Effect of weekend admission on mortality associated with severe acute kidney injury in England: A propensity score matched, population-based study.
ABSTRACT: Increased in-hospital mortality associated with weekend admission has been reported for many acute conditions, but no study has investigated "weekend effect" for acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D).In this large, propensity score matched cohort of AKI-D, we examined the impact of weekend admission and in-centre nephrology services in 53,170 AKI-D admissions between 1st April 2003 and 31st March 2015 using a hospital episode statistic dataset. Propensity score matching (PSM) was performed to match 4284 weekend admissions with AKI-D with 14,788 admissions on weekdays.Of the 53,170 admissions with AKI-D in the whole dataset, 12,357 (23%) were at weekends. The unadjusted mortality for weekend admissions was significantly higher compared to admissions on weekdays (40·6% versus 39·6%, p 0·046). However, in multivariable analysis of the PSM cohort, the odds of death for weekend admissions with AKI-D was 1·01 (95%CI 0·93,1·09). Mortality was higher for weekend admissions in West Midlands (odds ratio (OR) 1·32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05, 1·66) and lower in East of England (OR 0·77, 95%CI 0·59, 1·00) but was not different to weekday admissions in all other regions. In 2003-04, weekend admissions had lower odds of death (OR 0·45, 95%CI 0·21, 0·96) and in 2010-11 higher odds of death (OR 1·28, 95%CI 1·00, 1·63) but in the other ten years observed, there was no significant difference in mortality between weekday and weekend admissions. Provision of in-centre nephrology services was associated with lower odds of death at 0·57 (95%CI 0·54, 0·62).Weekend admissions in patients with AKI-D had no effect on mortality. Further research is warranted to elucidate the reasons for the lower mortality in hospitals with in-centre nephrology services.
Project description:Objective:To assess the effects of weekend admission vs weekday admission on the management and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods:Adult ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) hospital admissions were identified using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (2000-2016). Interhospital transfers were excluded. Timing of coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) relative to the day of admission was identified. Outcomes of interest included in-hospital mortality, receipt of early CA, timing of CA and PCI, resource utilization, and discharge disposition for weekend vs weekday admissions. Results:Of the 9,041,819 AMI admissions, 2,406,876 (26.6%) occurred on weekends. Compared with 2000, in 2016 there was an increase in weekend STEMI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08-1.16; P<.001) but not NSTEMI (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02; P=.21) admissions. Compared with weekday admissions, weekend admissions received comparable CA (59.9% vs 58.8%) and PCI (38.4% vs 37.6%) and specifically lower rates of early CA (hospital day 0) (26.0% vs 20.8%; P<.001). There was a steady increase in CA and PCI use during the 17-year period. Mean ± SD time to CA was higher in the weekend group vs the weekday group (1.2±1.8 vs 1.0±1.8 days; P<.001). Weekend admission did not influence in-hospital mortality (aOR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.00-1.01; P=.05) but had fewer discharges to home (58.7% vs 59.7%; P<.001). Conclusion:Despite small differences in CA and PCI, there were no differences in in-hospital mortality of AMI admissions on weekdays vs weekends in the United States in the contemporary era.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The effect of weekend versus weekday admission following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) on process of care and mortality remains controversial. This study aimed to investigate the 'weekend-effect' on outcomes using a multicentre dataset of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction/unstable?angina (NSTEMI/UA). DESIGN:This retrospective observational study used propensity score (PS) stratification to adjust estimates of weekend effect for observed confounding. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for binary outcomes and time-to-event endpoints were modelled using Cox proportional hazards to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). SETTING:Three tertiary cardiac centres in England and Wales that contribute to the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project. PARTICIPANTS:Between January 2010 and March 2016, 17?705 admissions met the study inclusion criteria, 4327 of which were at a weekend. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:Associations were studied between weekend admissions and the following primary outcome measures: in-hospital mortality, 30-day mortality and long-term survival; secondary outcomes included several processes of care indicators, such as time to coronary angiography. RESULTS:After PS stratification adjustment, mortality outcomes were similar between weekend and weekday admission across patients with STEMI and NSTEMI/UA. Weekend admissions were less likely to be discharged within 1?day (HR 0.72, 95%?CI 0.66 to 0.78), but after 4?days the length of stay was similar (HR 0.97, 95%?CI 0.90 to 1.04). Fewer patients with NSTEMI/UA received angiography between 0 and 24?hours at a weekend (HR 0.71, 95%?CI 0.65 to 0.77). Weekend patients with STEMI were less likely to undergo an angiogram within 1?hour, but there was no significant difference after this time point. CONCLUSION:Patients with ACS had similar mortality and processes of care when admitted on a weekend compared with a weekday. There was evidence of a delay to angiography for patients with NSTEMI/UA admitted at the weekend.
