A multiplex platform for the identification of ovarian cancer biomarkers.
ABSTRACT: Currently, there are no FDA approved screening tools for detecting early stage ovarian cancer in the general population. Development of a biomarker-based assay for early detection would significantly improve the survival of ovarian cancer patients.We used a multiplex approach to identify protein biomarkers for detecting early stage ovarian cancer. This new technology (Proseek® Multiplex Oncology Plates) can simultaneously measure the expression of 92 proteins in serum based on a proximity extension assay. We analyzed serum samples from 81 women representing healthy, benign pathology, early, and advanced stage serous ovarian cancer patients.Principle component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering separated patients into cancer versus non-cancer subgroups. Data from the Proseek® plate for CA125 levels exhibited a strong correlation with current clinical assays for CA125 (correlation coefficient of 0.89, 95% CI 0.83, 0.93). CA125 and HE4 were present at very low levels in healthy controls and benign cases, while higher levels were found in early stage cases, with highest levels found in the advanced stage cases. Overall, significant trends were observed for 38 of the 92 proteins (p < 0.001), many of which are novel candidate serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for CA125 was 0.98 and the AUC for HE4 was 0.85 when comparing early stage ovarian cancer versus healthy controls. In total, 23 proteins had an estimated AUC of 0.7 or greater. Using a naïve Bayes classifier that combined 12 proteins, we improved the sensitivity corresponding to 95% specificity from 93 to 95% when compared to CA125 alone. Although small, a 2% increase would have a significant effect on the number of women correctly identified when screening a large population.These data demonstrate that the Proseek® technology can replicate the results established by conventional clinical assays for known biomarkers, identify new candidate biomarkers, and improve the sensitivity and specificity of CA125 alone. Additional studies using a larger cohort of patients will allow for validation of these biomarkers and lead to the development of a screening tool for detecting early stage ovarian cancer in the general population.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains poor. Most patients are diagnosed in late stages. Early diagnosis increases the chance of survival. We used the proximity extension assay from Olink Proteomics to search for new protein biomarkers with the potential to improve the diagnostic performance of CA125 and HE4 in patients with ovarian tumors. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Plasma samples were obtained from 180 women with ovarian tumors; 30 cases of benign tumor, 28 cases with borderline tumors, 25 early EOC cases (FIGO stage I) and 97 advanced EOC cases (FIGO stages II-IV). Proteins were measured using the Olink® Oncology II and Inflammation panels. For statistical analyses, patients were categorized into benign tumors versus cancer and benign tumors versus borderline + cancer, respectively. RESULTS:We analyzed 177 biomarkers. Thirty-four proteins had ROC AUC > 0.7 for discrimination between benign tumors and cancer. Fifteen proteins had ROC AUC > 0.7 for discrimination between benign tumors and borderline tumors + cancer. HE4 ranked highest for both comparisons. A reference model with HE4, CA125 and age (AUC 0.838 for benign tumors vs. cancer and AUC 0.770 for benign tumors vs. borderline tumors + cancer) was compared to the reference model with the addition of each of the remaining proteins with AUC > 0.7. ITGAV was the only individual biomarker found to improve diagnostic performance of the reference model, to AUC 0.874 for benign tumors vs. cancer and AUC 0.818 for benign tumors vs. borderline tumors + cancer (p < 0.05). Cross-validation and LASSO regression was combined to select multiple biomarker combinations. The best performing model for discrimination between benign tumors and borderline tumors + cancer was a 6-biomarker combination (HE4, CA125, ITGAV, CXCL1, CEACAM1, IL-10RB) and age (AUC 0.868, sensitivity 0.86 and specificity 0.82, p = 0.016 for comparison with the reference model). CONCLUSION:HE4 was the best performing individual biomarker for discrimination between benign ovarian tumors and EOC including borderline tumors. The addition of other carcinogenesis-related biomarkers in a multiplex biomarker panel can improve the diagnostic performance of the established biomarkers HE4 and CA125.