ABSTRACT: Unbalanced nutrition early in life is increasingly recognized as an important factor in the development of chronic, non-communicable diseases at adulthood, including metabolic diseases. We aimed to determine whether transient postnatal overfeeding (OF) leads to liver stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) of hepatocytes in association with liver structure and hepatic function alterations. Litters sizes of male C57BL/6 mice were adjusted to 9 pups (normal feeding, NF) or reduced to 3 pups during the lactation period to induce transient postnatal OF. Compared to the NF group, seven-month-old adult mice transiently overfed during the postnatal period were overweight and developed glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Their livers showed microsteatosis and fibrosis, while hepatic insulin signaling and glucose transporter protein expressions were altered. Increased hepatic oxidative stress (OS) was observed, with increased superoxide anion production, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein expression, oxidative DNA damage and decreased levels of antioxidant defense markers, such as superoxide dismutase and catalase proteins. Hepatocyte senescence was characterized by increased p21WAF, p53, Acp53, p16INK4a and decreased pRb/Rb and Sirtuin-1 (SIRT-1) protein expression levels. Transient postnatal OF induces liver OS at adulthood, associated with hepatocyte SIPS and alterations in liver structure and hepatic functions, which could be mediated by a SIRT-1 deficiency.
Project description:Protein deacetylase Sirt1 has been implicated in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. To further elucidate how Sirt1 regulates gluconeogenesis, we took a loss-of-function approach by deleting the coding DNA sequence for the catalytic domain of the Sirt1 gene in the liver of a wild-type mouse (LKO(Sirt)¹) or a genetic diabetic mouse in which hepatic insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 are deleted (DKO(Irs½)). Whereas LKO(Sirt)¹ mice exhibited normal levels of fasting and fed blood glucose, inactivation of Sirt1 in DKO(Irs½) mice (TKO(Irs½:Sirt)¹) reduced blood glucose levels and moderately improved systemic glucose tolerance. Pyruvate tolerance was also significantly improved in TKO(Irs½:Sirt)¹ mice, suggesting that Sirt1 promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis in this diabetic mouse model. To understand why inactivation of hepatic Sirt1 does not alter blood glucose levels in the wild-type background, we searched for a potential cause and found that expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP, encoded by the Nr0b2 gene), an orphan nuclear receptor, which has been shown to suppress the activity of forkhead transcription factor FoxO1, was decreased in the liver of LKO(Sirt)¹ mice. Furthermore, our luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that the Nr0b2 gene is a target of FoxO1, which is also regulated by Sirt1. After the gene is upregulated, Nr0b2 can feed back and repress FoxO1- and Sirt1-activated G6pc and Pdk4 gene expression. Thus, our results suggest that Sirt1 can both positively and negatively regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis through FoxO1 and Nr0b2 and keep this physiological process in control.
Project description:The winged helix transcription factor, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3beta (HNF-3beta), mediates the hepatocyte-specific transcription of numerous genes important for liver function. However, the in vivo role of HNF-3beta in regulating these genes remains unknown because homozygous null HNF3beta mouse embryos die in utero prior to liver formation. In order to examine the regulatory function of HNF-3beta, we created transgenic mice in which the -3-kb transthyretin promoter functions to increase hepatocyte expression of the rat HNF-3beta protein. Postnatal transgenic mice exhibit growth retardation, depletion of hepatocyte glycogen storage, and elevated levels of bile acids in serum. The retarded growth phenotype is likely due to a 20-fold increase in hepatic expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1), which results in elevated levels in serum of IGFBP-1 and limits the biological availability of IGFs required for postnatal growth. The defects in glycogen storage and serum bile acids coincide with diminished postnatal expression of hepatocyte genes involved in gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glycogen synthase) and sinusoidal bile acid uptake (Ntcp), respectively. These changes in gene transcription may result from the disruptive effect of HNF-3beta on the hepatic expression of the endogenous mouse HNF-3alpha,-3beta, -3gamma, and -6 transcription factors. Furthermore, adult transgenic livers lack expression of the canalicular phospholipid transporter, mdr2, which is consistent with ultrastructure evidence of damage to transgenic hepatocytes and bile canaliculi. These transgenic studies represent the first in vivo demonstration that the HNF-3beta transcriptional network regulates expression of hepatocyte-specific genes required for bile acid and glucose homeostasis, as well as postnatal growth.