Project description:Pulmonary embolism is a common, often fatal condition that requires timely recognition and rapid institution of therapy. Previous studies have documented worse outcomes for weekend admissions for a variety of time-sensitive medical conditions. This phenomenon has not been clearly demonstrated for pulmonary embolism.We used the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2000 to 2008 to identify people with a principal discharge diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. We classified admissions as weekend if they occurred between midnight Friday and midnight Sunday. We compared all-cause in-hospital mortality between weekend and weekday admissions and investigated the timing of inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and thrombolytic infusion as potential explanations for differences in mortality.Unadjusted mortality was higher for weekend admissions than weekday admissions (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24). This increase in mortality remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding variables (OR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.11-1.22). Among patients who received an IVC filter, a larger proportion of those admitted on a weekday than on the weekend received it on their first hospital day (38% vs 29%, P < .001). The timing of thrombolytic therapy did not differ between weekday and weekend admissions.Weekend admissions for pulmonary embolism were associated with higher mortality than weekday admissions. Our finding that IVC filter placement occurred later in the hospital course for patients admitted on weekends with pulmonary embolism suggests differences in the timeliness of diagnosis and treatment between weekday and weekend admissions. Regardless of cause, physicians should be aware that weekend admissions for pulmonary embolism have a 20% increased risk of death and warrant closer attention than provided during the week.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Healthcare interventions on weekends have been associated with increased mortality and adverse clinical outcomes, but these findings are inconsistent. We hypothesized that patients admitted to hospital on weekends who have surgery have an increased risk of death compared with patients who are admitted and have surgery on weekdays. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This matched cohort study included 318,202 adult patients from Ontario health administrative and demographic databases, admitted to acute care hospitals from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2015. A total of 159,101 patients who were admitted on weekends and underwent noncardiac surgery were classified by day of surgery (weekend versus weekday) and matched 1:1 to patients who both were admitted and had surgery on a weekday (Tuesday to Thursday); matching was based on age (in years), anesthesia basic unit value for the surgical procedure, median neighborhood household income quintile, resource utilization band (a ranking system of overall morbidity), rurality of home location, year of admission, and urgency of admission. Of weekend admissions, 16.2% (25,872) were elective and 53.9% (85,744) had surgery on the weekend of admission. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality within 30 days of the date of hospital admission. The 30-day all-cause mortality for patients admitted on weekends who had noncardiac surgery was 2.6% (4,211/159,101) versus 2.5% (3,901/159,101) for those who were admitted and had surgery on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.11; P = 0.03). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the increased odds of death according to the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed (weekend versus weekday). For urgent admissions on weekends (n = 133,229), there was no significant increase in odds of mortality when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 1.02; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.09; P = 0.7) or on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 1.05; 95% CI 0.98 to 1.12; P = 0.2) compared to urgent admissions on weekdays. Elective admissions on weekends (n = 25,782) had increased risk of death both when surgery was performed on the weekend (adjusted OR 3.30; 95% CI 1.98 to 5.49; P < 0.001) and when surgery was performed on a subsequent weekday (adjusted OR 2.70; 95% CI 1.81 to 4.03; P < 0.001). The main limitations of this study were the lack of data regarding reason for admission and cause of increased time interval from admission to surgery for some cases, the small number of deaths in some subgroups (i.e., elective surgery), and the possibility of residual unmeasured confounding from increased illness severity for weekend admissions. CONCLUSIONS:When patients have surgery during their hospitalization, admission on weekends in Ontario, Canada, was associated with a small but significant proportional increase in 30-day all-cause mortality, but there was significant heterogeneity in outcomes depending on the urgency of admission and when surgery was performed. An increased risk of death was found only for elective admissions on weekends; whether this is a function of patient-level factors or represents a true weekend effect needs to be further elucidated. These findings have potential implications for resource allocation in hospitals and the redistribution of elective surgery to weekends.