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Since the majority of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. There is no single biomarker with the sensitivity and specificity required for effective cancer screening; therefore, we investigated a panel of novel biomarkers for the early detection of high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma. METHODS:Twelve serum biomarkers with high differential gene expression and validated antibodies were selected: IL-1Ra, IL-6, Dkk-1, uPA, E-CAD, ErbB2, SLPI, HE4, CA125, LCN2, MSLN, and OPN. They were tested using Simple Plex™, a multi-analyte immunoassay platform, in samples collected from 172 patients who were either healthy, had benign gynecologic pathologies, or had high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, ROC area under the curve (AUC), and standard error (SE) of the AUC were obtained. Univariate ROC analyses and multivariate ROC analyses with the combination of multiple biomarkers were performed. RESULTS:The 4-marker panel consisting of CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6 had the highest ROC AUC. When evaluated for the ability to distinguish early stage ovarian cancer from a non-cancer control, not only did this 4-marker panel (AUC=0.961) performed better than CA 125 alone (AUC=0.851; P=0.0150) and HE4 alone (AUC=0.870; P=0.0220), but also performed significantly better than the 2- marker combination of CA125+HE4 (AUC=0.922; P=0.0278). The 4-marker panel had the highest average sensitivity under the region of its ROC curve corresponding to specificity ranging from 100% down to ~95%. CONCLUSION:The four-marker panel, CA125, HE4, E-CAD, and IL-6, shows potential in detecting serous ovarian cancer at earlier stages. Additional validation studies using the biomarker combination in ovarian cancer patients are warranted.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>CA125, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), mesothelin, B7-H4, decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), and spondin-2 have been identified as potential ovarian cancer biomarkers. Except for CA125, their behavior in the prediagnostic period has not been evaluated.<h4>Methods</h4>Immunoassays were used to determine concentrations of CA125, HE4, mesothelin, B7-H4, DcR3, and spondin-2 proteins in prediagnostic serum specimens (1-11 samples per participant) that were contributed 0-18 years before ovarian cancer diagnosis from 34 patients with ovarian cancer (15 with advanced-stage serous carcinoma) and during a comparable time interval before the reference date from 70 matched control subjects who were participating in the Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial. Lowess curves were fit to biomarker levels in cancer patients and control subjects separately to summarize mean levels over time. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted, and area-under-the curve (AUC) statistics were computed to summarize the discrimination ability of these biomarkers by time before diagnosis.<h4>Results</h4>Smoothed mean concentrations of CA125, HE4, and mesothelin (but not of B7-H4, DcR3, and spondin-2) began to increase (visually) in cancer patients relative to control subjects approximately 3 years before diagnosis but reached detectable elevations only within the final year before diagnosis. In descriptive receiver operating characteristic analyses, the discriminatory power of these biomarkers was limited (AUC statistics range = 0.56-0.75) but showed increasing accuracy with time approaching diagnosis (eg, AUC statistics for CA125 were 0.57, 0.68, and 0.74 for > or = 4, 2-4, and <2 years before diagnosis, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Serum concentrations of CA125, HE4, and mesothelin may provide evidence of ovarian cancer 3 years before clinical diagnosis, but the likely lead time associated with these markers appears to be less than 1 year.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>VEGF may play a role in the pathogenesis of cancer disease, for example in cell growth, proliferation and angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated plasma levels of this cytokine in comparison to plasma levels of a new biomarker - HE4 and the established tumor marker CA125 in ovarian cancer patients (100) as compared to control groups: patients with a benign ovarian tumor (80) and healthy subjects (50).<h4>Methods</h4>Plasma levels of VEGF were determined by ELISA, HE4 and CA125 by CMIA method.<h4>Results</h4>The results showed that levels of VEGF, CA125 and HE4 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer (OC) patients as compared to the both control groups. VEGF has demonstrated as high as comparative markers values of the diagnostic sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), the predictive values of positive and negative test results (PV-PR, PV-NR), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) in early stages of cancer tested groups. The combined use of parameters studied resulted in the increase in the diagnostic criteria values and the AUC.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings suggest the usefulness of VEGF in the early diagnostics of ovarian cancer, especially in combination with CA125 and HE4, as a new biomarkers panel. Additionally, VEGF is the most useful tool in the diagnostics of locally advanced ovarian cancer without metastases. Investigated cytokine presented similar to HE4 usefulness in differentiation of OC according to its histopathlogical sub-type, and could be used especially in the diagnostics of endometrioid epithelial OC.
