The interaction of arsenic and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine on urothelial carcinogenesis in mice.
ABSTRACT: The bladder is an important organ for the storage of excreted water and metabolites. If metabolites with carcinogenic characteristics are present in urine, the urothelial lining of the bladder could be damaged and genetically altered. In this study, we analyzed the interaction of arsenic and N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN) on mouse bladder carcinogenesis. Our previous study found that arsenic affects BBN-altered urothelial enzymatic activity, protein expression, DNA oxidation and global DNA CpG methylation levels. In this study, two mouse models were used. First, after administering a co-treatment of BBN and arsenic for 20 weeks, BBN alone led to a urothelial carcinoma formation of 20%, and arsenic promoted a BBN-induced urothelial carcinoma formation of 10%. The protein expression of GSTM1, GSTO1, NQO1, and p21 did not change by arsenic along with the BBN co-treatment, but the Sp1 expression increased. In the second mouse model, BBN was a pretreatment promoter; arsenic dose-dependently deteriorated BBN-promoted dysplasia by 10% and 40% at 10 ppm and 100 ppm, respectively. Conversely, BBN pretreatment also accelerated arsenic-induced dysplasia by 30%. The urothelial carcinogenic effect reversed after ceasing BBN for a period of 20 weeks. In summary, three conclusions were drawn from this study. The first is the mutual promotion of arsenic and BBN in bladder carcinogenesis. Second, arsenic dosages without bladder carcinogenicity (10 ppm) or with slight carcinogenicity (100 ppm) promote BBN-induced mice bladder cancer progression. Finally, the dysplastic urothelium had reverted to near-normal morphology after ceasing BBN intake for 20 weeks, providing a good suggestion for people who want to quit smoking.
Project description:Urinary bladder cancer is one of the leading malignancies worldwide, with the highest recurrence rates. A diet rich in vitamin A has proven to lower the risk of cancer, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. We found that vitamin A decreased urothelial atypia and apoptosis during early bladder carcinogenesis induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN). Vitamin A did not alter urothelial cell desquamation, differentiation, or proliferation rate. Genes like Wnt5a, involved in retinoic acid signaling, and transcription factors Pparg, Ppara, Rxra, and Hoxa5 were downregulated, while Sox9 and Stra6 were upregulated in early urothelial carcinogenesis. When a vitamin A rich diet was provided during BBN treatment, none of these genes was up- or downregulated; only Lrat and Neurod1 were upregulated. The lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) enzyme that produces all-trans retinyl esters was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nuclei in urothelial cells as a consequence of BBN treatment regardless of vitamin A rich diet. A vitamin A-rich diet altered retinoic acid signaling, decreased atypia and apoptosis of urothelial cells, and consequently diminished early urothelial carcinogenesis.
Project description:The aim of this cDNA array study is to search for advanced markers related to the pathogenesis of arsenic-induced urinary bladder tumor. The result revealed a number of gene expressions involved in carcinogenic progression of mice urinary bladder. Overall design: Each two female C57BL/6 mice were distributed into the control (fed with RO water) and arsenic-treated (fed with 50 ppm arsenic-contained RO water) groups for two weeks. Subsequently, their urinary bladders were used to acquire expression profiles of 26,423 unique genes, leading to successful determination of the differentially expressed genes and pathways involved in arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.
Project description:Urinary incontinence of idiopathic nature is a common complication of bladder cancer, yet, the mechanisms underlying changes in bladder contractility associated with cancer are not known. Here by using tensiometry on detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) strips from normal rats and rats with bladder cancer induced by known urothelial carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (BBN), we show that bladder cancer is associated with considerable changes in DSM contractility. These changes include: (1) decrease in the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions, consistent with the decline of luminal pressures during filling, and detrusor underactivity; (2) diminution of parasympathetic DSM stimulation mainly at the expense of m-cholinergic excitatory transmission, suggestive of difficulty in bladder emptying and weakening of urine stream; (3) strengthening of TRPV1-dependent afferent limb of micturition reflex and TRPV1-mediated local contractility, promoting urge incontinence; (4) attenuation of stretch-dependent, TRPV4-mediated spontaneous contractility leading to overflow incontinence. These changes are consistent with the symptomatic of bladder dysfunction in bladder cancer patients. Considering that BBN-induced urothelial lesions in rodents largely resemble human urothelial lesions at least in their morphology, our studies establish for the first time underlying reasons for bladder dysfunction in bladder cancer.