Project description:Stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS), a state of cell growth arrest due to various stimuli, is implicated in the pathogeneses of hepatic fibrogenesis. Progerin, a permanently farnesylated mutant lamin A protein, likely leads to premature senescence to influent liver diseases. The previous reports showed that activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling could enhance cell longevity and attenuate liver fibrosis. However, the underlying mechanisms about hepatocyte premature senility in liver fibrosis, and how IGF-1 regulates cell premature aging and fibrogenesis, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we found the augment of hepatocyte oxidation and premature aging, along with the decrease of plasm IGF-1 level in patients with liver fibrosis and CCl4-induced liver injury rat models. Nevertheless, IGF-1 gene transfer to CCl4 rats to overexpress intrahepatic IGF-1 relieved hepatocyte oxidative stress and premature senescence, which was likely mediated by the p53/progerin pathway, to improve hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis. In vitro, H2O2 caused abnormal accumulation of progerin in nuclear and activation of nuclear p53-progerin interaction to trigger primary rat hepatocyte premature senescence through the p21-independent pathway; while these effects were rescued by prolonged exogenous IGF-1 or the IGF-1 adenovirus vector. Furthermore, the IGF-1 adenovirus vector, transfected to H2O2-treated hepatocytes, reversed oxidative stress-induced premature senescence via enhancing cytoplasmic AKT1-p53 interaction and subsequently inhibiting nuclear p53-progerin interaction. Consequently, our data illuminate a novel role of IGF-1 in regulating stress-induced hepatocyte premature senescence in liver fibrosis: prolonged IGF-1 relieves oxidative stress-initiated hepatocyte premature senescence via inhibition of nuclear p53-progerin interaction to ameliorate hepatic steatosis and fibrogenesis.
Project description:Glucagon drives hepatic gluconeogenesis and maintains blood glucose levels during fasting. The mechanism that attenuates glucagon action following refeeding is not understood. The present study demonstrates an increase in perivenous liver hypoxia immediately after feeding, which stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor 2? (HIF2?) in liver. The transient postprandial increase in hepatic HIF2? attenuates glucagon signaling. Hepatocyte-specific disruption of HIF2? increases postprandial blood glucose and potentiates the glucagon response. Independent of insulin/AKT signaling, activation of hepatic HIF2? resulted in lower blood glucose, improved glucose tolerance, and decreased gluconeogenesis due to blunted hepatic glucagon action. Mechanistically, HIF2? abrogated glucagon-PKA signaling by activating cAMP-phosphodiesterases in a MEK/ERK-dependent manner. Repression of glucagon signaling by HIF2? ameliorated hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes and acute insulin-resistant animal models. This study reveals that HIF2? is essential for the acute postprandial regulation of hepatic glucagon signaling and suggests HIF2? as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of diabetes.
Project description:SR family RNA binding proteins regulate splicing of nascent RNAs in vitro but their physiological role in vivo is largely unexplored, as genetic deletion of many SR protein genes results in embryonic lethality. Here we show that SRSF3HKO mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Srsf3 (homologous to human SRSF3/SRp20) have a disrupted hepatic architecture and show pre- and postnatal growth retardation. SRSF3HKO mice exhibit impaired hepatocyte maturation with alterations in glucose and lipid homeostasis characterized by reduced glycogen storage, fasting hypoglycemia, increased insulin sensitivity and reduced cholesterol synthesis. We identify various splicing alterations in the SRSF3HKO liver that explain the in vivo phenotype. In particular, loss of SRSF3 causes aberrant splicing of Hnf1?, Ern1, Hmgcs1, Dhcr7 and Scap genes, which are critical regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study provides the first evidence for a SRSF3-driven genetic programme required for morphological and functional differentiation of hepatocytes that may have relevance for human liver disease and metabolic dysregulation.
Project description:Background:Early nutrition influences the risk of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) development in adulthood. Mechanisms underlying the early programming of altered renal function remain incompletely understood. This study aims at characterizing the role of cell senescence pathways in early programming of CKD after transient postnatal overfeeding. Materials and Methods:Reduced litters of 3 mice pups and standard litters of 9 mice pups were obtained to induce overfed animals during lactation and control animals, respectively. Animals were sacrificed at 24 days (weaning) or at 7 months of life (adulthood). Body weight, blood pressure, kidney weight, and glomerular count were assessed in both groups. Senescence pathways were investigated using ?-Galactosidase staining and Western blotting of P16, P21, P53, P-Rb/Rb, and Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) proteins. Results:Early overfed animals had a higher body weight, a higher blood pressure at adulthood, and a higher glomerular number endowment compared to the control group. A higher ?-Galactosidase activity, a significant increase in P53 protein expression (p = 0.0045) and a significant decrease in P-Rb/Rb ratio (p = 0.02), were observed at weaning in animals who underwent early postnatal overfeeding. Protein expression of Sirt1, a protective factor against accelerated stress-induced senescence, was significantly decreased (p = 0.03) at weaning in early overfed animals. Conclusion:Early postnatal overfeeding by litter size reduction is associated with increased expression of factors involved in cellular senescence pathways, and decreased expression of Sirt 1 in the mouse kidney at weaning. These alterations may contribute to CKD programming after early postnatal overfeeding.