Project description:Early detection of ovarian cancer has the potential to impact mortality. A multimodal screening strategy where rising CA125 values over time, analyzed with the risk of ovarian cancer algorithm (ROCA), triggers transvaginal sonography and possible surgery has high sensitivity and specificity, but still fails to detect the 20% of early-stage cases that do not express CA125. Use of multiple biomarkers could detect cases missed by CA125. We have studied the sensitivity and lead time of a multi-marker panel (CA125, HE4, MMP-7, and CA 72-4) compared with CA125 alone. We used PRoBE design principles to select preclinical longitudinal specimens from 75 women (50 screen-positive, 25 screen-negative) who developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (3-5 serial specimens each) and 547 corresponding healthy controls (1-10 serial specimens each) from the ovarian cancer screening trial, UKCTOCS, in a blinded fashion. We measured the multi-marker concentrations in ultra-low serum volumes (16 ?L) utilizing multiplexed bead-based immunoassays with low detection limits, high inter- and intra-assay precision, negligible cross-reactivity, and good correlation with standard immunoassays. While, at least one of the complementary biomarkers rose with CA125 in 44% (22/50) of screen-positive cases, there was no advantage in lead time over CA125. Therefore, we developed single-marker longitudinal algorithms (ROCA-like) to determine the presence of a change point to distinguish between the cases and controls. Using these algorithms, at 98% specificity, HE4 and CA72-4 identified 16% (4/25) of screen-negative cases, while MMP-7 identified none. Taken together, HE4 and CA72-4 show promise as complementary biomarkers to CA125 for longitudinal screening.
Project description:BACKGROUNDS: Risk for Ovarian Malignancy Algorithm (ROMA) and Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) appear to be promising predictors for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), however, conflicting results exist in the diagnostic performance comparison among ROMA, HE4 and CA125. METHODS: Remote databases (MEDLINE/PUBMED, EMBASE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, the Cochrane Library and ClinicalTrials.gov) and full texts bibliography were searched for relevant abstracts. All studies included were closely assessed with the QUADAS-2 (Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2). EOC predictive value of ROMA was systematically evaluated, and comparison among the predictive performances of ROMA, HE4 and CA125 were conducted within the same population. Sensitivity, specificity, DOR (diagnostic odds ratio), LR?±?(positive and negative likelihood ratio) and AUC (area under receiver operating characteristic-curve) were summarized with a bivariate model. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to explore the heterogeneity. RESULTS: Data of 7792 tests were retrieved from 11 studies. The overall estimates of ROMA for EOC predicting were: sensitivity (0.89, 95% CI 0.84-0.93), specificity (0.83, 95% CI 0.77-0.88), and AUC (0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.95). Comparison of EOC predictive value between HE4 and CA125 found, specificity: HE4 (0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.96)?>?CA125 (0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.90); AUC: CA125 (0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91)?>?HE4 (0.82, 95% CI 0.78-0.85). Comparison of OC predictive value between HE4 and CA125 found, AUC: CA125 (0.89, 95% CI 0.85-0.91)?>?HE4 (0.79, 95% CI 0.76-0.83). Comparison among the three tests for EOC prediction found, sensitivity: ROMA (0.86, 95%CI 0.81-0.91)?>?HE4 (0.80, 95% CI 0.73-0.85); specificity: HE4 (0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.96)?>?ROMA (0.84, 95% CI 0.79-0.88)?>?CA125 (0.78, 95%CI 0.73-0.83). CONCLUSIONS: ROMA is helpful for distinguishing epithelial ovarian cancer from benign pelvic mass. HE4 is not better than CA125 either for EOC or OC prediction. ROMA is promising predictors of epithelial ovarian cancer to replace CA125, but its utilization requires further exploration.
Project description:Early detection of ovarian cancer promises to reduce mortality. While serum CA125 can detect more than 60% of patients with early stage (I-II) disease, greater sensitivity might be observed with a panel of biomarkers. Ten protein antigens and 12 autoantibody biomarkers were measured in sera from 76 patients with early stage (I-II), 44 patients with late stage (III-IV) ovarian cancer and 200 healthy participants in the normal risk ovarian cancer screening study. A four-biomarker panel (CA125, osteopontin (OPN), macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), and anti-IL-8 autoantibodies) detected 82% of early stage cancers compared to 65% with CA125 alone. In early stage subjects the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the panel (0.985) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the AUC for CA125 alone (0.885). Assaying an independent validation set of sera from 71 early stage ovarian cancer patients, 45 late stage patients and 131 healthy women, AUC in early stage disease was improved from 0.947 with CA125 alone to 0.974 with the four-biomarker panel (p = 0.015). Consequently, OPN, MIF and IL-8 autoantibodies can be used in combination with CA125 to distinguish ovarian cancer patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity. Osteopontin appears to be a robust biomarker that deserves further evaluation in combination with CA125.
Project description:Comprehensive serum glycopeptide spectra analysis (CSGSA) evaluates >10,000 serum glycopeptides and identifies unique glycopeptide peaks and patterns via supervised orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant modeling. CSGSA was more accurate than cancer antigen 125 (CA125) or human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) for detecting early stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Combined CSGSA, CA125, and HE4 had improved diagnostic performance. Thus, CSGSA may be a useful screening tool for detecting early stage epithelial ovarian cancer.