Project description:Urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is largely caused by exposure to toxic chemicals including those in cigarette smoke (i.e. BBN). An activating SNP in RGS6 is associated with a pronounced reduction in UBC risk, especially among smokers. However, the mechanism underlying this reduction remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that RGS6 is robustly expressed in human urothelium, where urothelial cell carcinoma originates, and is downregulated in human UBC. Utilizing RGS6-/- mice we interrogated a possible role for RGS6 as a tumor suppressor using the BBN-induced bladder carcinogenesis model that closely recapitulates human disease. As in humans, RGS6 is robustly expressed in mouse urothelium. RGS6 loss dramatically accelerates BBN-induced bladder carcinogenesis, with RGS6-/- mice consistently displaying more advanced pathological lesions than RGS6+/+ mice. Furthermore, BBN treatment promotes urothelial RGS6 mRNA and protein downregulation. RGS6 loss impairs p53 activation and promotes aberrant accumulation of oncogenic protein DNMT1 in urothelium. Tumor suppressor RASSF1A, a DNMT1-regulated gene, is also silenced, likely via methylation of its promoter during BBN exposure. We hypothesize that this BBN-induced RGS6 loss represents a critical hit in UBC as it irrevocably impairs the anti-proliferative actions of the ATM/p53 and RASSF1A pathways. Consistent with these findings, RGS6-/- mice treated with CP-31398, a p53-stablizing agent, and/or 5-Aza, a DNMT1 inhibitor, are protected from BBN-induced tumorigenesis. Together, our data identify RGS6 as a master tumor suppressor modulating two critical signaling pathways that are often dysregulated in UBC; therefore, RGS6 represents a potential novel biomarker for UBC diagnosis/prognosis and an appealing new target in its treatment.
Project description:Bladder cancer is highly recurrent after therapy, which has an enormous impact on the health and financial condition of the patient. It is worth developing diagnostic tools for bladder cancer. In our previous study, we found that the bladder carcinogen BBN increased urothelial global DNA CpG methylation and decreased GSTM1 protein expression in mice. Here, the correlation of BBN-decreased GSTM1 and GSTM gene CpG methylation status was analyzed in mice bladders. BBN treatment decreased the protein and mRNA expression of GSTM1, and the CpG methylation ratio of GSTM1 gene promoter was slightly increased in mice bladders. Unlike mouse GSTM1, the human GSTM1 gene tends to be deleted in bladder cancers. Among 7 human bladder cancer cell lines, GSTM1 gene is really null in 6 cell lines except one, T24 cells. The CpG methylation level of GSTM1 was 9.9% and 5-aza-dC did not significantly increase GSTM1 protein and mRNA expression in T24 cells; however, the GSTM5 gene was CpG hypermethylated (65.4%) and 5-aza-dC also did not affect the methylation ratio and mRNA expression. However, in other cell lines without GSTM1, 5-aza-dC increased GSTM5 expression and decreased its CpG DNA methylation ratio from 84.6% to 61.5% in 5637, and from 97.4% to 75% in J82 cells. In summary, two biomarkers of bladder tumor were provided. One is the GSTM1 gene which is down-regulated in mice bladder carcinogenesis and is usually deleted in human urothelial carcinoma, while the other is the GSTM5 gene, which is inactivated by DNA CpG methylation.
Project description:Rat bladder cancer is nearly always papillary non-invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC). To establish an animal model mimicking invasive UC that arises from papillary non-invasive UC in the bladder, male human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats (Hras128) were treated with 0.05% N-butyl-N-(hydroxybutyl)nitrosameine (BBN) in their drinking water and/or 0.1% phenylethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) in their diet as follows: BBN (8 weeks)?PEITC (8 weeks); PEITC (8 weeks)?BBN (8 weeks); BBN alone (16 weeks); PEITC alone (16 weeks); and no treatment. At the end of week 16, the highest incidence of invasive UC was observed in the BBN?PEITC group. Therefore, we used Hras128 rats treated with BBN followed by PEITC as a model of invasive bladder cancer to identify invasion-associated proteins. Proteome analysis was performed to compare the protein profiles of invasive and non-invasive UC in Hras128 rats. We identified 49 proteins that were either overexpressed or underexpressed in invasive UC but not in non-invasive UC. Immunohistochemical analysis of carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA2), an overexpressed protein, showed that the relative number of CA2-positive UC was significantly higher for invasive UC compared to non-invasive UC in rats. Moreover, the incidence of CA2-positive cancers was also significantly higher for human muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) compared to non-MIBC (NMIBC) and was positively associated with the progression of NMIBC. Our findings indicate that CA2 is an invasion-associated factor and suggest that it could serve as a potential therapeutic molecular target for bladder cancers.
