs, along with ?-secretase, during cranial neural crest cell EMT.
Project description:Necroptosis is a programmed, caspase-independent cell death that is morphologically similar to necrosis. TNF-induced necroptosis is mediated by receptor-interacting protein kinases, RIP1 and RIP3, and the mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL). After being phosphorylated by RIP3, MLKL is translocated to the plasma membrane and mediates necroptosis. However, the execution of necroptosis and its role in inflammation and other cellular responses remain largely elusive. In this study, we report that MLKL-mediated activation of cell-surface proteases of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family promotes necroptosis, inflammation and cell migration. ADAMs are specifically activated at the early stage of necroptosis when MLKL is phosphorylated and translocated to the cell plasma membrane. Activation of ADAMs induces ectodomain shedding of diverse cell-surface proteins including adhesion molecules, receptors, growth factors and cytokines. Importantly, the shedding of cell-surface proteins disrupts cell adhesion and accelerates necroptosis, while the soluble fragments of the cleaved proteins trigger the inflammatory responses. We also demonstrate that the shedding of E-cadherin ectodomain from necroptotic cells promotes cell migration. Thus, our study provides a novel mechanism of necroptosis-induced inflammation and new insights into the physiological and pathological functions of this unique form of cell death.
Project description:A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family of proteins play versatile roles in cancer development and progression. In the present study, we investigated the role of ADAM proteins in colorectal cancer (CRC) cell migration and invasion focusing on the epigenetic mechanism whereby ADAM transcription is regulated. We report that higher levels of ADAM10, ADAM17, and ADAM19 were detected in SW480 cells than in HCT116 cells. Expression levels of the same set of ADAMs were higher in human CRC biopsy specimens of advanced stages than in those of a less aggressive phenotype. Overexpression of ADAM10/17/19 in HCT116 cells enhanced, whereas depletion of ADAM10/17/19 in SW480 cells weakened, migration and invasion. ADAM expression was activated by the Wnt signaling pathway, which could be attributed to direct binding of ?-catenin on the ADAM promoters. Mechanistically, ?-catenin recruited the chromatin remodeling protein BRG1, which in turn enlisted histone demethylase KDM4 to alter the chromatin structure, thereby leading to ADAM transactivation. In conclusion, our data suggest that the Wnt signaling may promote CRC metastasis, at least in part, by recruiting an epigenetic complex to activate ADAM transcription.
Project description:The peptidase nardilysin is involved in degradation of neuropeptides and limited intracellular proteolysis. Recent reports point to an involvement of nardilysin in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Nardilysin enhances the alpha-secretase activity of the disintegrin and metalloproteases (ADAMs) 10 and 17, thereby possibly contributing to reduced generation of amyloidogenic fragments from the amyloid precursor protein. A prerequisite for the alpha-secretase-stimulating effect of nardilysin on the activity of ADAMs in vivo is cellular co-expression of nardilysin with ADAM10 and/or ADAM17. We immunolocalised nardilysin, ADAM10, and ADAM17 in cortical regions of normal aged brain, in Alzheimer's disease, and in Down syndrome brains and counted the number of protease-expressing neurons. A considerable portion of neurons co-express nardilysin together with either ADAM10 or ADAM17. Compared to controls, in Alzheimer's disease and in Down syndrome brains there is a decreased cellular expression of all three antigens, and a reduction in the number of those neurons that co-express nardilysin with ADAM10 or with ADAM17. Our data are consistent with the notion that the proposed alpha-secretase-enhancing activity of nardilysin might play a role in human brain pathology.