Project description:It is widely accepted that higher mortality related to weekend admissions basically exists; however, there has been no systematic exploration of whether weekend admissions are associated with higher risk of death in patients on the basis of certain diagnoses, geographic regions, and study subtypes.A meta-analysis was performed according to the reporting guidelines of the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE Compliant). Literature search was conducted using electronic databases. Primary outcome was short-term (?30-day) mortality. Patients were divided into 7 regions (North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, Africa, and Antarctica) for subgroup analyses and into 7 categories evaluating 24 major diagnoses. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated with DerSimonian and Laird random-effects models.Eighty-eight studies including 56,934,649 participants met our inclusion criteria. Overall pooled adjusted and crude OR of weekend to weekday admission for short-term mortality was 1.12 (95% CI, 1.07-1.18; I?=?97%) and 1.16 (95% CI, 1.14-1.19; I?=?97%), respectively. In subgroup analyses, higher risk of death on the weekend was significantly identified in patients living in all five continents (North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Oceania). However, significant weekend effect was identified only in 15 of 24 diagnostic groups. Patients admitted on the weekend were more likely to die in an emergency situation (crude OR?=?1.17, 95% CI, 1.12-1.22).Although weekend admissions were associated with higher risk of death compared with weekday admissions on all five continents, the effect was limited to certain diagnostic groups and admission subtypes. Weekend effect remains highly heterogeneous and limited, suggesting that further well-conducted cohort studies might be informative.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Our study aimed to compare the mortality risk among patients admitted to internal medicine departments during official consecutive holidays (using Chinese New Year holidays as an indicator) with that of weekend and weekday admissions.<h4>Design</h4>Nationwide population-based cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database.<h4>Patients</h4>Patients admitted to internal medicine departments in acute care hospitals during January and February each year between 2001 and 2013 were identified. Admissions were categorised as: Chinese New Year holiday (n=10?779), weekend (n=35?870) or weekday admissions (n=143?529).<h4>Outcome measures</h4>ORs for in-hospital mortality and 30-day mortality were calculated using multivariate logistic regression with adjustment for confounders.<h4>Results</h4>Both in-hospital and 30-day mortality were significantly higher for patients admitted during the Chinese New Year holidays and on weekends compared with those admitted on weekdays. Chinese New Year holiday admissions had a 38% and 40% increased risk of in-hospital (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.27 to 1.50, p<0.001) and 30-day (OR=1.40, 95%?CI 1.31 to 1.50, p<0.001) mortality, respectively, compared with weekday admissions. Weekend admissions had a 17% and 19% increased risk of in-hospital (OR=1.17, 95%?CI 1.10 to 1.23, p<0.001) and 30-day (OR=1.19, 95%?CI 1.14 to 1.24, p<0.001) mortality, respectively, compared with weekday admissions. Analyses stratified by principal diagnosis revealed that the increase in in-hospital mortality risk was highest for patients admitted on Chinese New Year holidays with a diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (OR=3.43, 95%?CI 2.46 to 4.80, p<0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The mortality risk was highest for patients admitted during Chinese New Year holidays, followed by weekend admissions, and then weekday admissions. Further studies are necessary to identify the underlying causes and develop strategies to improve outcomes for patients admitted during official consecutive holidays.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Weekend hospital admission is associated with increased mortality, but the contributions of varying illness severity and admission time to this weekend effect remain unexplored.<h4>Methods</h4>We analysed unselected emergency admissions to four Oxford University National Health Service hospitals in the UK from Jan 1, 2006, to Dec 31, 2014. The primary outcome was death within 30 days of admission (in or out of hospital), analysed using Cox models measuring time from admission. The primary exposure was day of the week of admission. We adjusted for multiple confounders including demographics, comorbidities, and admission characteristics, incorporating non-linearity and interactions. Models then considered the effect of adjusting for 15 common haematology and biochemistry test results or proxies for hospital workload.<h4>Findings</h4>257 596 individuals underwent 503 938 emergency admissions. 18 313 (4·7%) patients admitted as weekday energency admissions and 6070 (5·1%) patients admitted as weekend emergency admissions died within 30 days (p<0·0001). 9347 individuals underwent 9707 emergency admissions on public holidays. 559 (5·8%) died within 30 days (p<0·0001 vs weekday). 15 routine haematology and biochemistry test results were highly prognostic for mortality. In 271 465 (53·9%) admissions with complete data, adjustment for test results explained 33% (95% CI 21 to 70) of the excess mortality associated with emergency admission on Saturdays compared with Wednesdays, 52% (lower 95% CI 34) on Sundays, and 87% (lower 95% CI 45) on public holidays after adjustment for standard patient characteristics. Excess mortality was predominantly restricted to admissions between 1100 h and 1500 h (p<sub>interaction</sub>=0·04). No hospital workload measure was independently associated with mortality (all p values >0·06).<h4>Interpretation</h4>Adjustment for routine test results substantially reduced excess mortality associated with emergency admission at weekends and public holidays. Adjustment for patient-level factors not available in our study might further reduce the residual excess mortality, particularly as this clustered around midday at weekends. Hospital workload was not associated with mortality. Together, these findings suggest that the weekend effect arises from patient-level differences at admission rather than reduced hospital staffing or services.<h4>Funding</h4>NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre.