Project description:Background:Schistosoma haematobium, the helminth causing urogenital schistosomiasis, is a known bladder carcinogen. Despite the causal link between S. haematobium and bladder cancer, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. S. haematobium oviposition in the bladder is associated with angiogenesis and urothelial hyperplasia. These changes may be pre-carcinogenic events in the bladder. We hypothesized that the Interleukin-4-inducing principle of Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE), an S. haematobium egg-secreted "infiltrin" protein that enters host cell nuclei to alter cellular activity, is sufficient to induce angiogenesis and urothelial hyperplasia. Methods: Mouse bladders injected with S. haematobium eggs were analyzed via microscopy for angiogenesis and urothelial hyperplasia. Endothelial and urothelial cell lines were incubated with recombinant IPSE protein or an IPSE mutant protein that lacks the native nuclear localization sequence (NLS-) and proliferation measured using CFSE staining and real-time monitoring of cell growth. IPSE's effects on urothelial cell cycle status was assayed through propidium iodide staining. Endothelial and urothelial cell uptake of fluorophore-labeled IPSE was measured. Findings: Injection of S. haematobium eggs into the bladder triggers angiogenesis, enhances leakiness of bladder blood vessels, and drives urothelial hyperplasia. Wild type IPSE, but not NLS-, increases proliferation of endothelial and urothelial cells and skews urothelial cells towards S phase. Finally, IPSE is internalized by both endothelial and urothelial cells. Interpretation: IPSE drives endothelial and urothelial proliferation, which may depend on internalization of the molecule. The urothelial effects of IPSE depend upon its NLS. Thus, IPSE is a candidate pro-carcinogenic molecule of S. haematobium. Summary:Schistosoma haematobium acts as a bladder carcinogen through unclear mechanisms. The S. haematobium homolog of IPSE, a secreted schistosome egg immunomodulatory molecule, enhances angiogenesis and urothelial proliferation, hallmarks of pre-carcinogenesis, suggesting IPSE is a key pro-oncogenic molecule of S. haematobium.
Project description:Background: Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignant genitourinary diseases worldwide. Despite advances in surgical technique, medical oncology and radiation therapy, cure of invasive tumors remains elusive for patients with late stage disease. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are needed to improve the response rates with regard to recurrence, invasion and metastasis. Objective: Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins have been proposed as therapeutic targets due to the key regulatory role they exert in multiple steps of cancer. We aimed to explore the role of Id proteins in bladder cancer development and the pattern of expression of Id proteins in bladder carcinomas. Methods: We used a well-established chemically induced model of bladder carcinogenesis. Wild type and Id-deficient mice were given N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (BBN) in the drinking water and urinary bladder lesions were analyzed histopathologically and stained for Id1. We assessed the effects of Id1 inactivation in cultured bladder cancer cells and in a model of metastatic lung colonization. We also performed Id1 staining of human urothelial carcinoma samples and matched lymph node metastases. Results: Id1 protein was overexpressed in the BBN-induced model of bladder cancer. Id1 deficiency resulted in the development of urinary bladder tumors with areas of extensive hemorrhage and decreased invasiveness when compared to wild type mice. Id1 inactivation led to decreased cell growth in vitro and lung colonization in vivo of human bladder cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry performed on human urothelial carcinoma samples showed Id1 positive staining in both primary tumors and lymph node metastases. Conclusions: In summary, our studies reveal the physiological relevance of Id1 in bladder cancer progression and suggest that targeting Id1 may be important in the development of novel therapies for the treatment of bladder cancer.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is commonly altered in human cancer. We have observed alterations of DNA methylation and microRNA expression that reflect the biology of bladder cancer. This common disease arises by distinct pathways with low and high-grade differentiation. We hypothesized that epigenetic gene regulation reflects an interaction between histone and DNA modifications, and differences between normal and malignant urothelial cells represent carcinogenic events within bladder cancer. To test this we profiled two repressive histone modifications (H3K9m3 and H3K27m3) using ChIP-Seq, cytosine methylation using MeDIP and mRNA expression in normal and malignant urothelial cell lines. In genes with low expression we identified H3K27m3 and DNA methylation each in 20-30% of genes and both marks in 5% of genes. H3K9m3 was detected in 5-10% of genes but was not associated with overall expression. DNA methylation was more closely related to gene expression in malignant than normal cells. H3K27m3 was the epigenetic mark most specifically correlated to gene silencing. Our data suggest that urothelial carcinogenesis is accompanied by a loss of control of both DNA methylation and H3k27 methylation. From our observations we identified a panel of genes with cancer specific-epigenetic mediated aberrant expression including those with reported carcinogenic functions and members potentially mediating a positive epigenetic feedback loop. Pathway enrichment analysis revealed genes marked by H3K9m3 were involved with cell homeostasis, those marked by H3K27m3 mediated pro-carcinogenic processes and those marked with cytosine methylation were mixed in function. In 150 normal and malignant urothelial samples, our gene panel correctly estimated expression in 65% of its members. Hierarchical clustering revealed that this gene panel stratified samples according to the presence and phenotype of bladder cancer.