Project description:SCOPE:The programming of hepatic lipid dysfunction in response to early cholesterol exposure and the influencing effects of postnatal diet is evaluated in apoE-/- mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:In two separate studies, female mice are assigned to a standard chow (S) or a cholesterol-enriched chow (C) diet during gestation and lactation. Male offspring from each dam are weaned on a postnatal S or a hypercaloric western (W) diet resulting in four experimental groups: S-S and C-S (Experiment 1) and S-W and C-W (Experiment 2). At weaning, litters from hypercholesterolemic mothers weighed less (p < 0.05) and pups had higher blood lipids, glucose, and hepatic cholesterol compared with pups from S-fed mothers. Adult C-S offspring demonstrate an atherogenic lipid profile and increased (p < 0.05) hepatic cholesterol and triglyceride content with altered lipid regulatory mRNA expression and protein content compared with S-S offspring. Alternatively, no difference (p > 0.05) is observed between S-W and C-W in serum and hepatic lipid profiles; however, serum AST and ALT are higher (p < 0.05) in C-W versus S-W offspring. CONCLUSION:The degree of hepatic lipid deposition observed in adult offspring exposed to excessive early cholesterol is influenced by the postnatal diet.
Project description:Intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition program hyperphagia, adiposity and glucose intolerance in offspring. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene have been linked to increased risk of obesity. FTO is highly expressed in hypothalamic regions critical for energy balance and hyperphagic phenotypes were linked with FTO SNPs. As nutrition during fetal development can influence the expression of genes involved in metabolic function, we investigated the impact of maternal obesity on FTO.Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high fat diet (HFD) for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1 (PND1), some litters were adjusted to 3 pups (vs. 12 control) to induce postnatal overnutrition. At PND20, rats were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. FTO mRNA expression in the hypothalamus and liver, as well as hepatic markers of lipid metabolism were measured.At weaning, hypothalamic FTO mRNA expression was increased significantly in offspring of obese mothers and FTO was correlated with both visceral and epididymal fat mass (P<0.05); body weight approached significance (P?=?0.07). Hepatic FTO and Fatty Acid Synthase mRNA expression were decreased by maternal obesity. At 18 weeks, FTO mRNA expression did not differ between groups; however body weight was significantly correlated with hypothalamic FTO. Postnatal HFD feeding significantly reduced hepatic Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1a but did not affect the expression of other hepatic markers investigated. FTO was not affected by chronic HFD feeding.Maternal obesity significantly impacted FTO expression in both hypothalamus and liver at weaning. Early overexpression of hypothalamic FTO correlated with increased adiposity and later food intake of siblings exposed to HFD suggesting upregulation of FTO may contribute to subsequent hyperphagia, in line with some human data. No effect of maternal obesity was observed on FTO in adulthood.
Project description:Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) regulates central metabolic functions such as lipogenesis, protein synthesis, gluconeogenesis, and bile acid (BA) homeostasis through deacetylation. Here we describe that SIRT1 tightly controls the regenerative response of the liver. We performed partial hepatectomy (PH) to transgenic mice that overexpress SIRT1 (SIRT). SIRT mice showed increased mortality, impaired hepatocyte proliferation, BA accumulation, and profuse liver injury after surgery. The damaging phenotype in SIRT mice correlated with impaired farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activity due to persistent deacetylation and lower protein expression that led to decreased FXR-target gene expression; small heterodimer partner (SHP), bile salt export pump (BSEP), and increased Cyp7A1. Next, we show that 24-norUrsodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA) attenuates SIRT protein expression, increases the acetylation of FXR and neighboring histones, restores trimethylation of H3K4 and H3K9, and increases miR34a expression, thus reestablishing BA homeostasis. Consequently, NorUDCA restored liver regeneration in SIRT mice, which showed increased survival and hepatocyte proliferation. Furthermore, a leucine-enriched diet restored mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, acetylation of FXR and histones, leading to an overall lower BA production through SHP-inhibition of Cyp7A1 and higher transport (BSEP) and detoxification (Sult2a1) leading to an improved liver regeneration. Finally, we found that human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples have increased presence of SIRT1, which correlated with the absence of FXR, suggesting its oncogenic potential.We define SIRT1 as a key regulator of the regenerative response in the liver through posttranscriptional modifications that regulate the activity of FXR, histones, and mTOR. Moreover, our data suggest that SIRT1 contributes to liver tumorigenesis through dysregulation of BA homeostasis by persistent FXR deacetylation.
Project description:Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are emerging therapeutic strategies against obesity, insulin resistance and their complications. However, the effectors that drive this response are not completely defined. Here we identify arginase 2 (Arg2) as a fasting-induced hepatocyte factor that protects against hepatic and peripheral fat accumulation, hepatic inflammatory responses, and insulin and glucose intolerance in obese murine models. Arg2 is upregulated in fasting conditions and upon treatment with the hepatocyte glucose transporter inhibitor trehalose. Hepatocyte-specific Arg2 overexpression enhances basal thermogenesis, and protects from weight gain, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis and hepatic inflammation in diabetic mouse models. Arg2 suppresses expression of the regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) 16, and genetic RGS16 reconstitution reverses the effects of Arg2 overexpression. We conclude that hepatocyte Arg2 is a critical effector of the hepatic glucose fasting response and define a therapeutic target to mitigate the complications of obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.