Project description:In adult patients with leukemia, weekend admission is associated with increased inpatient mortality. It is unknown whether weekend diagnostic admissions in pediatric patients with leukemia demonstrate similar adverse outcomes.To estimate adverse clinical outcomes associated with weekend admission in the first hospitalization of pediatric patients with newly diagnosed leukemia.This retrospective cohort study from 1999 to 2011 featured index hospital admissions identified from the Pediatric Health Information System database. Participants were children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoid leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia.Weekend (Saturday and Sunday) or weekday index admission.Inpatient mortality, length of inpatient stay, time to chemotherapy, and organ-system failure in index admission.A total of 10?720 patients with acute lymphoid leukemia and 1323 patients with acute myeloid leukemia were identified; 2009 patients (16.7%) were admitted on the weekend. While the total daily number of patients receiving intensive care unit-level care was constant regardless of the day of admission, these patients represented a larger percentage of total admissions on weekends. In adjusted analyses, patients admitted on the weekend did not have an increased rate of mortality during the first admission (odds ratio, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.8-1.6). Patients whose initial admission for leukemia occurred during a weekend had a significantly increased length of stay (1.4-day increase; 95% CI, 0.7-2.1), time to initiation of chemotherapy (0.36-day increase; 95% CI, 0.3-0.5), and risk for respiratory failure (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-1.7) after adjusting for demographics, severity of illness, and hospital-level factors.While pediatric patients with newly diagnosed leukemia admitted on weekends do not have higher mortality rates, they have a prolonged length of stay, increased time to chemotherapy, and higher risk for respiratory failure. Patients who are severely ill at presentation represent a higher proportion of weekend index admissions. Optimizing weekend resources by increasing staffing and access to diagnostic and therapeutic resources may help to reduce hospital length of stay across all weekend admissions and may also ensure the availability of comprehensive care for those weekend admissions with higher acuity.
Project description:Weekend admissions have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of mortality compared with weekday admissions for many diagnoses. We analysed emergency department admissions within the Scottish National Health Service to investigate whether mortality is increased in case of weekend emergency department admissions.A cohort study.Scotland National Health Service (NHS) emergency departments.5 271 327 emergency department admissions between 1999 and 2009. We included all patients admitted via emergency departments recorded in the Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR01) in NHS, Scotland for whom complete demographic data were available.Death as recorded by the General Register Office (GRO).There was a significantly increased probability of death associated with a weekend emergency admission compared with admission on a weekday (unadjusted OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.26 to 1.28, p<0.0001; adjusted for year of admission, gender, age, deprivation quintile and number of comorbidities OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.43, p<0.0001).Despite a general reduction in mortality over the last 11 years, there is still a significant excess mortality associated with weekend emergency admissions. Further research should be undertaken to identify the precise mechanisms underlying this effect so that measures can be put in place to reduce patient mortality.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Increased mortality rates associated with weekend hospital admission (the so-called weekend effect) have been attributed to suboptimum staffing levels of specialist consultants. However, evidence for a causal association is elusive, and the magnitude of the weekend specialist deficit remains unquantified. This uncertainty could hamper efforts by national health systems to introduce 7 day health services. We aimed to examine preliminary associations between specialist intensity and weekend admission mortality across the English National Health Service.<h4>Methods</h4>Eligible hospital trusts were those in England receiving unselected emergency admissions. On Sunday June 15 and Wednesday June 18, 2014, we undertook a point prevalence survey of hospital specialists (consultants) to obtain data relating to the care of patients admitted as emergencies. We defined specialist intensity at each trust as the self-reported estimated number of specialist hours per ten emergency admissions between 0800 h and 2000 h on Sunday and Wednesday. With use of data for all adult emergency admissions for financial year 2013-14, we compared weekend to weekday admission risk of mortality with the Sunday to Wednesday specialist intensity ratio within each trust. We stratified trusts by size quintile.<h4>Findings</h4>127 of 141 eligible acute hospital trusts agreed to participate; 115 (91%) trusts contributed data to the point prevalence survey. Of 34,350 clinicians surveyed, 15,537 (45%) responded. Substantially fewer specialists were present providing care to emergency admissions on Sunday (1667 [11%]) than on Wednesday (6105 [42%]). Specialists present on Sunday spent 40% more time caring for emergency patients than did those present on Wednesday (mean 5·74 h [SD 3·39] vs 3·97 h [3·31]); however, the median specialist intensity on Sunday was only 48% (IQR 40-58) of that on Wednesday. The Sunday to Wednesday intensity ratio was less than 0·7 in 104 (90%) of the contributing trusts. Mortality risk among patients admitted at weekends was higher than among those admitted on weekdays (adjusted odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·08-1·11; p<0·0001). There was no significant association between Sunday to Wednesday specialist intensity ratios and weekend to weekday mortality ratios (r -0·042; p=0·654).<h4>Interpretation</h4>This cross-sectional analysis did not detect a correlation between weekend staffing of hospital specialists and mortality risk for emergency admissions. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whole-system secular change during the implementation of 7 day services. Policy makers should exercise caution before attributing the weekend effect mainly to differences in specialist staffing.<h4>Funding</h4>National Institute for Health Research Health Services and Delivery Research Programme.